Tornado outbreak of April 27–29, 1912

Last updated
April 27–28, 1912 tornado outbreak
TypeTornado outbreak
DurationApril 27–28, 1912
Tornadoes confirmed26
Max rating1 F4 tornado
Duration of tornado outbreak2Approximately 24 hours
Fatalities≥45 fatalities, ≥167 injuries
1Most severe tornado damage; see Fujita scale 2Time from first tornado to last tornado

The April 27–28, 1912 tornado outbreak was a major tornado outbreak. At least six violent tornadoes touched down throughout Oklahoma, with near constant activity until early the next day. At least 15 cities were affected. 40 people died, and 120 injured. [1]

A tornado outbreak is the occurrence of multiple tornadoes spawned by the same synoptic scale weather system. The number of tornadoes required to qualify as an outbreak typically are at least six to ten.


Meteorological synopsis

Limited weather data was collected and recorded at that time in Oklahoma. Predating upper atmospheric measurements, most data collection was of human observations, along with temperature, pressure, wind speed and direction, and rainfall. [1]

A cold front moved south through Oklahoma into Texas on April 26, before stalling in central Texas, leaving a southwest/northeast stationary front. Early on the 28th, it pushed back northward against a warm front to the east. The warm front was noted to have moved from the southeast on the 27th to the northeast on the 28th; it was this movement of warm air against the cold front over that that fueled the storms that provided the tornado activity. [1]


≥ 26?1110680

April 27

List of confirmed tornadoes – April 27, 1912 [nb 1]

0006670≥ 19
Deaths: 36Injuries: 128
F# LocationCounty / ParishStateTime (UTC)Path lengthMax widthDamage [nb 2] Summary
F4SE of Kirkland, Texas to N of Eldorado, Oklahoma Childress (TX), Hardeman (TX), Jackson (OK) TX, OK 163040 miles (64 km)0.5 mi (800 m)$77,0005 deaths – This major, long-tracked tornado killed five people and injured 20 others in Texas; four of the deaths were in one family as their home was swept away. 30 homes were damaged or destroyed in both states, with $12,000 losses near Eldorado and $65,000 losses in Texas. The tornado struck 43 farms in its path. [2]
F2 Warren Jackson OK 1815unknownunknownunknownTornado hit Warren around noon CST. [3] Details are unavailable. [4]
F4SE of Granite to Lugert to NW of Hobart Greer, Kiowa OK 183040 miles (64 km)0.5 mi (800 m)$300,000 [5] 7+ deaths – Nearly all buildings (except two) were leveled in Lugert, where a mother and her daughter died. The tornado transported papers 75 mi (121 km) away. The tornado caused three (possibly five) deaths and killed 100 or more cattle near of Hobart. [3] [4]
F3 Rocky area Washita OK 191520 miles (32 km)0.5 mi (800 m)unknownA tornado destroyed about 50 homes, a school, and 10 barns as it hit Rocky. The tornado began 5 mi (8.0 km) southwest of town and ended 15 mi (24 km) northeast of town. [3] [4] [5]
F2 Corn area Washita OK 1950about 10 miles (16 km)unknownunknown4 deaths – Tornado hit Corn, then called Korn until World War I, and the nearby "Korn Valley", where four people died. [3] No other information available. [4] Counted by Grazulis as part of the next tornado, below, [3] but more recent research has shown this to have been a separate tornado. [4]
F4W of Colony to S of Geary Washita, Caddo, Blaine OK 200027 miles (43 km)0.5 mi (800 m)$5,000 [5] 2 deaths [4] – This large and powerful tornado devastated farms across Caddo County. [3]
F3W of Altus to W of Blair Jackson OK 203011 miles (18 km)250 yd (230 m)$19,000 [5] This tornado devastated about 12 farms near Martha. One person was injured. [3] [5]
F3SW of Hinton to Calumet to NW of El Reno Caddo, Canadian OK 210023 miles (37 km)400 yd (370 m)$125,000 [5] 3+ deaths – This strong tornado hit the towns of Hinton and Calumet. 26 structures were destroyed in Calumet, where three people died. Four others may have been killed in Hinton. A sign from Hinton was found to have been carried north of Calumet. [3]
F4S of Bartley to Cambridge area Red Willow, Furnas NE 220010 miles (16 km)unknownunknownA tornado destroyed three homes and obliterated at least five barns. An entire farmsite was swept clean of all buildings. Four people survived the tornado in an orchard, but with injuries. [3]
F4E of Erick to E of Sayre to Elk City Beckham OK 224523 miles (37 km)150 yd (140 m)unknown2 deaths – A tornado destroyed 35 buildings and killed 15 livestock. [5] Two people died near Sayre as the tornado destroyed 11 homes. Five funnel clouds were observed along the path of the storm, and debris from homes was strewn for miles. [3]
F4W of Foss to Butler Washita, Custer OK 003020 miles (32 km)150 yd (140 m)$50,000 [5] 6 deaths – This tornado destroyed the town of Foss and the east side of Butler. [3] [5] [6] The tornado destroyed 32 homes in Butler. Debris from the town was found in Putnam, 15 mi (24 km) to the northeast. [3]
F3SW of Speer to S of Dela Choctaw OK 00307 miles (11 km)167 yd (153 m)unknown1 death, 3 injuries – Details are unknown. [4]
F2 Granite Greer OK 02208 miles (13 km)unknownunknownDetails are unknown. [4]
F3NW of Stratford to SE of Butler Custer OK 02305 miles (8.0 km)unknown$50,000 [5] 1 death – A tornado damaged or destroyed eight farmhouses. [3]
F4NW of Hobart to Sentinel to NW of Cordell Kiowa, Washita OK 024520 miles (32 km)600 yd (550 m)$75,000 [3] 4 deaths – A violent tornado damaged or destroyed about 60 homes in Sentinel, mostly in the western half of the town. There were no injuries as the entire population had seen the funnel approaching 15 minutes in advance. [3] Two people died on a farm southwest of Sentinel. The tornado then continued to the northwest edge of Cordell, destroying six more homes, killing two people before turning east and dissipating. [3]
F3S of Granite to N of Lone Wolf Greer, Kiowa OK 024512 miles (19 km)unknownunknown1 death – A tornado destroyed buildings and farmhouses on at least 14 farms. [3]
F2 Crescent/Mulhall areas Logan OK 05455 miles (8.0 km)unknownunknownA tornado destroyed at least two homes. Two people may have been crushed to death in a storm cave. [3]
F2W of Butler Custer OK 0545unknownunknownunknownA tornado destroyed several barns. [3]
F2E of Cashion to Cedar Valley Logan OK 0555 [4] 5 miles (8.0 km)unknownunknownA tornado destroyed a home and a barn 8 mi (13 km) southwest of Guthrie. [3]

