|Volcanic Complex of Topo(Complexo Vulcânico do Topo)|
A view of the mountainous hills of the Topo Volcanic Complex
|Official name:Complexo Vulcânico do Topo|
|Named for: Topo|
|Location||Azores Platform, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Atlantic Ocean|
|Highest point||Pico da Barrosa|
|Lowest point||Sea level|
|- location||Atlantic Ocean|
|- elevation||0 m (0 ft)|
|Geology||Alkali basalt, Tephra, Trachyte, Trachybasalt|
Volcanic Complex of Topo (Portuguese : Complexo Vulcânico do Topo) is a complex of scoria cones and volcanic structures, located near the village Topo in the southeastern part of the island of São Jorge, in the Portuguese archipelago of the Azores.
Portuguese is a Western Romance language originating in the Iberian Peninsula. It is the sole official language of Portugal, Brazil, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, Angola, and São Tomé and Príncipe. It also has co-official language status in East Timor, Equatorial Guinea and Macau in China. As the result of expansion during colonial times, a cultural presence of Portuguese and Portuguese creole speakers are also found in Goa, Daman and Diu in India; in Batticaloa on the east coast of Sri Lanka; in the Indonesian island of Flores; in the Malacca state of Malaysia; and the ABC islands in the Caribbean where Papiamento is spoken, while Cape Verdean Creole is the most widely spoken Portuguese-based Creole. A Portuguese-speaking person or nation may be referred to as "Lusophone" in both English and Portuguese.
Topo, also known as Nossa Senhora do Rosário, is a freguesia on the northeastern corner of the municipality Calheta on the island of São Jorge. It is considered the first settlement on the island of São Jorge to attain the status of municipality; from 1510 to 1867 "Vila do Topo" was the municipal seat of Topo, which included the neighboring parish of Santo Antão. The population in 2011 was 508, in an area of 9.24 km².
São Jorge is an island situated in the central group of the Azores archipelago and part of the autonomous region of Portugal. Separated from its nearest neighbors by the 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) Pico-São Jorge Channel, the central group is often referred colloquially as part of the Triangulo ("Triangle") group or just "The Triangle". São Jorge is a relatively long thin island with tall cliffs, whose 9500 inhabitants are concentrated on various geological debris fields (fajãs) along the north and south coasts; from east to west, the island is 53 kilometres (33 mi) long and, north to south, 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) wide: its area is 237.59 square kilometres (91.73 sq mi).
The base of the Topo complex originated in numerous shield volcanoes, erupting from primordial fissural faults that ran along a northwest to southeast and east-southeast to west-northwest alignment. 700 metres (2,300 ft) above sea level. These activities initiated around 600,000 years ago. The island of São Jorge had its initial formation from the rising of magma along these fractures through the earth's crust, resulting in effusive volcanism from the area east of Ribeira Seca until Topo (from which it got its name).These structures are only observed in the curvature of the higher turf cones, as far as
Owing to age, continuous effusive eruptions occurred simultaneously with the eruption on the island of Faial, along the Volcanic Complex of Ribeirinha.Volcanism in this zone continued, with some interruptions over the next 500,000 years approximately. But, continuous erosion, from coastal action, humidity and rainfall, wind and thermal amplitudes, resulted in an interior relief forming a more gently appearing landscape, in comparison to the western areas of Ribeira Seca.
The volcanic complex occupies the eastern part of the island and consists of basalt lavas, hawaiite and mugearite (aa) lavas, from explosive pyroclastic rocks and cinder cones originating from Strombolian eruptions.
Basalt is a mafic extrusive igneous rock formed from the rapid cooling of magnesium-rich and iron-rich lava exposed at or very near the surface of a terrestrial planet or a moon. More than 90% of all volcanic rock on Earth is basalt. Basalt lava has a low viscosity, due to its low silica content, resulting in rapid lava flows that can spread over great areas before cooling and solidification. Flood basalt describes the formation in a series of lava basalt flows.
Hawaiite is an olivine basalt with a composition between alkali basalt and mugearite. It was first used as a name for some lavas found on the island of Hawaii.
Mugearite is a type of oligoclase-bearing basalt, comprising olivine, apatite, and opaque oxides. The main feldspar in mugearite is oligoclase.
Its features around the complex includes the Pico do Brejo do Cordeiro and several others.
Pico do Brejo do Cordeiro is a peak on the island of São Jorge in the Azores.
The Azores, officially the Autonomous Region of the Azores, is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal. It is an archipelago composed of nine volcanic islands in the North Atlantic Ocean about 1,360 km (850 mi) west of continental Portugal, about 1,643 km (1,021 mi) west of Lisbon, in continental Portugal, about 1,507 km (936 mi) northwest of Morocco, and about 1,925 km (1,196 mi) southeast of Newfoundland, Canada.
