The Turgai River (also Torgai or Turgay; Kazakh : Торғай, Torǵaı; Russian : Тургай) is a river that flows in the Turgai Valley in Kazakhstan.
Kazakh or Kazak, belongs to the Kipchak branch of the Turkic languages. It is closely related to Nogai, Kyrgyz and Karakalpak. Kazakh is the official language of the Republic of Kazakhstan and a significant minority language in the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture in Xinjiang, China and in the Bayan-Ölgii Province of Mongolia. Kazakh is also spoken by many ethnic Kazakhs through the former Soviet Union, Afghanistan, Iran, Turkey and Germany.
Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.
Kazakhstan, officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of 2,724,900 square kilometres (1,052,100 sq mi). It is a transcontinental country largely located in Asia; the most western parts are in Europe. Kazakhstan is the dominant nation of Central Asia economically, generating 60% of the region's GDP, primarily through its oil and gas industry. It also has vast mineral resources.
The river is 825 km (513 mi) long, the surface of the drainage basin is 157,000 km2 (61,000 sq mi). Average water consumption is around 9 cubic meters/second. The Turgai disappears in the endorheic basin of Shalkarteniz.
An endorheic basin is a limited drainage basin that normally retains water and allows no outflow to other external bodies of water, such as rivers or oceans, but converges instead into lakes or swamps, permanent or seasonal, that equilibrate through evaporation. Such a basin may also be referred to as a closed or terminal basin or as an internal drainage system or interior drainage basin.
The valley occupies an erosion-tectonic basin in north-western Kazakhstan, between the Urals and Mugodzhar Hills in the west and the Kazakh Steppe in the east. In the north are dry steppes with semi-steppes in the south. Deposits of iron ore and other minerals occur in the basin.
Mugodzhar Hills or Mugodzhar Range is a series of mountain ranges 275 miles (440 km) long in the Aktobe Region of northwestern Kazakhstan. They are considered to be a continuation of Ural Mountains and connected with Southern Ural by Guberlinskiy hillocks. They form the divide between the Caspian Sea and Aral Sea basins.
The Kazakh Steppe, also called the Great Dala, ecoregion, of the Palearctic temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome, is a vast region of open grassland in northern Kazakhstan and adjacent portions of Russia, extending to the east of the Pontic steppe and to the west of the Emin Valley steppe, with which it forms part of the Eurasian steppe. Before the mid-nineteenth century it was called the Kirghiz steppe, 'Kirghiz' being an old name for the Kazakhs.
The Turgai Plateau crosses from south to north. The Thurgau Ubahan (tributary of the Tobol) along with all the rivers of in the Turgai valley have many lakes. This is where the Naurzumskyy reserve is located which connects the West Siberian Plain in the northern part of Kazakhstan Turan lowland.
The Irtysh River is a river in Russia, China, and Kazakhstan. It is the chief tributary of the Ob River.
Ili or Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture in northernmost Xinjiang is the only Kazakh autonomous prefecture in China.
Tobol is a river and the main tributary of the Irtysh. Its length is 1,660 km (1,030 mi), and the area of its drainage basin is 395,000 km2 (153,000 sq mi).
The West Siberian Plain, also known as Zapadno-sibirskaya Ravnina, is a large plain that occupies the western portion of Siberia, between the Ural Mountains in the west and the Yenisei River in the east, and by the Altay Mountains on the southeast. Much of the plain is poorly drained and consists of some of the world's largest swamps and floodplains. Important cities include Omsk, Novosibirsk, Tomsk and Chelyabinsk.
The Ili River is a river situated in northwestern China and southeastern Kazakhstan. It flows from the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture of the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region to the Almaty Region in Kazakhstan.
Zhetysu or Semirechye is a historical name of a part of Central Asia, corresponding to the southeastern part of modern Kazakhstan. It owes its name, meaning "seven rivers" in Kazakh and Persian, to the rivers which flow from the south-east into Lake Balkhash.
