Torbeno of Cagliari

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Torbeno or Turbino (last mentioned 13 February 1130) was briefly Judge of Cagliari after Constantine I for an unknown period between 1090, when Constantine last appears in the sources, and 1108, when Constantine's son Torchitorio II first appears as judge.

Judge of Cagliari local rulers of the south of Sardinia during the Middle Ages

The kings or judges of Cagliari were the local rulers of the south of Sardinia during the Middle Ages. Theirs was the largest kingdom and for the eleventh through twelfth centuries contested the supremacy on the island with that of Logudoro. It was often an ally of the Republic of Pisa and an early supporter of Western monasticism.

Constantine I was the giudice of Cagliari. He was the son of the giudice Orzocco Torchitorio and giudicessa Vera. In the eleventh century, the throne of Cagliari traditionally passed between the houses of Torchitorio de Ugunale and Salusio de Lacon. Constantine took the name Salusio II upon his succession, in an attempt to unite the families. He appears in contemporary charters as rex et iudex Caralitanus: "King and Judge of Cagliari."

Torchitorio II, also known by his birth name as Marianus II and surnamed de Unali, was the Judge of Cagliari from circa 1102 to his death, but initially with opposition.

Torbeno subscribed to a diploma in 1089 as the brother of the judge, then Constantine. Thus, he reigned between his brother and his nephew. At that time, the principle of hereditary succession was not established in Sardinia. Rather, the monarchy was elective. It appears that Torbeno was elected, probably with the support of the Republic of Pisa, over the pretensions of his young nephew. His reign saw great liberality with the treasury in granting lands and other gifts to Pisans, probably as the price of their alliance. He also funded the construction of a new duomo (cathedral) at Pisa.

Sardinia Island in the Mediterranean and region of Italy

Sardinia is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. It is located west of the Italian Peninsula and to the immediate south of the French island of Corsica.

Republic of Pisa de facto independent state centered on the Tuscan city of Pisa during the late 10th and 11th centuries

The Republic of Pisa was a de facto independent state centered on the Tuscan city of Pisa during the late 10th and 11th centuries. It rose to become an economic powerhouse, a commercial center whose merchants dominated Mediterranean and Italian trade for a century before being surpassed and superseded by the Republic of Genoa. The power of Pisa as a mighty maritime nation began to grow and reached its apex in the 11th century when it acquired traditional fame as one of the four main historical Maritime Republics of Italy.

Pisa Comune in Tuscany, Italy

Pisa is a city and comune in Tuscany, central Italy, straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea. It is the capital city of the Province of Pisa. Although Pisa is known worldwide for its leaning tower, the city of over 91,104 residents contains more than 20 other historic churches, several medieval palaces, and various bridges across the Arno. Much of the city's architecture was financed from its history as one of the Italian maritime republics.

In 1103, a donation was made by his nephew, then judge, to the church of San Lorenzo in Genoa recognising the assistance of six Genoese galleys under Ottone Fornari in recuperating Torchitorio's dominion. Probably the Genoese, inveterate enemies of Pisa, were only too happy to overthrow Torbeno. Torbeno's last donation was dated to 1103.

Genoa Comune in Liguria, Italy

Genoa is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015, 594,733 people lived within the city's administrative limits. As of the 2011 Italian census, the Province of Genoa, which in 2015 became the Metropolitan City of Genoa, counted 855,834 resident persons. Over 1.5 million people live in the wider metropolitan area stretching along the Italian Riviera.

Nevertheless, Torbeno does appear in later acts of his nephews as a relative (consanguineus) of the judge. He was a leader, alongside Saltaro of Torres, of the Sardinian contingent of the Pisan expedition against the Almoravids of the Balearic Islands in 1113. On his return, he was compared to Nestor of Greek mythology.

Saltaro was the son of Constantine I of Logudoro. His mother is unknown, it may have been Marcusa. Whether or not he is the same person as the "Saltaro de Gunale" pretender to the throne of Logudoro in 1127 during the reign of Gonario II is unknown.

Balearic Islands Archipelago in the Mediterranean, autonomous community, and province of Spain

The Balearic Islands are an archipelago of Spain in the western Mediterranean Sea, near the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula.

Nestor (mythology) person from Greek mythology

Nestor of Gerenia was the wise King of Pylos described in Homer's Odyssey.


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