Torbeno or Turbino was the eldest son and successor of Orzocorre I as Judge of Arborea from about 1100 until his death.
Orzocorre I was the Judge of Arborea from circa 1070 to circa 1100 and is the first ruler of Arborea about whom anything substantial is known. He was the founder of an Arborean dynasty which reigned until 1185. He succeeded Marianus I, about whose government nothing is known, though some presume that Orzocorre was his son. If true, this would make Orzocorre a member of the Thori family.
The Kings or Judges of the Arborea were the local rulers of the west of Sardinia during the Middle Ages. Theirs was the longest-lasting judgedom, surviving as an independent state until the fifteenth century.
His mother was Nivata or Nibatta or Nivatora. Torbeno himself married Anna de Lacon and was the father of Orzocorre II, who succeeded him.
Orzocorre II was the Judge of Arborea in Sardinia in the early twelfth century. He was the son and successor of Torbeno and Anna de Lacon.
Torbeno, with his son, signed a charter permitting his mother Nivata to dispose of the castles of Nuraghe Nigellu and Massone de Capras, which she had built, as she wished. She gave them to the Holy Roman Emperor, whom she states to have been Torbeno's suzerain, in perpetuity. According to another charter, which calls Torbeno "de Lacon" and his wife "de Zori," he purchased a red horse from Constantine "Dorrubu" (de Orrubu) at the cost of some slaves and some land in the vicinity of Nuraghe Nigello, which implies that perhaps Constantine was placed in charge of those places by Nivata. Some have supposed that this last charter was belonged to another Torbeno who was Judge of Arborea about the same time. Perhaps Orzocorre I was also called Torbeno.
The Holy Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. The title was, almost without interruption, held in conjunction with title of King of Germany throughout the 12th to 18th centuries.
Torbeno's charters are subscribed by the curators of Oristano, Valenza, Milis, Fortoriani (Fordongianos), and Usellus. The curator of Valenza was Comita of the powerful Lacon family to which Torbeno was related by marriage. The family was the most powerful in Sardinia at the time.
Oristano is an Italian city and comune, and capital of the Province of Oristano in the central-western part of the island of Sardinia. It is located on the northern part of the Campidano plain. It was established as the provincial capital on 16 July 1974. As of December 2017, the city had 31,671 inhabitants.
Valenza is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Alessandria in the Italian region Piedmont, located about 80 kilometres (50 mi) east of Turin and about 11 kilometres (7 mi) north of Alessandria.
Milis, Miris or Milis in sardinian language, is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Oristano in the Italian region Sardinia, located about 100 kilometres (62 mi) northwest of Cagliari and about 15 kilometres (9 mi) north of Oristano. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 1,704 and an area of 18.7 square kilometres (7.2 sq mi).
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The Judicate of Arborea was one of the four independent judicates into which the island of Sardinia was divided in the Middle Ages. It occupied the central-west portion of the island, wedged between Logudoro to the north and east, Cagliari to the south and east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the west. To the north east and beyond Logudoro was located Gallura, with which Arborea had far less interaction. Arborea outlasted her neighbours, surviving well into the 15th century. The earliest known judicial seat was Tharros. Kingdom of Arborea at the times of its maximum expansion occupied the whole island's territory, except the cities of Alghero and Cagliari.
Comita III was the giudice of Logudoro, with its capital at Torres, from 1198 until 1218. He was the youngest of four sons of Barisone II of Torres and Preziosa de Orrubu. He ruled at a time when the great families, usually foreign, were superseding the giudici in power and influence on Sardinia.
Comita II was the giudice of the Giudicato of Arborea, from 1131 until his death. He was the son of Constantine I of Arborea, first ruler of Arborea of the Lacon dynasty. Married Elena de Orrubu, mother of Barison II of Arborea. The dating and chronology of his reign are obscure.
William I, regnal name Salusio IV, was the Giudice of Cagliari, or high Judge, from 1188 to his death. His descendents and those of his immediate competitors intermarried to form the backbone of the Italian Aristocracy, and ultimately their descendents in the Medici clan are precursors to, and definers of later royalty and claims thereto.
Gonario II was the giudice of Logudoro from the death of his father to his own abdication in 1154. He was a son of Constantine I and Marcusa de Gunale. He was born between 1113 and 1114 according to later sources and the Camaldolese church of S. Trinità di Saccargia was founded in his name by his parents on 16 December 1112, though it wasn't consecrated until 5 October 1116.
Constantine III, possibly a son of Ittocorre, succeeded Comita Spanu as giudice of Gallura in 1146 and reigned until 1161, when he retired from the world as a monk. He was the first Gallurese ruler of the Lacon dynasty and was characterised by "nobility of mind."
Constantine I was the giudice of Cagliari. He was the son of the giudice Orzocco Torchitorio and giudicessa Vera. In the eleventh century, the throne of Cagliari traditionally passed between the houses of Torchitorio de Ugunale and Salusio de Lacon. Constantine took the name Salusio II upon his succession, in an attempt to unite the families. He appears in contemporary charters as rex et iudex Caralitanus: "King and Judge of Cagliari."
The Judicate of Cagliari was one of the four Sardinian judicates of the Middle Ages, kingdoms of Byzantine origins.
The kings or judges of Cagliari were the local rulers of the south of Sardinia during the Middle Ages. Theirs was the largest kingdom and for the eleventh through twelfth centuries contested the supremacy on the island with that of Logudoro. It was often an ally of the Republic of Pisa and an early supporter of Western monasticism.
The Judicate of Gallura was one of four Sardinian judicates in the Middle Ages. These were independent states whose rulers bore the title iudex, judge. Gallura, a name which comes from gallus, meaning rooster (cock), was subdivided into ten curatoriae governed by curatores under the judge. In the 13th century, the arms of Gallura contained a rooster.
Orzocorre Torchitorio I was the Judge of Cagliari from about 1058 to his death. At his time, the throne was customarily alternated between the Torchitorio de Ugunale and Salusio de Lacon families. Obviously, Torchitorio was of the former.
Gonario I Comita was the first known Giudice of Logudoro and Arborea from perhaps as early as the late tenth century and as late as circa 1038. It is possible that he was the father of Barison I of Logudoro and Orzocorre I of Arborea.
Elena was the daughter and successor of Barisone II of Gallura and was named after her mother of the Lacon family. First queen regnant in Sardinia, she ruled Gallura from the death of her father until her own death, though she was eclipsed by her husband after 1207.
Peter I, of the Serra family, was the eldest son and successor of Barisone II of Arborea, reigning from 1186 to his death. His mother was Barisone's first wife, Pellegrina de Lacon. He was crowned King of Sardinia, the title his father had used, with the support of a majority of the Arborean nobility.
Saltaro was the Judge of Gallura, located on the northeastern section of Sardinia, but the dates of his reign are unknown, as are his familial ties.
Torchitorio II, also known by his birth name as Marianus II and surnamed de Unali, was the Judge of Cagliari from circa 1102 to his death, but initially with opposition.
Torbeno or Turbino was briefly Judge of Cagliari after Constantine I for an unknown period between 1090, when Constantine last appears in the sources, and 1108, when Constantine's son Torchitorio II first appears as judge.