|Native name: |
|Area||4.79 km2 (1.85 sq mi)|
|Coastline||6.5 km (4.04 mi)|
|Highest elevation||394 m (1293 ft)|
Tori-shima (Japanese: 鳥島, Hepburn: Tori-shima or Izu-no-Tori-shima) 'Bird Island', is an uninhabited Japanese island in the Pacific Ocean. The volcanic island is part of the Izu Islands.
Tori-shima is located in the Philippine Sea approximately 600 km (373 mi) south of Tokyo and 76 km (47 mi) north of Lot's Wife. The roughly circular-shaped island is listed as a Class A active volcano by the Japan Meteorological Agency. The island is the above-water portion of a submarine volcano, whose submerged caldera portion to the north of the island continues to erupt underwater. Volcanic activity on the island itself was last recorded in 2002, accompanied by earthquake swarms. The main peak on the island, Io-zan (硫黄山) has a height of 394 m (1,293 ft), and the island has a circumference of 6.5 km (4.0 mi). The total area of the island is 4.79 km2 (1.85 sq mi).
Tori-shima was known to Japanese fishermen and mariners since at least the early Edo period, but was uninhabited aside from occasional shipwreck survivors. In 1841, 14-year-old Nakahama Manjirō and four friends were shipwrecked on Tori-shima until rescued by the American whaleship John Howland commanded by William H. Whitfield. Japanese writer Akira Yoshimura researched and wrote about 15 similar instances. The island was settled in Meiji period, with the primary economic activity being the gathering of guano from the abundant short-tailed albatross, who use the island as their nesting grounds. A major volcanic eruption was recorded in 1871. The island was administratively grouped with the Ogasawara islands in August 1898, but was transferred to the administration of Hachijojima in April 1901. The population of 150 inhabitants was killed by the major volcanic eruption of 1902.Torishima was never repopulated.
Since the 1930s, the Yamashina Institute for Ornithology has taken a very active role in researching and attempting to preserve the local seabird species, especially the short-tailed albatross, which had been reduced to an estimated 50 birds by 1933. The Japan Meteorological Agency established a weather station and volcanic research station on the island in 1947, but this was abandoned in 1965 due to volcanic activity and earthquakes. On November 1, 1954 Tori-shima was proclaimed a protected bird sanctuary. This designation was increased to that of a protected national Natural monument on May 10, 1965. It can only be visited by research scientists with special permission, and landing on the island is very difficult due to heavy seas and lack of suitable landing beaches or facilities. Tour boats which take people around the island to view the birds are popular, but these tours are not permitted to land on the island. Researchers normally travel to the island by chartered government helicopter.
Tori-shima, along with the other Izu Islands, is officially part of Tokyo Metropolis, and also falls within the borders of the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park.
Repeated volcanic eruptions in 1939 and 2002 have set the flora on Tori-shima back to initial stages in the ecological succession. Plants such as Vitex rotundifolia and hydrangea are found near the shoreline, and Chrysanthemum pacificum and Japanese black pine in sheltered areas inland, but most of the central portion of the island remains as volcanic ash and rock.
The island is home to several tens of thousands of breeding pairs of Tristram's storm petrel and other birds such as Japanese murrelet, black-footed albatross, common kestrel and blue rock thrush, but the short-tailed albatross population has been very slow to recover, with recovery hampered by the presence of large numbers of black rats, the only remaining mammal on the island. Humpback whales and dolphins often appear around the island during migration and breeding seasons.Tori-shima is the primary and one of only two remaining breeding sites for the Short-tailed albatross. The island has been recognised as an Important Bird Area (IBA) by BirdLife International.
Minami-Tori-shima, also known as Marcus Island, is an isolated Japanese coral atoll in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, located some 1,848 kilometers (1,148 mi) southeast of Tokyo and 1,267 km (787 mi) east of the closest Japanese island, South Iwo Jima of the Ogasawara Islands, and nearly on a straight line between mainland Tokyo and Wake Island, 1,415 km (879 mi) further to the east-southeast. The closest island to Minami-Tori-shima is East Island in the Mariana Islands, which is 1,015 km (631 mi) to the west-southwest.
The Volcano Islands or Iwo Islands are a group of three Japanese islands south of the Ogasawara Islands that belong to the municipality of Ogasawara, Tokyo Metropolis, Japan. The islands are all active volcanoes lying atop an island arc that stretches south to the Marianas. They have an area of 32.55 square kilometres (12.57 sq mi), and a population of 380. The island of Iwo Jima in the Volcano Islands lies about 1,240 kilometres (770 mi) southeast of Miyazaki.
Ogasawara is a village in Ogasawara Subprefecture, Tokyo Metropolis, Japan, that governs the Bonin Islands, Volcano Islands, and three remote islands.
The Izu Islands, formerly the De Vries Archipelago, are a group of volcanic islands stretching south and east from the Izu Peninsula of Honshū, Japan. Administratively, they form two towns and six villages; all part of Tokyo Prefecture. The largest is Izu Ōshima, usually called simply Ōshima.
