|• Mayor||Sedat Şanal (AKP)|
|• Kaymakam||Güngör Yıldırım|
|• District||125.30 km2 (48.38 sq mi)|
|Elevation||67 m (220 ft)|
|• District density||130/km2 (350/sq mi)|
Toprakkale is a town and district of Osmaniye Province in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. It is located at 10 km to the west of Osmaniye. Its name comes from an Abbasid castle near the city.
The town is on a road and rail crossing, a natural intersection of routes between Adana, Hatay and Gaziantep.
The great fortress known as Toprakkale (Arabic: Tall Hamdūn; Frankish: Thil Hamd(o)un; Armenian: T‛il Hamtun) was founded in the 8th century by the Abbasids. During the 12th century it was frequently captured by the Byzantines, Crusaders, and Armenians. In 1266 the Mamluks briefly seized the castle from its Armenian lord and in 1337 permanently removed it from the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia. It was seized by the Ottomans in the 1490s when they captured all of Cilicia.
On the summit of a basalt outcrop is the almost rectangular complex which measures 150 meters on its long north-to-south axis, and 105 meters in width. The walls are protected by numerous round towers and a lethal array of embrasured loopholes (shooting ports). At the south and east is a second highly fortified wall. To the west and north is a massive talus with its own system of tunnels. Roughly 100 meters from the base of the outcrop at the west and north is a curving fortified circuit wall which creates a separate ward far larger than the interior of the summit fortress. Toprakkale appears to be the result of many periods of construction, with the Mamluks as the last of the significant contributors.
Lampron is a castle near the town of Çamlıyayla in Mersin Province, Turkey. While part of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia in the Middle Ages, the castle was known as Lampron and was the ancestral home of the Armenian Hethumid princes. Situated in the Taurus Mountains, the fortress guarded passes to Tarsus and the Cilician Gates.
Çamlıyayla is a town and district of Mersin Province in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. The district has a population of 10,558 of which 3335 lives in the town of Çamlıyayla.
Düziçi is a town and district of Osmaniye Province in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. It is located in a small plain in the foothills of the Nur Mountains and 440 m above the sea level.
Feke is a small city and a district in Adana Province of Turkey, 122 km from the city of Adana, 620m above sea-level, a small town on attractive forested mountainside. The current mayor is Ahmet Sel (MHP).
Saimbeyli is a small city and a district in Adana Province, Turkey in the Çukurova region. The city of Saimbeyli is located in the Taurus mountains, 157 km north of the city of Adana, via an adequate road. The city had a population of 4,010 in 2012.
Yılankale is a late 12th–13th century Armenian castle in Adana Province of Turkey. It is known in Armenian as Levonkla after its possible founder—King Leo (Levon) I the Magnificent of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia. Medieval Armenian names attached to the site are Kovara and Vaner.
Trapessac is a medieval fortress located 4 km north of the town of Kırıkhan in Hatay Province, Turkey. Trapessac was constructed in the 12th century by the Knights Templar and, together with the nearby fortress at Bagras, guarded the Syrian Gates, the principal pass between the coastal region of Cilicia and inland Syria.
Limonlu is a small town in Mersin Province, Turkey.
Sarvandikar, also spelled Sarvanda k'ar. It was the Frankish castle of Savranda and is officially known today as Savranda Kalesi. The site is a medieval castle in the former Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, located in Turkey's Osmaniye Province approximately 115 kilometers east of Adana.
The castle of Amouda is a Crusader castle, formerly in the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, and today in the Turkish Province of Osmaniye. The castle was deeded by the Armenian king Levon I to the Teutonic Knights in 1212 and rebuilt by them in the 13th century. It earned revenue for the Teutonic Order from the surrounding land. According to contemporary sources, the castle provided shelter for 2,200 people during the invasion by the Mamluks in 1266.
Fındıkpınarı is a town in Mersin Province, Turkey.
Sis was the capital of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia. The massive fortified complex is just to the southwest of the modern Turkish town of Kozan in Adana Province.
Silifke Castle is a medieval castle in Turkey.
Sinap Castle is a medieval Armenian fortification in Çamlıyayla ilçe (district) of Mersin Province in southern Turkey.
Kızkalesi is a castle situated on a small island in Mersin Province of Turkey.
Anvarza Castle is an ancient castle in Adana Province, Turkey.
Gözne Castle is a medieval castle in Mersin Province, Turkey.
Bodrumkale is a castle ruin in Osmaniye Province, Turkey. It is situated on a hill at. Its distance to Osmaniye is about 12 kilometres (7.5 mi). The castle is to the northeast of the ancient city of Castabala. In medieval times it controlled the road from Central Anatolia to the Mediterranean coast. In 1973 an archaeological assessment and accurate plan were published. The castle is divided into two baileys or wards and has six towers. Most of its masonry was cut directly from the limestone outcrop and not plundered from the ancient city below. The lower level of the south tower functioned as a cistern. The survey was conducted under the auspices of the University of California at Berkeley.
Kozan Castle is a castle in Kozan, Adana Province, Turkey.
Gülek Castle is a medieval castle in Mersin Province, Turkey.
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