|Spouse(s)|| Harald Hardrada |
Sweyn II of Denmark(?)
Tora Torbergsdatter (Old Norse : Þóra Þorbergsdóttir, born 1025 – year of death unknown: fl. 1066) was a Norwegian royal consort. She was the mother of two kings of Norway. It is possible, but unconfirmed, that she was also queen of Denmark or Sweden.
Tora Torbergsdatter was born on Giske in Møre og Romsdal, Norway. She belonged to the Giskeætten, a powerful family from Giske in Sunnmøre. She was daughter of Torberg Arnesson of Giske (ca. 1000–1050) and wife Ragnhild Erlingsdatter (992), maternal granddaughter of Erling Skjalgsson and wife Astrid Eiriksdatter and paternal niece of Finn Arnesson and Kalv Arnesson.
Tora married King Harald Hardrada of Norway in 1048. The marriage can largely be explained by politics and alliance building. The chiefs of the Giske family played a key role in Norwegian power politics. The relationship between Tora and Harald Hardrada created strong ties with the royal family. Tora became the mother of both King Olav Kyrre and King Magnus II Haraldsson.
King Harald had previously married Elisaveta Yaroslavna during the winter of 1043–44. The prior marriage between Harald and Elisaveta is only documented by the court poet Stuv den Blinde (Stúfr inn Blindi Þórðarson Kattar). There are no other remaining documentation about her stay in Norway. It is therefore possible that Elisaveta stayed in Rus', or that she may have died on her way to Norway. However, that would mean that the daughters of Harald, Ingegerd and Maria, who are attributed to her, must have been Tora's. This is not considered likely, as Maria was engaged to Eystein Orre, who would have been her uncle had she been the daughter of Tora.It is therefore possible that Tora was Harald's concubine.
In 1066, Harald invaded England, where he died. Tradition says that Elisaveta and her daughters followed Harald to England, where Maria died, as it was said, at the news of her father's death. Afterward, Elisaveta and her second daughter Ingegerd returned to Norway with the Norwegian fleet. Elisaveta was to have stayed at the Orkney islands during this trip. However, the oldest of the sagas claim that it was Tora and not Elisaveta who accompanied Harald on the trip, which is considered more likely, as she was the cousin of Thorfinn Sigurdsson, Jarl of Orkney.
According to Adam of Bremen, the mother of King Olav Kyrre remarried either King Sweyn II of Denmark or an unnamed Swedish king (possibly King Haakon of Sweden) as a widow, but this is unconfirmed. It is also unknown whether this refers to the actual mother of Olav Kyrre, which would mean Tora Torbergsdatter, or his stepmother, which would mean Elisiv.
Olaf III, known as Olaf Kyrre, was king of Norway from 1067 until his death.
Magnus Haraldsson was King of Norway from 1066 to 1069, jointly with his brother Olaf Kyrre from 1067. He was not included in official Norwegian regnal lists until modern times, but has since been counted as Magnus II.
Haakon Magnusson, byname Toresfostre, was king of Norway from 1093 to 1095. Haakon was only partially recognized within Norway and his reign was thus of limited significance. He has generally not been counted in the numbered series of Norwegian kings.
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Erling Skjalgsson, på Sola, "Rygekongen", Herse/Høvding i Rogaland, was a Norwegian political leader of the late 10th and early 11th century. He has been commonly seen as this period's foremost defender of the historic Norwegian social system. Erling fought for the traditional small, autonomous kingdoms and the þing system, against the reformists of the Fairhair family line.
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Ingibiorg Finnsdottir was a daughter of Earl Finn Arnesson and Bergljot Halvdansdottir. She was also a niece of Kings Olaf II and Harald Hardraade of Norway. She is also known as Ingibiorg, the Earls'-Mother. The dates of her life are not known with certainty.
Finnr Árnason was a Norwegian nobleman and advisor to both King Olaf Haraldsson and King Harald III of Norway and later served King Sweyn II of Denmark. He was the feudal lord (lendmann) of Austrått.
Paul Thorfinnsson and Erlend Thorfinnsson were brothers who ruled together as Earls of Orkney. Paul and Erlend were the sons of Thorfinn Sigurdsson and Ingibiorg Finnsdottir. Through Ingibiorg's father Finn Arnesson and his wife, the family was related to the Norwegian Kings Olav II and Harald II. They are both described as "tall, handsome men, shrewd and gentle, taking rather more after their mother's side of the family. Their lives and times are recounted in the Orkneyinga Saga, which was first written down in the early 13th century by an unknown Icelandic author.
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The Hardrada dynasty was a powerful royal dynasty which ruled, at various times in history, the Kingdom of Norway, the Kingdom of Mann and the Isles, and the Earldom of Orkney.
Maria Haraldsdotter was a Norwegian princess, as the daughter of Harald Hardrada and Elisiv of Kiev. She is the first known Norwegian to have been named Maria.
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