Sakurajima is an active stratovolcano, formerly an island and now a peninsula, in Kagoshima Prefecture in Kyushu, Japan. The lava flows of the 1914 eruption connected it with the Ōsumi Peninsula. It is the most active volcano in Japan.
Nii-jima (新島) is a volcanic Japanese island administered by Tokyo Metropolitan Government. It is one of the Izu Seven Islands group of the seven northern islands of the Izu archipelago, and is located approximately 163 kilometres (101 mi) south of Tōkyō and 36 kilometres (22 mi) south of Shimoda Shizuoka Prefecture. The island is the larger inhabited component of the village of Niijima Village, Ōshima Subprefecture of Tokyo Metropolis, which also contains the neighboring island of Shikine-jima and the smaller, uninhabited Jinai-tō. Nii-jima is also within the boundaries of the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park.
Kōzu-shima (神津島) is a volcanic Japanese island in the Philippine Sea. The island is administered by Tōkyō and located approximately 30 kilometres (19 mi) northwest of the Miyake-jima and 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) southwest of the Nii-jima. It is one of the Izu Seven Islands group of the seven northern islands of the Izu archipelago. Kōzushima is administratively part of Kōzushima Village under Ōshima Subprefecture of Tokyo Metropolis. As of 2017, the island's population was 1,952. Kōzushima is also within the boundaries of the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park.
Miyake-jima is an inhabited volcanic island in the Izu archipelago in the Philippine Sea approximately 180 kilometers (110 mi) southeast of Tokyo, Japan. As with the other islands in the Izu Island group, Miyake-jima forms part of the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park.
Hachijō-jima (八丈島) is a volcanic Japanese island in the Philippine Sea. It is about 287 kilometres (178 mi) south of the special wards of Tokyo, to which it belongs. It is part of the Izu archipelago and within the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park. Its only municipality is Hachijō. On 1 March 2018, its population was 7,522 people living on 63 km2. The Hachijō language is spoken by some inhabitants, but it is considered an endangered language and the number of speakers is unknown. The island has been inhabited since the Jōmon period, and was used as a place of exile during the Edo period. In modern times, it has been used for farming sugarcane and housing a secret submarine base during World War II; it is now a tourist destination within Japan.
The short-tailed albatross or Steller's albatross is a large rare seabird from the North Pacific. Although related to the other North Pacific albatrosses, it also exhibits behavioural and morphological links to the albatrosses of the Southern Ocean. It was described by the German naturalist Peter Simon Pallas from skins collected by Georg Wilhelm Steller. Once common, it was brought to the edge of extinction by the trade in feathers, but with protection has recently made a recovery.
Izu Ōshima is an inhabited volcanic island in the Izu archipelago in the Philippine Sea, off the coast of Honshu, Japan, 22 km (14 mi) east of the Izu Peninsula and 36 km (22 mi) southwest of Bōsō Peninsula. As with the other islands in the Izu Island group, Izu Ōshima forms part of the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park. Izu Ōshima, at 91.06 km² is the largest and closest of Tokyo's outlying islands, which also include the Ogasawara Islands.
Toshima is a village located in Ōshima Subprefecture, Tokyo Metropolis, Japan. The village comprises the whole of To-shima Island.
Mikura-jima (御蔵島) is a volcanic Japanese island in the Pacific Ocean. The island is administered by Tōkyō Metropolis and located approximately 200 kilometres (120 mi) south of Tokyo and 19 kilometres (12 mi) south-southeast of Miyake-shima. It is one of the Izu Seven Islands group of the seven northern islands of the Izu archipelago. Mikurashima is administratively part of Mikurashima Village under Miyake Subprefecture of Tokyo Metropolis. As of 2009, the island's population was 351. Mikura-shima is also within the boundaries of the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park.
Aogashima (青ヶ島) is a volcanic Japanese island in the Philippine Sea. The island is administered by Tokyo and is approximately 358 kilometres (222 mi) south of Tokyo and 64 kilometres (40 mi) south of Hachijō-jima. It is the southernmost and most isolated inhabited island of the Izu archipelago.
Torishima, Tori-shima or Tori Shima, is a Japanese toponym or personal surname. Most versions of the name have the meaning Bird Island, with some exceptions.
Ogasawara Subprefecture is a subprefecture of Tokyo Metropolis, Japan. The subprefecture covers the Bonin Islands and is coterminous with the village of Ogasawara; and the prefectural government maintains a main office on Chichijima and a branch office on Hahajima.
Ōshima (大島) is an uninhabited island in the Sea of Japan, 50 kilometers (31 mi) to the west from Matsumae town and therefore the westernmost point of Hokkaido. It is part of the town of Matsumae in Oshima Subprefecture in Hokkaido, Japan. To distinguish Ōshima from other islands with the same name, it is sometimes known as Oshima Ōshima (渡島大島) or Matsumae Ōshima (松前大島).
Nishi-no-shima is a volcanic island located around 940 km (584 mi) south-southeast of Tokyo, that is part of the Volcano Islands arc.
Iōtorishima or Iwo Tori-shima, or Okinawa Torishima is a volcanic island part of the Ryūkyū Island chain with the only active volcano in Okinawa Prefecture.
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