April 28

List of confirmed tornadoes – April 28, 1912 [nb 1]

0113010≥ 6
Deaths: 6Injuries: 24
F# LocationCounty / ParishStateTime (UTC)Path lengthMax widthDamage [nb 2] Summary
F0+SE of Hobart Kiowa OK ~0730 [5] unknownunknownunknownDetails are unknown. [4]
F2SW of Sallisaw Sequoyah OK 0830 [4] 10 miles (16 km)unknownunknownA tornado destroyed six homes. [3]
F2N of Marble to E of Bunch Sequoyah, Adair OK 083012 miles (19 km)unknownunknown2 deaths, 4 injuries – Details are unknown. [4]
F2N of Bono to S of Joshua Johnson TX 17005 miles (8.0 km)50 yd (46 m)unknownA tornado destroyed small homes and barns. [3]
F4SSW of Henderson to S of Church Hill to Tatum area Rusk, Panola TX 193030 miles (48 km)200 yd (180 m)unknown4 deaths – A long-tracked tornado destroyed 30 or more homes in six communities. It destroyed a brick home, killing a man inside. Two people were thrown 500 yd (460 m) as well. Downburst damage occurred in Tatum. [3]
F1 Fouke, Arkansas area Cass TX 0100unknownunknownunknown2 deaths – A tornado occurred 12 mi (19 km) south of Texarkana, felling a tree that killed two women. [3]

April 29

List of confirmed tornadoes – April 29, 1912 [nb 1]

0001000≥ 1
Deaths: 3Injuries: 15
F# LocationCounty / ParishStateTime (UTC)Path lengthMax widthDamage [nb 2] Summary
F2S of Liddieville to N of Winnsboro Franklin LA unknown10 miles (16 km)400 yd (370 m)unknown3 deaths – A tornado destroyed many homes and much timber. [3]