Pico Island, is an island in the Central Group of the Portuguese Azores. The landscape features an eponymous volcano, Ponta do Pico, which is the highest mountain in Portugal, the Azores, and the highest elevation of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. In the tradition of the Portuguese poet, Raul Brandão, Pico is referred to as the Ilha Preta, for its black volcanic earth, responsible for its UNESCO-designated historical vineyards that allowed the development of the island.
São Miguel Island, nicknamed "The Green Island", is the largest and most populous island in the Portuguese archipelago of the Azores. The island covers 760 km2 (290 sq mi) and has around 140,000 inhabitants, with 45,000 people resident in Ponta Delgada, the archipelago's largest city.
Velas is a municipality in the São Jorge Island, in the Portuguese autonomous region of Azores. The municipality encompasses the western portion of the island, with its municipal seat in the town of Velas on the south coast, and is divided into six parishes. The population in 2011 was 5,398, in an area of 117.38 km².
Cabeço Gordo is the highest mountain, massive stratovolcano and the largest geomorphological structure that forms the island of Faial. The mountain/volcano is 1,043 meters above sea level, consisting of a two kilometer wide caldera, that is 400 m in depth below the crater rim. From Cabeço Gordo, on a clear day, the islands of the central group of the Azores are visible: Pico, Sao Jorge, and Graciosa, although normally the caldera may be covered in clouds and fog.
Ribeira Grande is a municipality in the northern part of the island of São Miguel in the Portuguese Azores. The population in 2011 was 32,112, in an area of 180.15 km². The municipal seat is located in the civil parish of Matriz, with a population of about 4000 inhabitants, part of the urbanized core of what is commonly referred to as the city of Ribeira Grande.
Pico da Pedra is a civil parish in the municipality of Ribeira Grande in the Portuguese archipelago of the Azores. The population in 2011 was 2,909, in an area of 6.58 km².
Água de Pau Massif is a stratovolcanic complex, located in central part of the island of São Miguel, in the Portuguese archipelago of the Azores. More recognizable for the Lagoa do Fogo at its centre, the volcanic complex includes centuries of geomorphological structures that include lava domes, cones and encrusted lava flows that have marked its history from, the last, 45,000 years BC.
Povoação is a municipality located in the southeastern corner of the island of São Miguel in the Portuguese archipelago of the Azores. The population in 2011 was 6,327, in an area of 106.41 km².
Furnas is a civil parish in the municipality of Povoação on the island of São Miguel in the Portuguese Azores. The population in 2011 was 1,439, in an area of 34.43 km². The parish is one of the largest in the island and in the Azores. It is located east of Lagoa and Ponta Delgada, west of Povoação and southeast of Ribeira Grande.
Mount Pico is a stratovolcano located on Pico Island, in the mid-Atlantic archipelago of the Azores. It is the highest mountain of Portugal, at 2,351 metres (7,713 ft) above sea level, and is one of the highest Atlantic mountains; it is more than twice the elevation of any other peak in the Azores.
The Fajã dos Cubres is a permanent debris field, known as a fajã, built from the collapsing cliffs on the northern coast of the civil parish of Ribeira Seca, in the municipality of Calheta, island of São Jorge, in the Portuguese archipelago of the Azores.
The Picos Volcanic Fissural System is a system of scoria cones that build up the central region of the island of São Miguel. This volcano is very young with most of it only 5000 years old. The only recorded eruption was in 1652, but seven other eruptions have taken place in the cinder cone group in the last 10,000 years.
Pico Alto is the highest point, 586.64 metres (1,924.7 ft), on the island of Santa Maria, in the Portuguese archipelago of the Azores.
The Azores Geopark is a network of 121 geographically-dispersed sites of geographic heritage and marine areas that covers the nine volcanic islands of the archipelago of the Azores. This network is managed by the Azores Geopark Association, a non-profit association, with its headquarters in Horta on the island of Faial, established 19 May 2010. It is part of the European Geoparks Network and the UNESCO-assisted Global Geoparks Network. The Association's mission is to ensure the geological conservation, environmental education and sustainable development, while promoting the well-being of the population and a respect for the environment.
The Congro Volcanic Fissural System is a system of scoria cones that build up the central region of the island of São Miguel. This volcano is very young with most of it only 5000 years old.
Sete Cidades Massif is a stratovolcanic complex, referring to a polygenetic volcano and caldera, located in western part of the island of São Miguel, in the Portuguese archipelago of the Azores. More recognizable for the Lagoa das Sete Cidades at its centre, the volcanic complex includes centuries of geomorphological structures that include lava domes, cones, lava flows and maar geomorphology that have marked its history.
The 1964 Rosais earthquake was a series of seismic swarms occurring in February 1964, leading to two major earthquakes on the 15 and 21 of February, resulting in the destruction of most of the habitable dwellings on the western part of the island of São Jorge, in the archipelago of the Azores. The event resulted in the evacuation of approximately 5,000 residents from that island to Terceira, Pico and Faial.
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