Torimono sandōgu

Last updated
Torimono sandogu (three tools of arresting), weapons for capturing suspected criminals (from left) tsukubo, sodegarami, sasumata. Torimono sandogu (tools for capturing criminals).jpg
Torimono sandōgu (three tools of arresting), weapons for capturing suspected criminals (from left) tsukubo, sodegarami, sasumata .

The torimono sandōgu (also torimono hogu or mitsu dogu) [1] [2] were known as the three tools of arresting. [3] The torimono sandōgu were three types of pole weapons used by the samurai class and their retainers in feudal Japan during the Edo period. [4]

Contents

History

In Edo period Japan the samurai were in charge of police operations; various levels of samurai police with help from non-samurai commoners used many types of non lethal weapons in order to capture suspected criminals for trial. The torimono sandōgu was part of the six tools of the police station (bansho rokugin or keigo roku-go), [5] these were the kanamuchi, kiriko no bo, tetto, sodegarami, tsukubo, and the sasumata. [6] Samurai police were required to have these six tools or weapons on hand to effectively deal with disturbances. The torimono sandōgu were symbols of office and were often displayed in front of police checkpoints or used in processions, especially while convicted prisoners were being led to their execution. [7]

Description and use

The torimono sandōgu consisted of the sodegarami (sleeve entangler), sasumata (spear fork) and tsukubo (push pole). [8] All three implements were mounted on long hardwood poles usually around 2 meters in length, sharp metal barbs or spines attached to metal strips covered one end of these implements to keep the person being captured from grabbing the pole. The opposite end of the pole would have a metal cap, or ishizuki like those found on naginata and other pole weapons. Torimono sandōgu implements were designed to entangle, restrain and obstruct criminals rather than injure them. [9] [10]

See also

Related Research Articles

<i>Wakizashi</i> Shorter sword in a daishō (Japanese)

The wakizashi is one of the traditionally made Japanese swords (nihontō) worn by the samurai in feudal Japan.

<i>Shuriken</i> Throwable Japanese concealed weapon

A shuriken is a Japanese concealed weapon that was used as a hidden dagger or metsubushi to distract or misdirect.

<i>Yari</i> Japanese straight-headed spear

Yari (槍) is the term for a traditionally-made Japanese blade (nihonto) in the form of a spear, or more specifically, the straight-headed spear. The martial art of wielding the yari is called sōjutsu.

Shurikenjutsu class of Japanese martial arts

Shurikenjutsu (手裏剣術) is a general term describing the traditional Japanese martial arts of throwing shuriken, which are small, hand-held weapons used primarily by the Samurai in feudal Japan, such as metal spikes bō shuriken, circular plates of metal known as hira shuriken, and knives (tantō).

<i>Jitte</i> blunt instrument

A jitte or jutte is a specialized weapon that was used by police in Edo period Japan.

Metsuke (目付) were the censors or the inspectors of Tokugawa Japan. They were bakufu officials ranking somewhat lower than the bugyō. The metsuke were charged with the special duty of detecting and investigating instances of maladministration, corruption or disaffection anywhere in Japan; and particularly amongst the populace having status below the daimyō.

The Kabutowari, also known as hachiwari, was a type of knife-shaped weapon, resembling a jitte in many respects. This weapon was carried as a side-arm by the samurai class of feudal Japan.

Yoriki (与力) were members of the samurai class of feudal Japan. Yoriki literally means helper or assistant.

The tekkan, also known as tetsu-ken or tetto, is a Japanese weapon that was used during the Edo period until the beginning of the 20th century. It was an iron truncheon; it could closely resemble a wakizashi-sized sword with a blunt iron blade, or it could be a cast-iron version of a kabutowari.

<i>Sasumata</i> Japanese pole weapon

The sasumata is a pole weapon used by the samurai class and their retainers in feudal Japan.

<i>Tsukubō</i> Japanese pole weapon

The tsukubō (突棒) was a pole weapon used by the samurai class and their retainers in feudal Japan.

<i>Sodegarami</i> Japanese pole weapon

The sodegarami is a pole weapon that was used by the samurai class and their retainers in feudal Japan.

Machi-bugyō were samurai officials of the Tokugawa shogunate in Edo period Japan, this was amongst the senior administrative posts open to those who were not daimyō. Conventional interpretations have construed these Japanese titles as "commissioner" or "overseer" or "governor".

