The Tonkin Free School (Vietnamese : Đông Kinh Nghĩa Thục, 東 京 義 塾) was a short-lived but historically significant educational institution in Hanoi that aimed to reform Vietnamese society under the French protectorate during the beginning of the 20th century.
The school was founded in March 1907, run by Lương Văn Can with the participation of many nationalists, including Phan Bội Châu and Phan Chu Trinh. It stemmed from the movement of the same name, which aimed to modernize Vietnamese society by abandoning Confucianism and adopting new ideas from the West and Japan. In particular, it promoted the Vietnamese alphabet script for writing Vietnamese in place of classical Chinese by publishing educational materials and newspapers using these script, as a new vehicle of instruction. The schools offered free courses to anyone who wanted to learn about the modern spirit. The teachers at the school at 59 Hàng Đàn included Phạm Duy Tốn.
The school operated legally for several months before the French authorities closed it down in November. In March 1908, a tax revolt in Annam and an attempted poisoning of French soldiers in Hanoi were blamed on the leaders of the school by the French. Subsequently, all the leaders were arrested and the school's publications were suppressed.
The school aimed at making the Vietnamese ‘modern’. It taught subjects like science, hygiene and French generally at evenings.
Thành Thái born Nguyễn Phúc Bửu Lân (阮福寶嶙), was the son of Emperor Dục Đức and Empress Dowager Từ Minh. He reigned as emperor for 18 years, from 1889 to 1907.
Trường Chinh was a Vietnamese communist political leader and theoretician. He was one of the key figures of Vietnamese politics. Together with the communists, he played the main role in the anti-French colonialism movement and finally after decades of protracted war in Vietnam, the communists defeated the colonial power. He was the think-tank of the Communist Party who determined the direction of the communist movement, particularly in the anti-French colonialism movement. After the declaration of independence in September 1945, Trường Chinh played an important role in shaping the politics of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) and creating the socialist structure of the new Vietnam.
Alexandre de Rhodes, S.J. was an Avignonese Jesuit missionary and lexicographer who had a lasting impact on Christianity in Vietnam. He wrote the Dictionarium Annamiticum Lusitanum et Latinum, the first trilingual Vietnamese-Portuguese-Latin dictionary, published in Rome, in 1651.
The Empire of Vietnam was a short-lived puppet state of Imperial Japan governing the former French protectorates of Annam and Tonkin between March 11 and August 23, 1945.
Vietnam National University, Hanoi is a public university in Vietnam. The university has 10 member university and faculties. VNU is a national university, and it is the most prestigious university in Vietnam, ranked 124th in Asia by the QS ASIA University Rankings 2019.
Vietnamese art is visual art that, whether ancient or modern, originated in or is practiced in Vietnam or by Vietnamese artists.
Phạm Duy was Vietnam's most prolific songwriter. With a musical career that spanned more than seven decades through some of the most turbulent periods of Vietnamese history and with more than one thousand songs to his credit, he is widely considered one of the three most salient and influential figures of modern Vietnamese music, along with Văn Cao and Trịnh Công Sơn. His music is noted for combining elements of traditional music with new methods, creating melodies that are both modern and traditional. A politically polarizing figure, his entire body of work was banned in North Vietnam during the Vietnam War and subsequently in unified Vietnam for more than 30 years until the government began to ease restrictions on some of his work upon his repatriation in 2005.
Phan Khôi was an intellectual leader who inspired a North Vietnamese variety of the Chinese Hundred Flowers Campaign, in which scholars were permitted to criticize the Communist regime, but for which he himself was ultimately persecuted by the Communist Party of Vietnam.
At the outbreak of World War I, Vietnam was part of French Indochina. While seeking to maximize the use of Indochina's natural resources and manpower to fight the war, France cracked down all patriotic movements in Vietnam. The country remained a member of the French Empire, and many Vietnamese fought later in World War I.
Vietnam University of Fine Arts is an art school in Hanoi, Vietnam. It was established under the French rule in 1925. The university has trained many of Vietnam’s leading artists and each year it participates in many cultural exchanges with sister institutions overseas.
The Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam established 1930, is the highest authority within the Communist Party of Vietnam elected by the Party National Congresses. The current Central Committee has about 175 full members and 25 alternate members and nominally appoints the Politburo of the Communist Party of Vietnam.
Phạm Văn Đổng was a South Vietnamese general. In 1965, as military governor of Saigon, he had successfully repressed Buddhist mobs instigated by Thích Trí Quang of the Ấn Quang group and Thích Tâm Châu of Việt Nam Quốc Tự. With his commanding skills and knowledge, Đổng was regarded highly by American and French officers, and well respected by many ARVN officers. A staunch nationalist and anti-communist, he was considered an ally to the labor union, the Northern Catholics, several Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng factions, multiple Đại Việt groups, Việt Nam Cách Mạng Đồng Minh Hội high-ranking members, Duy Dân and Hòa Hảo leaders.
Duy Tân hội was an anti-French independence society in Vietnam founded by Phan Bội Châu and Prince Cường Để. Gilbert Trần Chánh Chiêu was an agent of the Society. The group in a broader sense was also considered a Modernisation Movement.
Political organizations and Armed forces in Vietnam, since 1912 :
Phạm Duy Tốn was a Vietnamese writer. He was father of the songwriter Phạm Duy and French language writer and ambassador Phạm Duy Khiêm.
The Hội Trí Tri or Société d’Enseignement Mutuel du Tonkin (1892-1946) was an educational society in French colonial Tonkin. It was part of the modernist movement. The Association for Mutual Education was behind the short-lived Tonkin Free School (1907-1908) at 59 Hàng Đàn where Phạm Duy Tốn was one of the teachers. The chairman was Nguyễn Văn Tố.
Chữ Nôm, in earlier times also called Chữ Nam (𡨸南) or Quốc Âm, is a logographic writing system formerly used to write the Vietnamese language. It used the standard set of classical Chinese characters to represent Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary and some native Vietnamese words, while new characters were created on the Chinese model to represent other words.
The High School for Gifted Students, Hanoi University of Science, Vietnam National University is a specialized, most-selective public magnet school of Hanoi University of Science. The school serves as a national educational institution to nurture talented Vietnamese students who excelled at natural sciences. The largest percentage of its graduates attend the most prestigious universities in Vietnam.
Phạm Thận Duật was a high-ranking mandarin serving in the Nguyễn dynasty. He and Tôn Thất Phan, representing emperor Tự Đức's court, signed the Treaty of Huế. He participated in the anti-colonial Cần Vương resistance and died while being sent to exile in Tahiti by the French. Knowledge of his role in the resistance was hidden or lost for many decades after his death; he was thought to have been a French collaborator for having signed the treaty.
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