Topa Inca Yupanqui

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Topa Inca Yupanqui
Tupac-inca-yupanqui-small.png
Drawing by Guaman Poma in 1615
Sapa Inca of the Inca Empire
Reign1471–1493
Predecessor Pachacuti
Successor Huayna Capac
Bornc. 1441
Cusco, Peru
Diedc. 1493 (aged 51–52)
Chincheros, Peru
Consort Mama Ocllo
Issue Huayna Capac
Names
Túpac Inca Yupanqui
Quechua Tupaq Inka Yupanki
SpanishTúpac Inca Yupanqui
Dynasty Hanan Qusqu
Father Pachacuti
MotherMama Anahuarque

Topa Inca Yupanqui or Túpac Inca Yupanqui (Quechua : 'Tupaq Inka Yupanki'), [1] translated as "noble Inca accountant," (c. 1441–c. 1493) was the tenth Sapa Inca (1471–93) of the Inca Empire, fifth of the Hanan dynasty. His father was Pachacuti, and his son was Huayna Capac. [2] :93 Topa Inca belonged to the Qhapaq panaca (one of the clans of Inca nobles). [1] His wife was his older sister, Mama Ocllo. [2] :88

Contents

Biography

Map of the expansion of the Inca Empire under Topa Inca Yupanquoi Tupac-inca-conquest.png
Map of the expansion of the Inca Empire under Topa Inca Yupanquoi

His father appointed him to head the Inca army in 1483.

He extended the realm along the Andes through modern Ecuador, [3] :144 and developed a special fondness for the city of Quito, which he rebuilt with architects from Cuzco. During this time his father Pachacuti reorganized the kingdom of Cuzco into the Tahuantinsuyu, the "four provinces." Tupac Inca led extensive military conquests to extend the Inca empire across much of Southern America. [2] :8992

He became Sapa Inca (sole ruler) in his turn upon his father's death in 1471, ruling until his own death in 1493. He conquered Chimor, which occupied the northern coast of what is now Peru, the largest remaining rival to the Incas.

He conquered the province of Antis and subdued the Collas. He imposed rules and taxes, creating two Governor Generals, Suyuyoc Apu, one in Xauxa and the other in Tiahuanacu. Tupac Inca Yupanqui created the fortress Saksaywaman on the high plateau above Cuzco, which included storehouses for provisions and clothing. [2] :98105

Tupac Inca died about 1493 in Chincheros, leaving two legitimate sons, and 90 illegitimate sons and daughters. Chuqui Ocllo, one of the wives of Tupac Yupanqui, convinced him that his son Ccapac Huari would succeed him, however, Topa Inca Yupanqoi changed his mind and decided on his son Titu Cusi Hualpa (who would later become emperor Huayna Capac). This provoked anger in Chuqui Ocllo and she poisoned Topa Inca. They were both killed soon after Topa Inca's death. [2] :106107

The Pacific Expedition

Legend

Topa Inca Yupanqui is also credited with leading a roughly 10-month-long voyage of exploration into the Pacific around 1480, reportedly visiting islands he called Nina Chumpi ("fire belt") [4] and Hawa Chumpi ("outer belt", [5] [4] also spelled Avachumpi, Hahua chumpi). The voyage is mentioned in the History of the Incas by Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa in 1572. [6] Pedro Sarmiento described the expedition as follows:

…there arrived at Tumbez some merchants who had come by sea from the west, navigating in balsas with sails. They gave information of the land whence they came, which consisted of some islands called Avachumbi and Ninachumbi, where there were many people and much gold. Tupac Inca was a man of lofty and ambitious ideas, and was not satisfied with the regions he had already conquered. So he determined to challenge a happy fortune, and see if it would favour him by sea.…
The Inca, having this certainty, determined to go there. He caused an immense number of balsas to be constructed, in which he embarked more than 20,000 chosen men.…
Tupac Inca navigated and sailed on until he discovered the islands of Avachumbi and Ninachumbi, and returned, bringing back with him slaves, gold, a chair of brass, and a skin and jaw bone of a horse. These trophies were preserved in the fortress of Cuzco until the Spaniards came. The duration of this expedition undertaken by Tupac Inca was nine months, others say a year, and, as he was so long absent, every one believed he was dead. [2] :9394

Analysis

Many historians are skeptical that the voyage ever took place. Supporters have usually identified the islands with the Galápagos Islands. It has also been suggested that one of the islands was Easter Island, where oral traditions have claimed that a group of long-eared hanau eepe came to the island from an unknown land. [7]

See also

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Kingdom of Cusco Former country

The Kingdom of Cusco was a small kingdom based in the city of Cusco, on the Andean mountain ranges that began as a small city-state founded by the Incas around the start of 13th century. In time, through warfare or peaceful assimilation, it began to grow and was succeeded by the Inca Empire (1438–1533).

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Yupanqui may refer to:

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The Coya Rahua Ocllo, or Araua Ocllo, was a princess and queen consort, Coya, of the Inca Empire by marriage to her brother, the Sapa Inca Huayna Capac.

The Coya Coya Cusirimay, was a princess and queen consort, Coya, of the Inca Empire by marriage to her brother, the Sapa Inca Huayna Capac. She was said to be responsible for the relief and well being of her people after natural disasters struck. She was second in command to the emperor.

The Coya Mama Ocllo Coya or only Mama Ocllo, was a princess and queen consort, Coya, of the Inca Empire by marriage to her younger brother, the Sapa Inca Topa Inca Yupanqui.

References

  1. 1 2 von Hagen, Victor W.; Murra, John V. "The origins and expansion of the Inca state". britannica.com. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved April 1, 2019.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 de Gamboa, P.S., 2015, History of the Incas, Lexington, ISBN   9781463688653
  3. Prescott, W.H., 2011, The History of the Conquest of Peru, Digireads.com Publishing, ISBN   9781420941142
  4. 1 2 Teofilo Laime Ajacopa, Diccionario Bilingüe Iskay simipi yuyayk'ancha, La Paz, 2007 (Quechua-Spanish dictionary)
  5. Diccionario Quechua - Español - Quechua, Academía Mayor de la Lengua Quechua, Gobierno Regional del Cusco, Cusco (2005) (Quechua-Spanish dictionary)
  6. See online version of the book, page 91; in English.
  7. The "Hanau Eepe", their Immigration and Extermination, Rongorongo.
Preceded by
Pachacuti
Sapa Inca
As ruler of the Inca Empire

1471–1493
Succeeded by
Huayna Capac