Toquepala Caves

Last updated
Toquepala
Una pintura rupestre de la cueva de Toquepala.JPG
Peru physical map.svg
Archaeological site icon (red).svg
Location within Peru
LocationToquepala, Ilabaya, Tacna
Region Moquegua Region, Andes, Peru
Coordinates 17°18′16″S70°43′05″W / 17.30444°S 70.71806°W / -17.30444; -70.71806 Coordinates: 17°18′16″S70°43′05″W / 17.30444°S 70.71806°W / -17.30444; -70.71806
Altitude2,200 m (7,218 ft)
TypeCaves
Length10 m (33 ft)
History
Material Sandstone
Site notes
Public accessYes

Toquepala Caves are located near Toquepala mine, about 154 km (96 mi) from the city of Tacna, in the extreme southeast of Peru. They are notable for a number of rock paintings. The best known of them is the cave named Abrigo del Diablo ("Devil's rock face").

Contents

Geography

Situated in the western Andes, they are in the Moquegua Region of the Osmore River. Located at an elevation of 2,200 m (7,200 ft) (2,800 m (9,200 ft) is also mentioned in another source [1] ), they are two small caves each 15 m × 5 m (49 ft × 16 ft) in size, with a depth of 5 m (16 ft). The two Toquepala Caves in the high Sierra are located near the Quebrada Cimarron or along the Rio Locumba, which is a dry stream flowing from the Sierra to the desert. [2] The best known of the caves is "Abrigo del Diablo". [3]

History

The caves were seasonally occupied. [4] The art attained its peak when the Collawa ethnic group lived here during the Paleolithic or Stone Age period. [5] Archaeological research in the region revolved around the Asana site, as well as the Middle Horizon (500-1000AD) and the lower valley pre-Hispanic sites. [6] Important archaic caves discovered in the Osmore River Basin were the Toquepala Caves. This cave became famous after copper was found in the valley and South Peru Copper Corporation started exploration of the Cuajone mines. [1] The cave was studied in 1963 at the initiative of South Peru Copper Corporation. They found a large cache of artifacts during their mining operations and funded the study of the paintings in the caves by archeologists from Lima. [2] ) The team was led by Jorge C. Muelle, Director of the Museo Nacional de Arqueología, Antropología e Historia del Perú which resulted in the discovery of the rupestral art (drawings inscribed on rocks in the caves). [1]

The detailed exploration of the caves was undertaken by Roger Ravines of the Museo Nacional de Arqueología, Antropología e Historia del Perú in 1965. [1] Excavations from a pit dug to a depth of 1.8 metres (5 ft 11 in) was subject to radio carbon testing. The investigations revealed pre-ceramic habitation of the caves dated to 7,650 BC (10,000 BC is also mentioned). In one pit, remnants of paints along with brush wood were found at the same depth. He published his findings in 1965. [7] During the investigations, a fence was erected around the caves to prevent intruders from vandalizing the rock paintings. In spite of this measure there were incidents of surreptitious entry to the caves in which some of the rock paintings were damaged. Since then stronger security fencing has been arranged. [2]

Features

The caves have rock art of gatherer-hunters who are inferred to have lived in the caves about 10,000 years ago. There are more than 50 rock paintings drawn by the inhabitants of the caves of the Palaeolithic age of which 30 were studied. These scenes depict armed people hunting the guanaco cameloid and Andean religious symbols. The figures drawn are of animals, predominantly guanacos (cameloids). The scene depicted is of hunting by the humans who are corralling and killing a group of guanacos. The humans are in a posture of attacking the animals with axe, lances, and spear throwers. However, bow and arrow are not part of these scenes of rock art. [2] [8] They are painted in seven colours. [9] Red was the dominant colour; [8] [1] yellow and green are also mentioned. [10] The paint was made from hematite.

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tacna</span> Place in Peru

Tacna is a city in southern Peru and the regional capital of the Tacna Region. A very commercially active city, it is located only 35 km (22 mi) north of the border with Arica y Parinacota Region from Chile, inland from the Pacific Ocean and in the valley of the Caplina River. It is Peru's tenth most populous city.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Department of Tacna</span> Departments of Peru

Tacna is the southernmost department and region in Peru. The Chilean Army occupied the present-day Tacna Department during the War of the Pacific from 1885 until 1929 when it was reincorporated into Peru.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rock art</span> Human-made markings on natural stone

In archaeology, rock art is human-made markings placed on natural surfaces, typically vertical stone surfaces. A high proportion of surviving historic and prehistoric rock art is found in caves or partly enclosed rock shelters; this type also may be called cave art or parietal art. A global phenomenon, rock art is found in many culturally diverse regions of the world. It has been produced in many contexts throughout human history. In terms of technique, the four main groups are:

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cueva de las Manos</span> Cave with paintings in Santa Cruz, Argentina

Cueva de las Manos is a cave and complex of rock art sites in the province of Santa Cruz, Argentina, 163 km (101 mi) south of the town of Perito Moreno. It is named for the hundreds of paintings of hands stenciled, in multiple collages, on the rock walls. The art was created in several waves between 7,300 BC and 700 AD, during the Archaic period of pre-Columbian South America. The age of the paintings was calculated from the remains of bone pipes used for spraying the paint on the wall of the cave to create the artwork, radiocarbon dating of the artwork, and stratigraphic dating.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">El Abra</span> Archeological site

El Abra is the name given to an extensive archeological site, located in the valley of the same name. El Abra is situated in the east of the municipality Zipaquirá extending to the westernmost part of Tocancipá in the department of Cundinamarca, Colombia. The several hundred metres long series of rock shelters is in the north of the Bogotá savanna on the Altiplano Cundiboyacense, Eastern Ranges of the Colombian Andes at an altitude of 2,570 metres (8,430 ft). The rock shelter and cave system is one of the first evidences of human settlement in the Americas, dated at 12,400 ± 160 years BP. The site was used by the hunter-gatherers of the Late Pleistocene epoch.

