Torbeno or Turbino (last mentioned 13 February 1130) was briefly Judge of Cagliari after Constantine I for an unknown period between 1090, when Constantine last appears in the sources, and 1108, when Constantine's son Torchitorio II first appears as judge.
The kings or judges of Cagliari were the local rulers of the south of Sardinia during the Middle Ages. Theirs was the largest kingdom and for the eleventh through twelfth centuries contested the supremacy on the island with that of Logudoro. It was often an ally of the Republic of Pisa and an early supporter of Western monasticism.
Constantine I was the giudice of Cagliari. He was the son of the giudice Orzocco Torchitorio and giudicessa Vera. In the eleventh century, the throne of Cagliari traditionally passed between the houses of Torchitorio de Ugunale and Salusio de Lacon. Constantine took the name Salusio II upon his succession, in an attempt to unite the families. He appears in contemporary charters as rex et iudex Caralitanus: "King and Judge of Cagliari."
Torchitorio II, also known by his birth name as Marianus II and surnamed de Unali, was the Judge of Cagliari from circa 1102 to his death, but initially with opposition.
Torbeno subscribed to a diploma in 1089 as the brother of the judge, then Constantine. Thus, he reigned between his brother and his nephew. At that time, the principle of hereditary succession was not established in Sardinia. Rather, the monarchy was elective. It appears that Torbeno was elected, probably with the support of the Republic of Pisa, over the pretensions of his young nephew. His reign saw great liberality with the treasury in granting lands and other gifts to Pisans, probably as the price of their alliance. He also funded the construction of a new duomo (cathedral) at Pisa.
Sardinia is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. It is located west of the Italian Peninsula and to the immediate south of the French island of Corsica.
The Republic of Pisa was a de facto independent state centered on the Tuscan city of Pisa during the late 10th and 11th centuries. It rose to become an economic powerhouse, a commercial center whose merchants dominated Mediterranean and Italian trade for a century before being surpassed and superseded by the Republic of Genoa. The power of Pisa as a mighty maritime nation began to grow and reached its apex in the 11th century when it acquired traditional fame as one of the four main historical Maritime Republics of Italy.
Pisa is a city and comune in Tuscany, central Italy, straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea. It is the capital city of the Province of Pisa. Although Pisa is known worldwide for its leaning tower, the city of over 91,104 residents contains more than 20 other historic churches, several medieval palaces, and various bridges across the Arno. Much of the city's architecture was financed from its history as one of the Italian maritime republics.
In 1103, a donation was made by his nephew, then judge, to the church of San Lorenzo in Genoa recognising the assistance of six Genoese galleys under Ottone Fornari in recuperating Torchitorio's dominion. Probably the Genoese, inveterate enemies of Pisa, were only too happy to overthrow Torbeno. Torbeno's last donation was dated to 1103.
Genoa is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015, 594,733 people lived within the city's administrative limits. As of the 2011 Italian census, the Province of Genoa, which in 2015 became the Metropolitan City of Genoa, counted 855,834 resident persons. Over 1.5 million people live in the wider metropolitan area stretching along the Italian Riviera.
Nevertheless, Torbeno does appear in later acts of his nephews as a relative (consanguineus) of the judge. He was a leader, alongside Saltaro of Torres, of the Sardinian contingent of the Pisan expedition against the Almoravids of the Balearic Islands in 1113. On his return, he was compared to Nestor of Greek mythology.
Saltaro was the son of Constantine I of Logudoro. His mother is unknown, it may have been Marcusa. Whether or not he is the same person as the "Saltaro de Gunale" pretender to the throne of Logudoro in 1127 during the reign of Gonario II is unknown.
The Balearic Islands are an archipelago of Spain in the western Mediterranean Sea, near the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula.
Nestor of Gerenia was the wise King of Pylos described in Homer's Odyssey.
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Comita II was the giudice of the Giudicato of Arborea, from 1131 until his death. He was the son of Constantine I of Arborea, first ruler of Arborea of the Lacon dynasty. Married Elena de Orrubu, mother of Barison II of Arborea. The dating and chronology of his reign are obscure.
William I, regnal name Salusio IV, was the Giudice of Cagliari, or high Judge, from 1188 to his death. His descendents and those of his immediate competitors intermarried to form the backbone of the Italian Aristocracy, and ultimately their descendents in the Medici clan are precursors to, and definers of later royalty and claims thereto.
Constantine II was the giudice of Cagliari. He was called de Pluminus after his capital city.
The Judicate of Cagliari was one of the four Sardinian judicates of the Middle Ages, kingdoms of Byzantine origins.
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Orzocorre Torchitorio I was the Judge of Cagliari from about 1058 to his death. At his time, the throne was customarily alternated between the Torchitorio de Ugunale and Salusio de Lacon families. Obviously, Torchitorio was of the former.
Torchitorio V, born John and known as Chiano or Chianni, was the Giudice (Judge) of Cagliari from 1250 to his death. His reign was brief but transformative in the history of Sardinia.
Lamberto Visconti di Eldizio was the Judge of Gallura from 1206, when he married the heiress Elena, to his own death. He was a member of the Visconti family of Pisa and the first of that dynasty to rule in Sardinia, where they lasted in Gallura for almost another century.
Ittocorre or Ottocorre was the Judge of Gallura early in the 12th century. He is first mentioned in a donation charter of Padules de Gunale, the widow of Torchitorio de Zori in 1112, from which it is inferred that he succeeded Torchitorio as judge around the start of the 12th century.
William II Salusio V was the Judge of Cagliari from 1232 to his death. His Christian name was William, but his regnal name was Salusio, based on ancient Cagliaritan traditions which alternated their rulers between the forenames Torchitorio and Salusio. He would have been called Salusio in official documents, though he is known historically as William, after his grandfather, William I.
Ubaldo I Visconti was the de jure overlord of the Giudicato of Cagliari from 1217. He was a member of the Visconti family of Pisa, controlling Cagliari on behalf of his brother, who was judge jure uxoris from 1218.
William III, of the House of Massa, was the last Judge of Cagliari, ruling under the name Salusio VI from 1256 to his deposition in 1258. He is known also known as Guglielmo Cepolla or Cipolla.
Torchitorio III, born Peter, was the Judge of Cagliari from October 1163 to his deposition and arrest in 1188, after which he was never heard of again.
Torchitorio de Zori is the earliest Judge of Gallura known with certainty and attested by contemporary sources. He lived in the late 11th century at a time when Sardinia was entering the wider Western European scene for the first time in centuries. Like his contemporary judges, he patronised Western monasticism.
Saltaro was the Judge of Gallura, located on the northeastern section of Sardinia, but the dates of his reign are unknown, as are his familial ties.
Orzocorre I was the Judge of Arborea from circa 1070 to circa 1100 and is the first ruler of Arborea about whom anything substantial is known. He was the founder of an Arborean dynasty which reigned until 1185. He succeeded Marianus I, about whose government nothing is known, though some presume that Orzocorre was his son. If true, this would make Orzocorre a member of the Thori family.