General view of Toplița
Location of Toplița in Harghita County
|• Mayor||Dumitru Olariu (PSD)|
|Area||338.3 km2 (130.6 sq mi)|
|• Density||41/km2 (110/sq mi)|
|Time zone||EET/EEST (UTC+2/+3)|
|Website||Toplița Town hall|
Toplița (Romanian pronunciation: [ˈtoplit͡sa] ; Hungarian : Maroshévíz, Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈmɒroʃheːviːz] ( listen )) is a municipality in Harghita County, Transylvania, Romania.
The settlement has had multiple name changes: Taplócza, Toplicza, Gyergyó-Toplicza, from February 3, 1861 Oláh-Toplicza, or "Romanian Toplița", then from January 1, 1907 Maroshévíz, until 1918, when it received the Romanian name Toplița Română. Both the Romanian and the Hungarian name mean "hot water spring"; the first is a Romanian word of Slavic origin.
The city administers eight villages: Călimănel (Kelemenpatak), Luncani (Lunkány), Măgheruș (Magyaros), Moglănești (Moglán), Secu (Székpatak), Vâgani (Vugány), Vale (Válya) and Zencani (Zsákhegy).
|Source: Census data|
According to the last census from 2011 there were 13,282 people living in the city.
Of this population, 9688 (72.94%) are ethnic Romanians, while 3031 (22,82%)are ethnic Hungarians (primarily Székelys), 513 ethnic Romani. This information is from Toplița's unofficial site: www.toplita.info.
Among the villages which are the part of this municipality, there are large ethnic Hungarian minorities in Măgheruș (34%), Moglănești (21.5%), Secu (29.7%) and Zencani (23.7%).
Topliţa is located in eastern Transylvania on the upper reaches of the Mureș, more precisely in the northwestern corner of Harghita County. It is situated at an altitude of 650 m above sea level, on the Giurgiului plain between the mountains of Giurgiului, Gurghiului and Călimani. The nearest towns are Borsec (26 km), Gheorgheni (38 km) and Reghin (69 km).
The region was Simon Bán's property until 1228, then passed on to the Bánffy family, who managed to keep their enormous properties until 1945.As a feudal domain, the area was not part of any of the Székely seats (sedes judiciaria, Székely district with special national privileges).
The settlement was founded in 1567 by Kozma Petričević on land owned by Bánffy Pál[ citation needed ]. He gave the land to three Moldavian peasant families and named the place Taplócza.[ citation needed ]
In 1658, Gyergyó-Toplicza was entirely destroyed by Moldavian units led by Pintea. After 1660, the Bánffys brought 391 Romanian peasant families from Deda onto these lands. Around 1710, rafting started on the Mureș river. Due to this profitable enterprise, Toplicza and its inhabitants started growing and evolving in both wealth and numbers. The first European census, ordered by Joseph II, took place in Toplicza on 20 November 1785. Census results showed 227 farms, 23 free and 231 thrall families who belonged to 22 lords. Baron Bornemissza János owned 52 of these families, while Baron Kemény Simon owned 30 and Count Teleki Mihály 18.
In 1868, eight "praedia" belonged to Oláh-Toplicza: Kelemenpatak, Nyírmező, Csobotány, Mănăstirea, Vugány, Moglán, Plopiș and Magyarós; at the time Válya was already part of the settlement. Nowadays, it comprises Valea, Zencani, Vâgani, Secu, Moglănești, Măgheruș and Luncani.
During World War I, Toplița and its periphery witnessed cruel fighting. The Romanian monument in Secu is the tomb of 771 Romanian soldiers, while in the Hungarian Soldiers Cemetery 450 Hungarian soldiers were buried.
Until the Treaty of Trianon of 1920, it was part of Maros-Torda County in the Kingdom of Hungary in Austria-Hungary. In 1920, it became part of Romania. In 1940, the second Vienna Award granted Northern Transylvania to Hungary and the town formed part of that country until 1944. After the Axis defeat, the town officially returned to Romania in 1947.
In 1952 Toplița was declared a town, and in 2002 it was declared a municipality.
Harghita is a county (județ) in the center of Romania, in eastern Transylvania, with the county seat at Miercurea Ciuc.