See also

The April 20–22, 1912 tornado outbreak was a large tornado outbreak that affected portions of the High Plains, the Upper Midwest, and the Southern United States, including portions of the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, from April 20–22, 1912. The severe-weather event produced at least 32 tornadoes, at least nine—and possibly 10 or more—of which were violent tornadoes, all of which rated F4 on the Fujita scale. Powerful tornado activity was distributed from the Great Plains to South Carolina. The first day of the outbreak occurred on April 20 and produced numerous strong to violent tornadoes across parts of North Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas. A second day of intense tornadoes occurred on April 21, with several strong to violent tornadoes across Illinois and Indiana. The final day, April 22, produced an F4 tornado in Georgia as well. The entire outbreak killed 56 people, and was followed days later by another intense tornado outbreak on April 27. That outbreak killed about 40 people, mostly in Oklahoma. Both outbreaks produced a combined total of nine F4 tornadoes in Oklahoma alone.


  1. 1 2 3 All dates are based on the local time zone where the tornado touched down; however, all times are in Coordinated Universal Time for consistency.
  2. 1 2 3 All damage totals are in 1912 USD unless otherwise stated.

Related Research Articles

The Great Blue Norther of November 11, 1911 was a cold snap that affected the central United States on Saturday, November 11, 1911. Many cities broke record highs, going into the 70s and 80s early that afternoon. By nightfall, cities were dealing with temperatures in the teens and single-digits on the Fahrenheit scale. This is the only day in many midwest cities' weather bureau jurisdictions where the record highs and lows were broken for the same day. Some cities experienced tornadoes on Saturday and a blizzard on Sunday. A blizzard even occurred within one hour after an F4 tornado hit Rock County, Wisconsin.

The November 1992 tornado outbreak was a three-day tornado outbreak that struck large parts of the Eastern United States and the Midwestern United States on November 21–23. Also sometimes referred to as the Widespread Outbreak, this exceptionally long lasting and geographically large outbreak produced over $300 million in damage, along with 26 deaths and 641 injuries in Alabama, Georgia, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Ohio, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia. The outbreak, with 41 continual hours of tornado activity, was one of the longest-lasting and largest fall tornado outbreaks in the United States Published studies of this outbreak report widely varying numbers of confirmed tornadoes.

The April 1956 tornado outbreak was a large, deadly tornado outbreak that affected the Great Plains, parts of the South, and the upper Midwest in the contiguous United States. Occurring from April 2–3, 1956, the outbreak produced 47 tornadoes, including an F5 tornado that devastated the Hudsonville and Standale, Michigan areas in the U.S. state of Michigan on April 3. It was one of three tornadoes to move across southwest Lower Michigan on that day. A fourth tornado struck north of the Manistee area. The Hudsonville-Standale tornado killed 18 and injured 340. In addition to confirmed tornadoes, there were several unconfirmed but possible tornadoes. An F2 may have hit east of Ogdensburg, Wisconsin, destroying a general store and a rural school. Nine barns were damaged or destroyed as well. A tornado may have also overturned two buildings and uprooted trees near Pana, Illinois. In addition to a confirmed F2 tornado near Topeka, Indiana, two other unconfirmed tornadoes may have hit northwest of LaGrange and at Emma, destroying or damaging numerous buildings, including a home and a barn that were blown down, and throwing two people from a horse and buggy.

1969 Minnesota tornado outbreak

The 1969 Minnesota tornado outbreak was a tornado outbreak that affected portions of north central Minnesota on August 6, 1969. There were 13 confirmed tornadoes from the outbreak, 15 people were killed and 109 were injured.

The late-May 1957 tornado outbreak occurred from eastern New Mexico to Oklahoma, western Arkansas, southern Kansas, eastern Colorado, and southeastern Wyoming on May 24–25, 1957. 37 tornadoes touched down over the area, most of which took place across northern and western Texas, in addition to southern Oklahoma. The strongest tornado was rated at F4 status south of Lawton. Unusually, some tornadoes touched down during the early morning hours, whereas most Plains tornadic systems are nocturnal. Four deaths were attributed to the tornadic activity. The tornado outbreak was related to the arrival of a strong shortwave trough.