A katana is a Japanese sword characterized by a curved, single-edged blade with a circular or squared guard and long grip to accommodate two hands. It was used by the samurai of ancient and feudal Japan.

Kyoto machi-bugyō (京都町奉行) were officials of the Tokugawa shogunate in Edo period Japan. Appointments to this prominent office were usually fudaidaimyō, but this was amongst the senior administrative posts open to those who were not daimyō. Conventional interpretations have construed these Japanese titles as "commissioner", "overseer" or "governor."

Osaka machi-bugyō were officials of the Tokugawa shogunate in Edo period Japan. Appointments to this prominent office were usually fudai daimyō, but this was amongst the senior administrative posts open to those who were not daimyō. Conventional interpretations have construed these Japanese titles as "commissioner" or "overseer" or "governor".

Edo machi-bugyō (江戸町奉行) were magistrates or municipal administrators with responsibility for governing and maintaining order in the shogunal city of Edo. Machi-bugyō were samurai officials of the Tokugawa shogunate in Edo period Japan. Appointments to this prominent office were usually hatamoto, this was amongst the senior administrative posts open to those who were not daimyōs. Conventional interpretations have construed these Japanese titles as "commissioner", "overseer" or "governor."

Taiho-jutsu (逮捕術) is a term for martial arts developed by Japan’s feudal police to arrest dangerous criminals, who were usually armed and frequently desperate. While many taiho-jutsu methods originated from the classical Japanese schools of kenjutsu (swordsmanship) and jūjutsu, the goal of the feudal police officers was to capture lawbreakers alive and without injury. Thus, they often used specialized implements and unarmed techniques intended to pacify or disable suspects rather than employing more lethal means.

<i>Kusari</i> (Japanese mail armour) Japanese chainmail armor

Kusari gusoku (鎖具足) is the Japanese term for mail armour. Kusari is a type of armour used by the samurai class and their retainers in feudal Japan. When the word kusari is used in conjunction with an armoured item it usually means that the kusari makes up the majority of the armour defence.

Edo period police

In feudal Japan, individual military and citizens groups were primarily responsible for self-defense until the unification of Japan by Tokugawa Ieyasu in 1603. During the Edo period (1603–1868), the Tokugawa shogunate formed a centralized feudal government. Samurai warriors who once protected Japan from foreign enemies and fought each other for supremacy became the new police and internal security force. Their new job would be to ensure civil peace, which they accomplished for over 250 years.

References

  1. Breaking barriers: travel and the state in early modern Japan, Volume 163 of Harvard East Asian monographs, Constantine Nomikos Vaporis, Publisher Harvard Univ Asia Center, 1994 ISBN   9780674081079, p.11
  2. Pauley's Guide - A Dictionary of Japanese Martial Arts and Culture, Daniel C. Pauley, 2009 P.116
  3. Taiho-jutsu: law and order in the age of the samurai, Don Cunningham, Tuttle Martial Arts, Tuttle Publishing, 2004 ISBN   978-0-8048-3536-7, P.93-100
  4. Mol, Serge; Classical weaponry of Japan: special weapons and tactics of the martial arts, Kodansha International, 2003, p.126
  5. Taiho-jutsu: law and order in the age of the samurai, Don Cunningham, Tuttle Martial Arts, Tuttle Publishing, 2004 ISBN   978-0-8048-3536-7, P.93-100
  6. Classical weaponry of Japan: special weapons and tactics of the martial arts, Author Serge Mol, Publisher Kodansha International, 2003, ISBN   978-4-7700-2941-6, P.206
  7. Taiho-jutsu: law and order in the age of the samurai, Don Cunningham, Tuttle Martial Arts, Tuttle Publishing, 2004 ISBN   978-0-8048-3536-7, P.93-100
  8. Pauley, Daniel C.; Pauley's Guide - A Dictionary of Japanese Martial Arts and Culture Samantha Pauley, 2009, p112
  9. Taiho-jutsu: law and order in the age of the samurai, Don Cunningham, Tuttle Martial Arts, Tuttle Publishing, 2004 ISBN   978-0-8048-3536-7, P.93-100
  10. Russo-Japanese war, Volume 3, Russo-Japanese War, Publisher Kinkodo pub. co., 1905, Original from the New York Public Library P.854