Mureș County is a county (județ) of Romania, in the historical region of Transylvania, with the administrative centre in Târgu Mureș. The county was established in 1968, after the administrative reorganization that re-introduced the historical judeţ (county) system, still used today. This reform eliminated the previous Mureș-Magyar Autonomous Region, which had been created in 1952 within the People's Republic of Romania. Mureș county has a vibrant multicultural fabric that includes Hungarian-speaking Székelys and Transylvanian Saxons, with a rich heritage of fortified churches and towns.
Odorheiu Secuiesc is the second largest municipality in Harghita County, Transylvania, Romania. In its short form, it is also known as Odorhei in Romanian and Udvarhely in Hungarian. The Hungarian name of the town "Udvarhely" means "courtyard place".
The Székelys, sometimes also referred to as Szeklers are a subgroup of the Hungarian people living mostly in the Székely Land in Romania. A significant population descending from the Székelys of Bukovina lives in Tolna and Baranya counties in Hungary and in certain districts of Vojvodina, Serbia.
The Mureș is a 789-kilometre-long (490 mi) river in Eastern Europe. Its drainage basin covers an area of 30,332 km2 (11,711 sq mi). It originates in the Hășmașu Mare Range in the Eastern Carpathian Mountains, Romania, rising close to the headwaters of the river Olt, and joins the Tisza at Szeged in southeastern Hungary. In Romania, its length is 761 km (473 mi) and its basin size is 27,890 km2 (10,770 sq mi).
Miercurea Ciuc is the county seat of Harghita County, Romania. It lies in the Székely Land, a mainly Hungarian-speaking ethno-cultural region in eastern Transylvania, and is situated in the Olt River valley.
Cristuru Secuiesc is a town in Harghita County, Romania. It lies in the Székely Land, an ethno-cultural region in eastern Transylvania.
Vlăhița is a town in Harghita County, Romania. It lies in the Székely Land, an ethno-cultural region in eastern Transylvania.
Borsec is a town in Harghita County, Transylvania, Romania. The town and the surrounding areas are well known for their spas and mineral waters. It has a population of 2,585, with a majority of ethnic Hungarians.
Atid is a commune in Harghita County, Romania. It lies in the Székely Land, an ethno-cultural region in eastern Transylvania.
The Székely Land or Szeklerland is a historic and ethnographic area in Romania, inhabited mainly by Székelys, a subgroup of Hungarians. Its cultural centre is the city of Târgu Mureș (Marosvásárhely), the largest settlement in the region.
Dealu is a commune in Harghita County, Romania. It lies in the Székely Land, an ethno-cultural region in eastern Transylvania. The commune is known for its plum-based pálinka and is composed of seven villages:
Joseni is a commune in Harghita County, Romania. It lies in the Székely Land, an ethno-cultural region in eastern Transylvania, and is composed of three villages:
Mihăileni is a commune in Harghita County, Romania. The commune lies in the Székely Land, an ethno-cultural region in eastern Transylvania.
Remetea is a commune in Harghita County, Romania. It lies in the Székely Land, an ethno-cultural region in eastern Transylvania.
Secuieni is a commune in Harghita County, Romania. It lies in the Székely Land, an ethno-cultural region in eastern Transylvania.
Tulgheș is a commune in Harghita County, Romania. It lies in eastern Transylvania. The commune is composed of four villages: Hagota (Hágótő), Pintic (Péntekpataka), Recea (Récefalva) and Tulgheș.
The Măgheruș is a small river in the Gurghiu Mountains, Harghita County, central Romania. It is a left tributary of the river Mureș. It flows through the municipality Toplița, and joins the Mureș in the town Toplița, where it is channelized. Its length is 12 km (7.5 mi) and its basin size is 29 km2 (11 sq mi). Its name is from the Hungarian "mogyoró", and means "Nutty Creek".
The Hungarian minority of Romania is the largest ethnic minority in Romania, consisting of 1,227,623 people and making up 6.1% of the total population, according to the 2011 census.
The Transylvanian Plain is an ethnogeographical area in Transylvania, Romania, located between the Someșul Mare and the Someșul Mic rivers to the north and west and the Mureș River to the south and east. It is populated by both ethnic Romanians and ethnic Hungarians.
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