Tornado outbreak of April 27–29, 1912

Last updated
April 27–28, 1912 tornado outbreak
TypeTornado outbreak
DurationApril 27–28, 1912
Tornadoes confirmed26
Max rating1 F4 tornado
Duration of tornado outbreak2Approximately 24 hours
Fatalities≥45 fatalities, ≥167 injuries
1Most severe tornado damage; see Fujita scale 2Time from first tornado to last tornado

The April 27–28, 1912 tornado outbreak was a major tornado outbreak. At least six violent tornadoes touched down throughout Oklahoma, with near constant activity until early the next day. At least 15 cities were affected. 40 people died, and 120 injured. [1]

A tornado outbreak is the occurrence of multiple tornadoes spawned by the same synoptic scale weather system. The number of tornadoes required to qualify as an outbreak typically are at least six to ten.

Contents

Meteorological synopsis

Limited weather data was collected and recorded at that time in Oklahoma. Predating upper atmospheric measurements, most data collection was of human observations, along with temperature, pressure, wind speed and direction, and rainfall. [1]

A cold front moved south through Oklahoma into Texas on April 26, before stalling in central Texas, leaving a southwest/northeast stationary front. Early on the 28th, it pushed back northward against a warm front to the east. The warm front was noted to have moved from the southeast on the 27th to the northeast on the 28th; it was this movement of warm air against the cold front over that that fueled the storms that provided the tornado activity. [1]

Tornadoes

Confirmed
Total
Confirmed
F?
Confirmed
F0
Confirmed
F1
Confirmed
F2
Confirmed
F3
Confirmed
F4
Confirmed
F5
≥ 26?1110680

April 27

List of confirmed tornadoes – April 27, 1912 [nb 1]

FUF0F1F2F3F4F5Total
0006670≥ 19
Deaths: 36Injuries: 128
F# LocationCounty / ParishStateTime (UTC)Path lengthMax widthDamage [nb 2] Summary
F4SE of Kirkland, Texas to N of Eldorado, Oklahoma Childress (TX), Hardeman (TX), Jackson (OK) TX, OK 163040 miles (64 km)0.5 mi (800 m)$77,0005 deaths – This major, long-tracked tornado killed five people and injured 20 others in Texas; four of the deaths were in one family as their home was swept away. 30 homes were damaged or destroyed in both states, with $12,000 losses near Eldorado and $65,000 losses in Texas. The tornado struck 43 farms in its path. [2]
F2 Warren Jackson OK 1815unknownunknownunknownTornado hit Warren around noon CST. [3] Details are unavailable. [4]
F4SE of Granite to Lugert to NW of Hobart Greer, Kiowa OK 183040 miles (64 km)0.5 mi (800 m)$300,000 [5] 7+ deaths – Nearly all buildings (except two) were leveled in Lugert, where a mother and her daughter died. The tornado transported papers 75 mi (121 km) away. The tornado caused three (possibly five) deaths and killed 100 or more cattle near of Hobart. [3] [4]
F3 Rocky area Washita OK 191520 miles (32 km)0.5 mi (800 m)unknownA tornado destroyed about 50 homes, a school, and 10 barns as it hit Rocky. The tornado began 5 mi (8.0 km) southwest of town and ended 15 mi (24 km) northeast of town. [3] [4] [5]
F2 Corn area Washita OK 1950about 10 miles (16 km)unknownunknown4 deaths – Tornado hit Corn, then called Korn until World War I, and the nearby "Korn Valley", where four people died. [3] No other information available. [4] Counted by Grazulis as part of the next tornado, below, [3] but more recent research has shown this to have been a separate tornado. [4]
F4W of Colony to S of Geary Washita, Caddo, Blaine OK 200027 miles (43 km)0.5 mi (800 m)$5,000 [5] 2 deaths [4] – This large and powerful tornado devastated farms across Caddo County. [3]
F3W of Altus to W of Blair Jackson OK 203011 miles (18 km)250 yd (230 m)$19,000 [5] This tornado devastated about 12 farms near Martha. One person was injured. [3] [5]
F3SW of Hinton to Calumet to NW of El Reno Caddo, Canadian OK 210023 miles (37 km)400 yd (370 m)$125,000 [5] 3+ deaths – This strong tornado hit the towns of Hinton and Calumet. 26 structures were destroyed in Calumet, where three people died. Four others may have been killed in Hinton. A sign from Hinton was found to have been carried north of Calumet. [3]
F4S of Bartley to Cambridge area Red Willow, Furnas NE 220010 miles (16 km)unknownunknownA tornado destroyed three homes and obliterated at least five barns. An entire farmsite was swept clean of all buildings. Four people survived the tornado in an orchard, but with injuries. [3]
F4E of Erick to E of Sayre to Elk City Beckham OK 224523 miles (37 km)150 yd (140 m)unknown2 deaths – A tornado destroyed 35 buildings and killed 15 livestock. [5] Two people died near Sayre as the tornado destroyed 11 homes. Five funnel clouds were observed along the path of the storm, and debris from homes was strewn for miles. [3]
F4W of Foss to Butler Washita, Custer OK 003020 miles (32 km)150 yd (140 m)$50,000 [5] 6 deaths – This tornado destroyed the town of Foss and the east side of Butler. [3] [5] [6] The tornado destroyed 32 homes in Butler. Debris from the town was found in Putnam, 15 mi (24 km) to the northeast. [3]
F3SW of Speer to S of Dela Choctaw OK 00307 miles (11 km)167 yd (153 m)unknown1 death, 3 injuries – Details are unknown. [4]
F2 Granite Greer OK 02208 miles (13 km)unknownunknownDetails are unknown. [4]
F3NW of Stratford to SE of Butler Custer OK 02305 miles (8.0 km)unknown$50,000 [5] 1 death – A tornado damaged or destroyed eight farmhouses. [3]
F4NW of Hobart to Sentinel to NW of Cordell Kiowa, Washita OK 024520 miles (32 km)600 yd (550 m)$75,000 [3] 4 deaths – A violent tornado damaged or destroyed about 60 homes in Sentinel, mostly in the western half of the town. There were no injuries as the entire population had seen the funnel approaching 15 minutes in advance. [3] Two people died on a farm southwest of Sentinel. The tornado then continued to the northwest edge of Cordell, destroying six more homes, killing two people before turning east and dissipating. [3]
F3S of Granite to N of Lone Wolf Greer, Kiowa OK 024512 miles (19 km)unknownunknown1 death – A tornado destroyed buildings and farmhouses on at least 14 farms. [3]
F2 Crescent/Mulhall areas Logan OK 05455 miles (8.0 km)unknownunknownA tornado destroyed at least two homes. Two people may have been crushed to death in a storm cave. [3]
F2W of Butler Custer OK 0545unknownunknownunknownA tornado destroyed several barns. [3]
F2E of Cashion to Cedar Valley Logan OK 0555 [4] 5 miles (8.0 km)unknownunknownA tornado destroyed a home and a barn 8 mi (13 km) southwest of Guthrie. [3]

