Tony Garnier (August 13, 1869 in Lyon – January 19, 1948 in Roquefort-la-Bédoule, France) was a noted architect and city planner. He was most active in his hometown of Lyon. Garnier is considered the forerunner of 20th century French architects.
Lyon is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located in the country's east-central part at the confluence of the rivers Rhône and Saône, about 470 km (292 mi) south from Paris, 320 km (199 mi) north from Marseille and 56 km (35 mi) northeast from Saint-Étienne. Inhabitants of the city are called Lyonnais.
Roquefort-la-Bédoule is a commune in the department of Bouches-du-Rhône in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southern France. Its inhabitants are called Bédoulens.
France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
After learning painting and drafting at the École Technique de la Martinière in Lyon (1883-86), Garnier studied architecture at the École nationale des beaux-arts de Lyon (1886-89) and the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris (1890-99). In 1899 he won the Prix de Rome for a design of a national bank. The prize enabled him to reside at the Villa Medici in Rome for four years, until 1904.
The École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts (ENSBA) is a fine arts grand school of PSL Research University in Paris, France.
The Prix de Rome or Grand Prix de Rome was a French scholarship for arts students, initially for painters and sculptors, that was established in 1663 during the reign of Louis XIV of France. Winners were awarded a bursary that allowed them to stay in Rome for three to five years at the expense of the state. The prize was extended to architecture in 1720, music in 1803, and engraving in 1804. The prestigious award was abolished in 1968 by André Malraux, the Minister of Culture.
The Villa Medici is a Mannerist villa and an architectural complex with a garden contiguous with the larger Borghese gardens, on the Pincian Hill next to Trinità dei Monti in Rome, Italy. The Villa Medici, founded by Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany and now property of the French State, has housed the French Academy in Rome since 1803. A musical evocation of its garden fountains features in Ottorino Respighi's Fontane di Roma.
In 1901, after extensive study of sociological and architectural problems, he began to formulate an elaborate solution to the perceived issues concerning urban design. His basic idea included the separation of spaces by function through zoning into several categories: industrial, civic, residential, health related, and entertainment. Garnier's drawings for an ideal industrial city called Une cité industrielle were initially exhibited in 1904, but only published later in 1918.
Zoning is the process of dividing land in a municipality into zones in which certain land uses are permitted or prohibited. In addition, the sizes, bulk, and placement of buildings may be regulated. The type of zone determines whether planning permission for a given development is granted. Zoning may specify a variety of outright and conditional uses of land. It may also indicate the size and dimensions of land area as well as the form and scale of buildings. These guidelines are set in order to guide urban growth and development.
Une Cité Industrielle was designed as an utopian form of living, for 35,000 inhabitants. It was located between a mountain and a river to facilitate access to hydroelectric power. This plan was highly influenced by the writings of Émile Zola, in particular his socialist utopian novel Travail (1901).The plan allowed schools and vocational-type schools to be near the industries they were related to, so that people could be more easily educated. There were no churches or law enforcement buildings, in hope that man could rule himself. The idea of functional separation was later taken up by the members of CIAM, and would ultimately influence the design of cities like Brasilia.
A Utopia is an imagined community or society that possesses highly desirable or nearly perfect qualities for its citizens. The opposite of a utopia is a dystopia. One could also say that utopia is a perfect "place" that has been designed so there are no problems.
Émile Édouard Charles Antoine Zola was a French novelist, playwright, journalist, the best-known practitioner of the literary school of naturalism, and an important contributor to the development of theatrical naturalism. He was a major figure in the political liberalization of France and in the exoneration of the falsely accused and convicted army officer Alfred Dreyfus, which is encapsulated in the renowned newspaper headline J'Accuse…! Zola was nominated for the first and second Nobel Prize in Literature in 1901 and 1902.
In 1904 Garnier returned to Lyon, where he received a commission for a livestock market and slaughterhouse (1906-24), later named Halle Tony Garnier. In 1910 he was commissioned for the design of the Édouard-Hérriot Hospital, completed in 1927. Further projects included several villas, the Stade de Gerland (Gerland stadium) (1914-18) and the low-cost housing Quartier des Etats-Unis (1919-35) on United-States avenue in the 8th arrondissement of Lyon.
The Halle Tony Garnier is an arena and concert hall in Lyon, France. It was designed by Tony Garnier in 1905. Originally a slaughterhouse, the building was renovated in 1987 and opened as a concert hall in 1988. With a capacity of nearly 17,000, it is the third biggest venue in France after the AccorHotels Arena and U Arena.
The Stade de Gerland is a stadium in the city of Lyon, France which serves as home to Top 14 rugby club Lyon OU. It has a seating capacity of 25,000.
The 8th arrondissement of Lyon is one of the 9 arrondissements of Lyon.
In the 1920s Garnier continued the work on several major projects started before the war. In 1939 he moved from Lyon to Roquefort-la-Bédoule, where he died in 1948.He is buried in the Croix-Rousse cemetery.
The Grandes Écoles of France are higher education establishments that are outside the main framework of the French public university system. The Grandes Écoles are highly selective, elite, and prestigious institutions; their graduates have dominated upper levels of the private and public sectors of French society for decades.
Hector Guimard was a French architect, who is now the best-known representative of the Art Nouveau style of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
Jean-Louis Charles Garnier was a French architect, perhaps best known as the architect of the Palais Garnier and the Opéra de Monte-Carlo.
Jacques-François Blondel was an 18th-century French architect and teacher. After running his own highly successful school of architecture for many years, he was appointed Professor of Architecture at the Académie Royale d'Architecture in 1762, and his Cours d'architecture largely superseded a similarly titled book published in 1675 by his famous namesake, François Blondel, who had occupied the same post in the late 17th century.
Henri Paul Nénot was a noted French architect.
Bernard Louis Zehrfuss was a French architect.
Joseph Auguste Émile Vaudremer was a French architect. He won the prix de Rome and designed several public buildings in France, particularly in Paris.
Dan Poncet is a contemporary French painter.
The 1st arrondissement of Lyon, France is one of the nine arrondissements of the City of Lyon. It is located below the hill of Croix-Rousse and on the north part of the Presqu'île formed by the Saône and the Rhône, the two rivers in Lyon
Ernesto Oroza (1968) is a Cuban artist and designer.
The Rue de Brest is a street located in the 2nd arrondissement of Lyon. This is one of the main shopping and tourist streets of the city center, parallel to the rue Édouard-Herriot. It begins in the wake of the rue Paul Chenavard and ends with the Place des Jacobins.
Michel Roux-Spitz was a French architect.
Jean Dubuisson was a French architect who is regarded as one of the leading practitioners of the French post-World War II years.
Nicolas Michelin is a French architect and urban planner. After joining forces with Finn Geipel to form LABFAC in 1985, he went on to found ANMA in 2000, which he currently runs in collaboration with his partners Michel Delplace and Cyril Trétout.
Mérignac is a commune in the Gironde department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France. The 20th-century historian Robert Étienne (1921–2009) was born in Mérignac.
The Exposition internationale urbaine de Lyon was the 1914 World's Fair in the French city of Lyon. The exposition focused on urban planning and public health. Lyon's mayor, Édouard Herriot, organised the exposition with the architect Tony Garnier and medical doctor Jules Courmont.
Jean-Michel Leniaud is a French historian of art. A specialist of architecture and art of the 19th and 20th centuries, he was director of the École Nationale des Chartes from 2011 to 2016.
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