Tony Bloncourt (1921–March 9, 1942) was a Haitian communist who joined the French Resistance against Nazi occupation in World War II. A member of the Union of Communist Students (French: Union des étudiants communistes, UEC), he was executed as part of the Procès du Palais Bourbon along with six other members of the Bataillons de la Jeunesse for his participation.
The National Front was a World War II French Resistance movement created to unite all of the Resistance Organizations together to fight the Nazi occupation forces and Vichy France under Marshall Petain. Founded in 1941 in Paris by Jacques Duclos, Andre Pican and Pierre Villon, along with their wives all members of the French Communist Party (PCF) they felt that to be a vital force against the Nazis, the collaborationists and the informers that all of the Resistance movements, no matter their party or Religion(Jewish or Catholic) had to band together. Its name was inspired by the Popular Front, a left-wing coalition which governed France from 1936 to 1938. This helped them coordinate attacks all across France, to move weapons, food, false identity papers, information and food, protect and move people who were to be arrested or executed and supply multiple safe houses for the Resistance and for Jews. They also formed fighting units in early 1942 to assassinate German leaders and soldiers among the occupation forces, perform acts of sabotage on railroads and other forms of distribution of people and goods being taken from France to Germany and to help organize sabotage in factories forced to produce armaments and goods for the German military.
The Francs-Tireurs et Partisans Français (FTPF), or commonly the Francs-Tireurs et Partisans (FTP), was an armed resistance organization created by leaders of the French Communist Party during World War II (1939–45). The communist party was neutral at first, following the Soviet Union's official view that the war was a struggle between imperialists, but changed to a policy of armed resistance against the German occupation of France after Germany invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941. Three groups were formed, consisting of party members, young communists and foreign workers. Early in 1942 they were merged to form the FTP, which undertook sabotage and assassinations of the occupation. The FTP became the best organized and most effective of the French Resistance groups. In March 1944, before the Allied forces returned to Normandy, the FTP was theoretically merged with the other Resistance groups. In practice, it retained its independence until the end of the war.
The Palace of Nations is the home of the United Nations Office at Geneva, located in Geneva, Switzerland. It was built between 1929 and 1938 to serve as the headquarters of the League of Nations. It has served as the home of the United Nations Office at Geneva since 1946 when the Secretary-General of the United Nations signed a Headquarters Agreement with the Swiss authorities, although Switzerland did not become a member of the United Nations until 2002.
Marcel Bucard was a French Fascist politician.
The National Popular Rally was a French political party and one of the main collaborationist parties under the Vichy regime of World War II.
The Union of Communist Students is a French student political organization, part of the Mouvement Jeunes Communistes de France. It was founded in 1939 but dissolved after World War II. The UEC was re-created in 1956, along with the MJCF. It is independent from the French Communist Party (PCF) although it remains close to it. It maintains exchange contacts with the PCF, in particular on student issues. The UEC is organized in sectors, by university, and is led by a national collective elected during the congress of the MJCF and renewed during the National Assemblies of the facilitators, every year. A national coordination runs the organization.
Louise Françoise de Bourbon, Duchess of Bourbon was the eldest surviving legitimised daughter of Louis XIV of France and his maîtresse-en-titre, Madame de Montespan. She was said to have been named after her godmother, Louise de La Vallière, the woman her mother had replaced as the king's mistress. Before her marriage, she was known at court as Mademoiselle de Nantes.
Jean Foyer was a French politician and minister. He studied law and became a law professor at the university. He wrote several books about French Civil law.
Maryse Joissains-Masini, also known as Maryse Charton, is the mayor of Aix-en-Provence. She was also a member of the National Assembly of France. in which she represented the Bouches-du-Rhône department, and is a member of The Republicans party.
The Mouvement Jeunes communistes de France (MJCF), commonly called the "JC", is the first political youth organisation of France, close to the French communist party.
Danielle Casanova was a Corsica born French communist, member of the French Resistance during World War II. She was responsible for the Communist Youth and founded in 1936 the women's organization Union des Jeunes Filles de France. She was arrested and deported to Auschwitz where she was tortured and died.
Jean-François Leroy was a French architect. For the Prince of Condé, he worked on the Château of Chantilly, the Palais Bourbon, and the Hôtel de Lassay, where he replaced Claude Billard de Bélisard in 1780.
Élie Bloncourt was a French politician who represented the department of Aisne in the French National Assembly from 1936 to 1946. He was blinded by a shrapnel blast in the First World War and was part of the French resistance movement in World War II. He had a degree in philosophy and worked as a high school teacher, while also being involved in organizational works relating to veterans' affairs, pacifism and politics.
Nicolas Werth is a French historian.
Albert Ouzoulias was a Communist leader of the French Resistance during World War II (1939–45) using the name of "Colonel André". He played a major role in the 1944 liberation of Paris.
Eugène Hénaff was a French cement worker, Communist, trade union leader and member of the French Resistance during World War II (1939–45).
Arthur Dallidet was a French metal worker, Communist and trade union leader in the Renault factories, who became a leader of the French Resistance during World War II (1939–45).
Baron André de Maricourt was a French historian.
Lucien Sève was a French philosopher, communist and political activist. He was an active member of the French Communist Party from 1950 to 2010. His 1969 work Marxisme et théorie de la personnalité has been translated into 25 different languages. Sève died on 23 March 2020 of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)
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