April 28

List of confirmed tornadoes – April 28, 1912 [nb 1]

FUF0F1F2F3F4F5Total
0113010≥ 6
Deaths: 6Injuries: 24
F# LocationCounty / ParishStateTime (UTC)Path lengthMax widthDamage [nb 2] Summary
F0+SE of Hobart Kiowa OK ~0730 [5] unknownunknownunknownDetails are unknown. [4]
F2SW of Sallisaw Sequoyah OK 0830 [4] 10 miles (16 km)unknownunknownA tornado destroyed six homes. [3]
F2N of Marble to E of Bunch Sequoyah, Adair OK 083012 miles (19 km)unknownunknown2 deaths, 4 injuries – Details are unknown. [4]
F2N of Bono to S of Joshua Johnson TX 17005 miles (8.0 km)50 yd (46 m)unknownA tornado destroyed small homes and barns. [3]
F4SSW of Henderson to S of Church Hill to Tatum area Rusk, Panola TX 193030 miles (48 km)200 yd (180 m)unknown4 deaths – A long-tracked tornado destroyed 30 or more homes in six communities. It destroyed a brick home, killing a man inside. Two people were thrown 500 yd (460 m) as well. Downburst damage occurred in Tatum. [3]
F1 Fouke, Arkansas area Cass TX 0100unknownunknownunknown2 deaths – A tornado occurred 12 mi (19 km) south of Texarkana, felling a tree that killed two women. [3]

April 29

List of confirmed tornadoes – April 29, 1912 [nb 1]

FUF0F1F2F3F4F5Total
0001000≥ 1
Deaths: 3Injuries: 15
F# LocationCounty / ParishStateTime (UTC)Path lengthMax widthDamage [nb 2] Summary
F2S of Liddieville to N of Winnsboro Franklin LA unknown10 miles (16 km)400 yd (370 m)unknown3 deaths – A tornado destroyed many homes and much timber. [3]

See also

The April 20–22, 1912 tornado outbreak was a large tornado outbreak that affected portions of the High Plains, the Upper Midwest, and the Southern United States, including portions of the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, from April 20–22, 1912. The severe-weather event produced at least 32 tornadoes, at least nine—and possibly 10 or more—of which were violent tornadoes, all of which rated F4 on the Fujita scale. Powerful tornado activity was distributed from the Great Plains to South Carolina. The first day of the outbreak occurred on April 20 and produced numerous strong to violent tornadoes across parts of North Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas. A second day of intense tornadoes occurred on April 21, with several strong to violent tornadoes across Illinois and Indiana. The final day, April 22, produced an F4 tornado in Georgia as well. The entire outbreak killed 56 people, and was followed days later by another intense tornado outbreak on April 27. That outbreak killed about 40 people, mostly in Oklahoma. Both outbreaks produced a combined total of nine F4 tornadoes in Oklahoma alone.

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 All dates are based on the local time zone where the tornado touched down; however, all times are in Coordinated Universal Time for consistency.
  2. 1 2 3 All damage totals are in 1912 USD unless otherwise stated.

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References

  1. 1 2 3 "The Tornado Outbreak of April 27-28, 1912". National Weather Service. National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
  2. Grazulis 1993 , p. 733
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Grazulis 1993 , p. 734
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 "Tornado Tables for the April 27-28, 1912 Tornado Outbreak". Norman, Oklahoma: National Weather Service. March 12, 2014. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Cline, Isaac (1912). Cline, Isaac, ed. "District No. 7, lower Mississippi Valley" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. U.S. Weather Bureau. 40 (4): 571–573. Bibcode:1912MWRv...40..571C. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1912)40<571:DNLMV>2.0.CO;2 . Retrieved 13 March 2014.
  6. "Quotes from Newspaper Reports Related to the Tornado Outbreak of April 27-28, 1912". Norman, Oklahoma: National Weather Service. March 12, 2014. Retrieved 18 March 2014.

Bibliography

  • Grazulis, Thomas (1993), Significant Tornadoes 1680-1991: A Chronology and Analysis of Events, St. Johnsbury, Vermont: Environmental Films, ISBN   1-879362-03-1
  • Grazulis, Thomas (2003), The Tornado: Nature's Ultimate Windstorm, Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, ISBN   978-0-8061-3538-0
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