The Toporzeł is a Polish emblem, created by Stanisław Szukalski in 1935 as coat of arms of reborn "Second Poland".It was created by combination of axe and eagle. The head has the form of a hook, which symbolizes breaking a tradition.
Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres (120,733 sq mi), and has a largely temperate seasonal climate. With a population of approximately 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, and Szczecin.
An emblem is an abstract or representational pictorial image that represents a concept, like a moral truth, or an allegory, or a person, like a king or saint.
Stanisław Szukalski was a Polish-born American sculptor and painter who became a part of the Chicago Renaissance. In 1930s Poland he enjoyed fame as a nationalist sculptor. He also developed the pseudoscientific-historical theory of Zermatism, positing that all human culture was derived from post-deluge Easter Island and that humankind was locked in an eternal struggle with the Sons of Yeti ("Yetinsyny"), the offspring of Yeti and humans.
The emblem with an added cross, called "Topokrzyż", was seen in "Krak" magazine, published by Szukalski. It contains the inscription "GOJ - Gospodarczą Organizujmy Jedność" (sounding like "Goy" and means "Organize Economic Unity"), and was intended to mark non-Jewish shops.
Goy is the standard Hebrew biblical term for a nation. The word nation has been the common translation of the Hebrew goy or ethnos in the Septuagint, from the earliest English language bibles such as the 1611 King James Version and the 1530 Tyndale Bible, following the Latin Vulgate which used both gentile and nationes. The term nation did not have the same political connotations it entails today. The word "gentile" is a synonym for the Hebrew word Nokri which signifies "stranger" or "non-Jew".
Now it is used by neopaganic, nationalistic organizations like Association for Tradition and Culture "Niklot".
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic ideology and movement characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining the nation's sovereignty (self-governance) over its homeland. Nationalism holds that each nation should govern itself, free from outside interference (self-determination), that a nation is a natural and ideal basis for a polity, and that the nation is the only rightful source of political power. It further aims to build and maintain a single national identity—based on shared social characteristics such as culture, language, religion, politics, and belief in a shared singular history—and to promote national unity or solidarity. Nationalism, therefore, seeks to preserve and foster a nation's traditional culture, and cultural revivals have been associated with nationalist movements. It also encourages pride in national achievements, and is closely linked to patriotism. Nationalism is often combined with other ideologies, such as conservatism or socialism for example.
Pączki are filled doughnuts found in Polish cuisine.
Florian Witold Znaniecki was a Polish philosopher and sociologist who taught and wrote in Poland and in the United States. Over the course of his work he shifted his focus from philosophy to sociology. He remains a major figure in the history of Polish and American sociology; the founder of Polish academic sociology, and of an entire school of thought in sociology. He won international renown as co-author, with William I. Thomas, of the study, The Polish Peasant in Europe and America (1918–20), which is considered the foundation of modern empirical sociology. He also made major contributions to sociological theory, introducing terms such as humanistic coefficient and culturalism.
Scipione Piattoli was an Italian Catholic priest—a Piarist—an educator, writer, and political activist, and a major figure of the Enlightenment in Poland. After ten years as a professor at the University of Modena in Italy, he emigrated to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, where he became associated with several magnate families—the Potockis, Lubomirskis, and Czartoryskis. He was a member of Duchess Dorothea von Medem's court in Courland (Lithuania) and of King Stanisław August Poniatowski's court.
Michał Witkowski is a Polish novelist.
Battle of Wólka Węglowa refers to the battle on September 19, 1939, that took place near Wólka Węglowa, during the last stages of the Polish counteroffensive of the Invasion of Poland.
Jerzy Zawieyski, born Henryk Nowicki, was a Polish playwright, prose writer, Catholic political activist and amateur stage actor. He wrote psychological, social, moral and historical novels, dramas, stories, essays and journals.
Janusz Leon Wiśniewski is a Polish scientist and writer mostly known for his novel S@motność w Sieci translated into English as Loneliness on the Net.
Władysław Witwicki was a Polish psychologist, philosopher, translator, historian and artist. Seen as one of the fathers of psychology in Poland. He studied at the University of Lwów and became a professor at the University of Warsaw.
Adam Redzik is a Polish lawyer and historian, a professor at the Warsaw University. He specializes in the history of law and science.
Sławomir Cenckiewicz is a Polish historian and journalist. A former employee of the Institute of National Remembrance, he is currently the main historical consultant of the Wprost weekly. He gained much media attention following the 2008 by scientific publication - book "SB a Lech Wałęsa. Przyczynek do biografii", about Lech Wałęsa as an informant of the communist Służba Bezpieczeństwa. In their work, Dr. Gontarczyk and Dr. Cenckiewicz argued that in the 1970s, the NSZZ Solidarność leader and former President of Poland Lech Wałęsa was a secret informant of the Polish communist secret police Służba Bezpieczeństwa (SB).
Dr. Hab. Anna Brożek is a Polish philosopher and musician.
Eugenia Mandal is a Polish social psychologist, holder of a postdoctoral degree in Psychology. She is currently a professor in the Department of Psychology at University of Silesia, Poland.
Rafał Dębski is a Polish writer of fantasy, historic, sensational and criminal novels. He works as a psychologist. Since June 2009 he has been editor in chief of the magazine Science Fiction, Fantasy and Horror.
The Expulsion of Poles by Nazi Germany during World War II was a massive Nazi German operation consisting of the forced resettlement of over 1.7 million Poles from all territories of occupied Poland with the aim of their geopolitical Germanization between 1939–1944. The expulsions were justified by Nazi racial theory, which depicted Poles and other Slavs as racially inferior Untermenschen.
Lew II - Polish coat of arms, used by several genera. Two of them were families from the region of Kaszuby. Coat of arms "Lew II" is a variant of the coat of arms "Leo".
The Adam Mickiewicz Monument in Vilnius, Lithuania is a monument in the vicinity of the Saint Anne's Church and the Bernardine Monastery, by Maironio Street along the shores of the Neris River.
Tomasz Szukalski was a Polish jazz saxophone player, composer and improviser. Tomasz is most known for his performances as sideman of Tomasz Stańko, Edward Vesala and Zbigniew Namysłowski. Awarded Magister of Music at Fryderyk Chopin University of Music, Warsaw.
Małgorzata Szejnert is a Polish journalist and writer.
Urszula Kozioł is a Polish poet. In 2011, she was a recipient of the Silesius Poetry Award.