The Ilek River is a steppe river at the southern end of the Ural Mountains. It is a tributary of the Ural River and lies in Orenburg Oblast in Russia and Republic of Kazakhstan. It rises just south of Orsk, flows south a short distance and then flows westward south of and parallel to the Ural River, with many meanders and oxbow lakes, and joins the Ural about 75 kilometres (47 mi) west of Orenburg. Two main cities lie on the banks of the Ilek River: Sol-Iletsk and Aqtöbe. The Ilek River remains the most polluted water body in the Ural-Caspian basin. The content of boron and chromium in the river is caused by the tailing ponds of former chemical plants via ground water. The quality class of water in the Ilek River changes from 4 – “polluted water” to 6 – “very polluted water”. A further tributary of the Ilek River is the Bolshaya Chobda. It is also of archeological significance since it has been discovered as the site of certain Kurgan (Indo-European) burials..
Jambyl Region is a region of Kazakhstan. Its capital is Taraz. The population of the region is 1,000,000; the city is 335,100. The region borders Kyrgyzstan, and is very near to Uzbekistan. Jambyl also borders three other provinces: Karaganda Region, Turkistan Region and Almaty Region. The total area is 144,200 square kilometres (55,700 sq mi). The province borders Lake Balkhash to its northeast. The province was named after the Kazakh akyn Jambyl Jabayev.
The Turgay Plateau is a plateau in north-west Kazakhstan, central Asia. It lies 200–300 m above sea level.
The Eurasian Steppe, also called the Great Steppe or the steppes, is the vast steppe ecoregion of Eurasia in the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome. It stretches from Bulgaria, Romania and Moldova through Ukraine, Russia, Kazakhstan, Xinjiang, and Mongolia to Manchuria, with one major exclave, the Pannonian steppe or Puszta, located mostly in Hungary and partially in Serbia and Croatia.
Kostanay Region is a region of Kazakhstan. Its administrative center is the city of Kostanay. The population of the region is 900,300. The population living in Kostanay is 207,000 which is equivalent to 23% of the region.
The Bolshoy Uzen is a river in Saratov Oblast of Russia and West Kazakhstan Province of Kazakhstan. It is 650 kilometres (400 mi) long, with a drainage basin of 15,600 square kilometres (6,000 sq mi).
Maly Uzen is a river in Saratov Oblast of Russia and West Kazakhstan Province of Kazakhstan. It is 638 kilometres (396 mi) long, with a drainage basin of 18,250 square kilometres (7,050 sq mi).
The Irgiz is a 593-kilometre (368 mi) long river in Aktobe and Kostanay regions of Kazakhstan, a right tributary of the Turgai River.
South Central Siberia is a geographical region north of the point where Russia, China, Kazakhstan and Mongolia come together.
The Ubagan River is a river of Kazakhstan and Russia, a right tributary of the Tobol River. It has a length of 376 km (234 mi), and a catchment area of 50,700 km2 (19,600 sq mi), with water supplied by melting snow. In the summer the water is brackish.
The Nura River is a major watercourse of northeast-central Kazakhstan. It is about 978 kilometres (608 mi) long and drains an area of 58,100 square kilometres (22,400 sq mi).
Below is the list of Kazakhstan related articles.
The Kazakh forest steppe ecoregion is a long thin strip of transition zone between the forested taiga of Siberia, and the Kazakh steppe to the south. The ecoregion stretches over 2,000 km from the southern Ural mountains in the west to the foothills of Altai mountains in the east, yet averages only 200 km from south to north across its length. Because the region is farther inland that European forest steppe, and some 300 to 500 km farther north, the climate is more continental and with less precipitation the tree cover more sparse. The ecoregion is in the Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome, and the Palearctic ecozone, with a Humid Continental climate. It covers 420,614 km2 (162,400 sq mi).
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.
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