Early-April 1957 tornado outbreak sequence

The Early-April 1957 tornado outbreak sequence was a deadly tornado outbreak sequence that struck most of the Southern United States from April 2–5, 1957. The outbreak killed at least 21 people across three states and produced at least 72 tornadoes from Texas to Virginia. The outbreak was most notable due to a tornado that hit a densely populated area of the Dallas–Fort Worth metropolitan area, killing 10 people and injuring 200 or more. The tornado, highly visible for most of its path, was at the time the most observed and best-documented tornado in recorded history; hundreds of people photographed or filmed the F3 tornado as it moved just west of Downtown Dallas. The film of this tornado is still known for its unusually high quality and sharpness, considering the photography techniques and technology of the 1950s. Damage from the Dallas tornado reached as high as $4 million. Besides the famous Dallas tornado, other deadly tornadoes struck portions of Mississippi, Texas, and Oklahoma. Two F4 tornadoes struck southern Oklahoma on April 2, killing five people. Three other significant, F2-rated tornadoes that day killed two people in Texas and one more in Oklahoma. An F3 tornado struck rural Mississippi on April 4, killing one more person. In addition to confirmed tornadoes, a possible tornado hit Ballard County, Kentucky, on April 3, unroofing homes, destroying a drive-in theater, and uprooting trees. A loud roaring noise was heard. Two other brief tornadoes may have hit near Westlake and at Tallulah, Louisiana, late on April 4.

The 1932 Deep South tornado outbreak, occasionally referred to as the 1932 Super Outbreak, was a deadly tornado outbreak that struck the Southern United States on March 21–22, 1932. At least 36 tornadoes—including 27 killers and several long-lived tornado families—struck the Deep South, killing more than 330 people and injuring 2,141. Tornadoes affected areas from Mississippi north to Illinois and east to South Carolina, but Alabama was hardest hit, with 268 fatalities; the outbreak is considered to be the deadliest ever in that U.S. state, and among the worst ever in the United States, trailing only the Tri-State Tornado outbreak in 1925, with 747 fatalities, and the Tupelo-Gainesville outbreak in 1936, with 454 fatalities. The 1932 outbreak produced 10 violent tornadoes, classified F4 or F5 on the Fujita scale of tornado intensity, eight of which occurred in Alabama alone, and is surpassed only by the March 1952 tornado outbreak, with 11 violent tornadoes; the 2011 Super Outbreak, with 15; the 1965 Palm Sunday tornado outbreak, with 17; and the 1974 Super Outbreak, with 30.

The March 1933 Nashville tornado outbreak was a deadly tornado outbreak that affected the city of Nashville and the Middle Tennessee region on March 14, 1933. The entire outbreak produced five or more tornadoes, killed 44 people, and injured at least 461. One of the tornadoes was an F3 tornado family that struck downtown Nashville, killing 15 people and injuring 235. It is the seventh-deadliest tornado in Middle Tennessee on record and is one of two significant tornado events in the region in 1933, the other being the Beatty Swamps tornado of May 10, 1933.

Tornadoes of 2011 Wikimedia list article

This page documents the tornadoes and tornado outbreaks of 2011. Extremely destructive tornadoes form most frequently in the United States, Bangladesh, Brazil and Eastern India, but they can occur almost anywhere under the right conditions. Tornadoes also appear regularly in neighboring southern Canada during the Northern Hemisphere's summer season, and somewhat regularly in Europe, Asia, and Australia.

2010 New Years Eve tornado outbreak

The 2010 New Year's Eve tornado outbreak was a three-day-long tornado outbreak that impacted the central and lower Mississippi Valley from December 30, 2010 to January 1, 2011. Associated with a low pressure system and a strong cold front, 37 tornadoes tracked across five states over the length of the severe event, killing nine and injuring several others. Activity was centered in the states of Missouri and later Mississippi on December 31. Seven tornadoes were rated EF3 on the Enhanced Fujita Scale; these were the strongest during the outbreak. Non-tornadic winds were recorded to have reached as high as 80 mph (130 km/h) at eight locations on December 31, while hail as large as 2.75 in (7.0 cm) was documented north-northeast of Mansfield, Missouri. Overall, damage from the outbreak totaled US$123.3 million, most of which was related to tornadoes.

The April 1920 tornado outbreak was a multi-day severe weather event that affected the Southeastern United States on April 19–21, 1920. The most intense portion of the outbreak occurred on the morning of April 20. At least seven tornadoes affected the American U.S. states of Mississippi, Alabama, and Tennessee, six of them rated violent F4s on the Fujita scale. At least one of them may have attained F5 intensity, though this is uncertain. The tornado outbreak killed at least 243 people.