Mark S. Aldenderfer is an American anthropologist and archaeologist. He is the MacArthur Professor of Anthropology at the University of California, Merced where he was previously the Dean of the School of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts. He has served as Professor of Anthropology at the University of Arizona, and the University of California, Santa Barbara. Aldenderfer received his Ph.D. from Penn State University in 1977. He is known in particular for his comparative research into high-altitude adaptation, and for contributions to quantitative methods in archaeology. He has also served as editor of several journals in anthropology and archaeology.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Roca dels Moros</span> Cave and archaeological site in Spain

The Roca dels Moros or Caves of El Cogul is a rock shelter containing paintings of prehistoric Levantine rock art and Iberian schematic art. The site is in El Cogul, in the autonomous community of Catalonia, Spain. Since 1998 the paintings have been protected as part of the Rock art of the Iberian Mediterranean Basin, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Inscriptions in Northeastern Iberian script and in Latin alphabet indicate that the place was used as a sanctuary into Iberian and Roman times.

Asana River is a waterway in the Moquegua Region of southern Peru. It is one of the tributaries of the Osmore River. The Asana archaeological site, occupied over the course of 8,000 years, is situated in a basin on the river's north bank. The Quellaveco mining project sought to divert the Asana for extractive waste material placement in its copper mining operations.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Asana, Peru</span> Archaeological site in Peru

Asana is an archaeological site by the Asana River, a tributary of the Osmore River, in the south-central Andes of southern Peru. The site is situated at an elevation of 3,430 metres (11,250 ft), with land use documented from 3,000–4,800 metres (9,800–15,700 ft). Asana was occupied over the course of 8,000 years; though the inhabitants were initially mobile foragers, long term habitation was marked at a later phase by residential architecture.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Osmore River</span> River in Moquegua Region, Peru

Osmore River system flows northeast to southwest in the Moquegua Region of southern coastal Peru. The river has its origin in the snow peaks of the Chuqi Ananta and Arundane mountains, at an elevation of 5,100 metres (16,700 ft) above sea level. It changes names as it descends from the Andes: From its origin it is called the Moquegua, then Osmore in the middle valley as Rio Coscori and Rio Tumilaca including where the river disappears into subterranean channels, and further down in the lower reaches as Rio Ilo.

Ayamachay is an archaeological site with rock paintings in Peru. It is situated in the Cusco Region, Canchis Province, Combapata District, above the left bank of the Salqa or Salcca river near the village of Oroscocha or Oroscocha. The paintings are predominantly white and show abstract or geometrical figures.

Wila Wilani is an archaeological site with rock art in Peru. It is located in the Tacna Region, Tacna Province, Palca District, near Wila Wilani (Vilavilane, Vilavilani). The motives of the paintings are predominantly hunting scenes with camelids.

The Prehistoric Rock-Art Site Pala Pinta is a Paleolithic-era rock-art site, recognized for cave paintings in the Portuguese municipality of Alijó, in the civil parish of Carlão e Amieiro.

Titini is a mountain in the Andes of southern Peru, about 4,800 metres (15,748 ft) high. It is located in the Moquegua Region, Mariscal Nieto Province, Carumas District, and in the Tacna Region, Candarave Province, Candarave District. Titini is situated south of the mountains Warintapani, Arichuwa, Puma and Misa Qalani which all lie on the border of the two regions.

Huañuma is a mountain in the Andes of southern Peru, about 5,200 metres (17,060 ft) high. It is located in the Moquegua Region, Mariscal Nieto Province, Torata District, and in the Tacna Region, Candarave Province, Camilaca District. Huañuma lies south of Limani, Apacheta Limani and Tutupaca, west of the Tutupaca volcano, north of Chuquiananta and northeast of Pomani.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Andean preceramic</span>

The Andean preceramic refers to the early period of human occupation in the Andean area of South America that preceded the introduction of ceramics. This period is also called pre-ceramic or aceramic.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cave of Maltravieso</span> Cave and archaeological site in Spain

The Cave of Maltravieso in Cáceres, Extremadura, Spain, was discovered in 1951. It shows traces of human occupation from the Middle Paleolithic. It contains cave art, most notably a total of 71 hand stencils, enumerated in the 1990s using ultraviolet photography, but also linear designs and some animal paintings. In a 2018 study based on uranium-thorium dating, a hand stencil from the Cave of Maltravieso was dated to 64,000 years ago. This would make it Middle Paleolithic art, predating the presence of European early modern humans, with important implications for Neanderthal behavior.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cañada de la Cruz</span> Population unit in Region of Murcia, Spain

Cañada de la Cruz is a small village of Spain, belonging to the municipality of Moratalla, in the Region of Murcia.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Aldenderfer 1998, pp. 56–57.
  2. 1 2 3 4 "Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin". Archive organization. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
  3. Whitley 2001, p. 712.
  4. Dillehay 2008, p. 180.
  5. Gonzalo de Reparaz Ruiz (1970). Guide to Peru: Handbook for Travelers with Compact Tourist Atlas of Peru. Ediciones de Arte Rep. p. 221.
  6. Rice 2011, p. 67.
  7. Aldenderfer 1998, p. 56-57.
  8. 1 2 David S. Whitley (2001). Handbook of Rock Art Research. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 712–. ISBN   978-0-7425-0256-7.
  9. South American Handbook. Trade and Travel Publications Limited. 1976.
  10. Jenkins 2009, p. 373.

Bibliography

Further reading