Tophane Agreement

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Territory of Bulgaria after signature of the Tophane agreement. Eastern Rumelia (    ) is unified with the Principality of Bulgaria (    ), while the Kardzhali District and Valley of Vacha river (Tamrash Republic) (    ), returned to Ottoman Empire Bulgaria after unification political map-en.svg
Territory of Bulgaria after signature of the Tophane agreement. Eastern Rumelia (    ) is unified with the Principality of Bulgaria (    ), while the Kardzhali District and Valley of Vacha river (Tamrash Republic) (    ), returned to Ottoman Empire

The Tophane Agreement was a treaty between the Principality of Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire signed on 5 April [ O.S. 24 March] 1886 during an ambassadorial conference in Istanbul. [1] [2] The agreement was named after the Istanbul neighborhood Tophane, located in Beyoğlu district, where the treaty was signed.

Principality of Bulgaria principality on the Balkan Peninsula between 1878 and 1908

The Principality of Bulgaria was a de facto independent, and de jure vassal state under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire. It was established by the Treaty of Berlin in 1878.

Ottoman Empire Former empire in Asia, Europe and Africa

The Ottoman Empire, historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.

Old Style and New Style dates 16th-century changes in calendar conventions

Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written. There were two calendar changes in Great Britain and its colonies, which may sometimes complicate matters: the first was to change the start of the year from Lady Day to 1 January; the second was to discard the Julian calendar in favour of the Gregorian calendar. Closely related is the custom of dual dating, where writers gave two consecutive years to reflect differences in the starting date of the year, or to include both the Julian and Gregorian dates.

Signed by the Ottoman Grand Vizier Mehmed Kamil Pasha and the Bulgarian foreign minister Iliya Tsanov, as well the ambassadors of the Great Powers, the agreement recognized the Prince of Bulgaria (Alexander of Battenberg at the time) as Governor-General of the autonomous Ottoman Province Eastern Rumelia. In this way, the de facto Unification of Bulgaria which had taken place on 18 September [ O.S. 6 September] 1885, was de jure recognized.

Alexander of Battenberg First prince of modern Bulgaria 1879-1886

Alexander Joseph, known as Alexander of Battenberg, was the first prince (knyaz) of the Principality of Bulgaria from 1879 until his abdication in 1886.

Eastern Rumelia autonomous territory in the Ottoman Empire from 1878-1885

Eastern Rumelia was an autonomous territory in the Ottoman Empire, created in 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin and de facto ended in 1885, when it was united with the principality of Bulgaria, also under Ottoman suzerainty. It continued to be an Ottoman province de jure until 1908, when Bulgaria declared independence.

As compensation, the Ottoman Empire received the area around Kardzhali, as well as the Republic of Tamrash, for a total area of 1,640 km². With this treaty, the territory of the unified Bulgaria became 94,345 km². [3] Bulgaria later regained the lands lost in this treaty following victory in the First Balkan War (1912–13).

Kardzhali Place in Bulgaria

Kardzhali, sometimes spelt Kardzali or Kurdzhali, is a town in the Eastern Rhodopes in Bulgaria, centre of Kardzhali Municipality and Kardzhali Province. The noted Kardzhali Dam is located nearby.

Republic of Tamrash

The Republic of Tamrash, was a short-lived self-governing administrative structure of the Pomaks, living in the Tamrash region of the Rhodope Mountains. It existed from 1878 to 1886.

First Balkan War 1910s war between the Balkan League and the Ottoman Empire

The First Balkan War, lasted from October 1912 to May 1913 and comprised actions of the Balkan League against the Ottoman Empire. The combined armies of the Balkan states overcame the numerically inferior and strategically disadvantaged Ottoman armies and achieved rapid success.

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Rumelia Ottoman possessions in the Balkans

Rumelia, also known as Turkey in Europe, was the name of a historical region in Southeast Europe that was administered by the Ottoman Empire, mainly the Balkan Peninsula. Rumelia included the provinces of Thrace, Macedonia and Moesia, today's Bulgaria and Turkish Thrace, bounded to the north by the rivers Sava and Danube, west by the Adriatic coast, and south by the Morea. Owing to administrative changes between 1870 and 1875, the name ceased to correspond to any political division. Eastern Rumelia was constituted as an autonomous province of the Ottoman Empire by the Treaty of Berlin in 1878. Today, in Turkey, the word Trakya (Thrace) has mostly replaced Rumeli (Rumelia) when referring to the part of Turkey which is in Europe, though Rumelia remains in use in some historical contexts.

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Sava Mutkurov officer, politician

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Chemins de fer Orientaux transport company

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References

  1. Hertslet, Edward (1891), "Act agreed between the Plenipotentiaries of Great Britain, Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Russia, and Turkey, for modifying Articles XV and XVII of the Treaty of Berlin; Governor-Generalship of Eastern Rumelia to be entrusted to the Prince of Bulgaria, and Musulman Villages of Kirdjali and those of Rhodope District to be placed under administration of the Porte, Constantinople, 5th April 1886. (Translation)", The Map of Europe by Treaty; which have taken place since the general peace of 1814. With numerous maps and notes, IV (1875-1891) (First ed.), London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, pp. 3152–3157, retrieved 4 January 2013
  2. Raymond Detrez: Historical Dictionary of Bulgaria, Scarecrow Press, London 1997, ISBN   0-8108-3177-5, P. 437
  3. Magarditsch A. Hatschikjan: Tradition und Neuorientierung in der bulgarischen Außenpolitik 1944 - 1948. Die "nationale Außenpolitik" der Bulgarischen Arbeiterpartei (Kommunisten). Verlag Oldenburg, München 1988, ISBN   3-486-55001-2, P. 20