Tornadoes of 2013 Wikimedia list article

This page documents the tornadoes and tornado outbreaks of 2013. Strong and destructive tornadoes form most frequently in the United States, Bangladesh, Brazil and Eastern India, but they can occur almost anywhere under the right conditions. Tornadoes also appear regularly in neighboring southern Canada during the Northern Hemisphere's summer season, and somewhat regularly in Europe, Asia, and Australia.

National Weather Service Norman, Oklahoma

National Weather Service - Norman, Oklahoma is a Weather Forecast Office (WFO) of the National Weather Service based in Norman, Oklahoma, which is responsible for forecasts and the dissemination of weather warnings and advisories for central and most of western Oklahoma, and western portions of north Texas. It is located in the National Weather Center on the University of Oklahoma campus, where it acts as one of the NOAA Weather Partners, a group of close-together weather-related agencies of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. NWS Norman is currently overseen by David Andra, who serves as the Meteorologist In Charge of the office.

Tornado outbreak of November 17, 2013

The tornado outbreak of November 17, 2013, was the deadliest and costliest in the U.S. state of Illinois to occur in the month of November and fourth largest for the state overall. Associated with a strong trough in the upper levels of the atmosphere, the event resulted in 73 tornadoes tracking across regions of the Midwest United States and Ohio River Valley, impacting seven states. Severe weather during the tornado outbreak caused over 100 injuries and eleven fatalities, of which eight were tornado related. Two tornadoes—both in Illinois and rated EF4 on the Enhanced Fujita Scale—were the strongest documented during the outbreak and combined for five deaths. In addition to tornadoes, the system associated with the outbreak produced sizeable hail peaking at 4.00 in (10.2 cm) in diameter in Bloomington, Illinois, as well as damaging winds estimated as strong as 100 mph (160 km/h) in three locations.

Tornadoes of 2014

This page documents the tornadoes and tornado outbreaks of 2014. Strong and destructive tornadoes form most frequently in the United States, Bangladesh, Brazil and Eastern India, but they can occur almost anywhere under the right conditions. Tornadoes also appear regularly in neighboring southern Canada during the Northern Hemisphere's summer season, and somewhat regularly in Europe, Asia, and Australia.

This page documents notable tornadoes and tornado outbreaks worldwide in 1973, but mostly features events in the United States. According to tornado researcher Thomas P. Grazulis, documentation of tornadoes outside the United States was historically less exhaustive, owing to the lack of monitors in many nations and, in some cases, to internal political controls on public information. Most countries only recorded tornadoes that produced severe damage or loss of life. Consequently, available documentation in 1973 mainly covered the United States. On average, most recorded tornadoes, including the vast majority of significant—F2 or stronger—tornadoes, form in the U.S., although as many as 500 may take place internationally. Some locations, like Bangladesh, are as prone to violent tornadoes as the U.S., meaning F4 or greater events on the Fujita scale.


  1. 1 2 3 "The Tornado Outbreak of April 27-28, 1912". National Weather Service. National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
  2. Grazulis 1993 , p. 733
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Grazulis 1993 , p. 734
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 "Tornado Tables for the April 27-28, 1912 Tornado Outbreak". Norman, Oklahoma: National Weather Service. March 12, 2014. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Cline, Isaac (1912). Cline, Isaac, ed. "District No. 7, lower Mississippi Valley" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. U.S. Weather Bureau. 40 (4): 571–573. Bibcode:1912MWRv...40..571C. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1912)40<571:DNLMV>2.0.CO;2 . Retrieved 13 March 2014.
  6. "Quotes from Newspaper Reports Related to the Tornado Outbreak of April 27-28, 1912". Norman, Oklahoma: National Weather Service. March 12, 2014. Retrieved 18 March 2014.


  • Grazulis, Thomas (1993), Significant Tornadoes 1680-1991: A Chronology and Analysis of Events, St. Johnsbury, Vermont: Environmental Films, ISBN   1-879362-03-1
  • Grazulis, Thomas (2003), The Tornado: Nature's Ultimate Windstorm, Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, ISBN   978-0-8061-3538-0
International Standard Book Number Unique numeric book identifier

The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.

For the latest severe weather information: