Torreón

Last updated
Torreón
Municipal seat
Collage de Torreon.jpg
Escudo-torreon.jpg
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): 
La Ciudad de los Grandes Esfuerzos
Mexico States blank map.svg
Red pog.svg
Torreón
Location in Mexico
Coordinates: 25°32′22″N103°26′55″W / 25.53944°N 103.44861°W / 25.53944; -103.44861 Coordinates: 25°32′22″N103°26′55″W / 25.53944°N 103.44861°W / 25.53944; -103.44861
CountryFlag of Mexico.svg  Mexico
State Coahuila
Municipality Torreón
EstablishedSeptember 25, 1893
Declared city:September 15, 1907
Government
  Mayor Jorge Zermeño Infante (National Action Party PAN) (2018–2021)
Elevation
1,120 m (3,670 ft)
Population
 (2015)
  Municipal seat679,288 [1]
   Metro
1,497,734 [1]
Time zone UTC−6 (CST)
  Summer (DST) UTC−5 (CDT)
Area code(s) 871
Website Official site

Torreón (Spanish pronunciation:  [toreˈon] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is a city and seat of Torreón Municipality in the Mexican state of Coahuila. As of 2015, the city's population was 679,288 [1] . The metropolitan population as of 2015 was 1,497,734, [1] making it the ninth-biggest metropolitan area in the country and the largest metropolitan area in state of Coahuila, as well as one of Mexico's most important economic and industrial centers. The cities of Torreón, Gómez Palacio, Lerdo, Matamoros, Francisco I. Madero, San Pedro, Bermejillo, and Tlahualilo form the area of La Laguna or the Comarca Lagunera, a basin within the Chihuahuan Desert.

Torreón Municipality Municipality in Coahuila, Mexico

Torreón is one of the municipalities of Coahuila de Zaragoza, a state in north-eastern Mexico. The city of Torreón is the municipal seat for Torreón Municipality. The municipality covers an area of 1947.7 km².

Mexico Country in the southern portion of North America

Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometres (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the tenth most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity that is also the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana and León.

Coahuila State of Mexico

Coahuila, formally Coahuila de Zaragoza, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Coahuila de Zaragoza, is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.

Contents

The area was originally a center for ranching. With irrigation the city became an important center for farming and the processing of cotton. In the middle of the 20th century, it became an industrial city. The city has industries in textiles, clothing and metals processing. Some important industries and companies have business here, like Peñoles, Motores John Deere, Grupo Lala, Yura Corporation, as well as stores like Soriana, Cimaco, and Extra. There are also several shopping malls in the city, including Galerias Laguna, Plaza Cuatro Caminos and InterMall.

Peñoles Penoles

Peñoles is a subsidiary company owned by Grupo BAL. Peñoles is the second largest Mexican mining company, the first Mexican producer of gold, zinc and lead and the world leader in silver production. Peñoles is a company with active mines within Mexico and with some prospection projects in South America. Holdings includes the Fresnillo Silver Mine / Mina Proaño, the Met-Mex Peñoles metallurgical complex and Química del Rey; a Chemical facility; three operations. Peñoles produces about 80,500,000 troy ounces (2,500,000 kg) of silver and 756,100 troy ounces (23,520 kg) of gold annually. Other metals that the company produces are zinc, lead, copper, bismuth, and cadmium.

Grupo Lala

Grupo Lala is a Mexican dairy company, founded in 1949 in Torreón, Coahuila. It is the only dairy company that operates nationwide in Mexico.

Organización Soriana is a Mexican public company and a major retailer in Mexico with more than 824 stores. Soriana is a grocery and department store retail chain headquartered in Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico. The company is 100% capitalized in Mexico and has been publicly traded on the Mexican stock exchange, since 1987 under the symbol: "Soriana". Soriana is powered by IT Retail software.

Torreón is served by Francisco Sarabia International Airport, an airport with flights to several cities in Mexico and the United States.

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.

History

According to archaeological findings, the area of Torreón was populated around the 10th millennium BC.

The first Spanish mission arrived in 1566, led by Fr. Pedro Espinareda. However, the city developed only in the independent Mexican era, around a Torreón ("Big Tower") built to monitor Río Nazas's floods, in conjunction with the creation of a railroad connecting to the US border city of El Paso, which gave an economic boom to the city and therefore a population boom as well. The population grew from 200 in 1892 to 34,000 in 1910. Torreón received city status in 1907.

During the Mexican Revolution, the city was taken more than once; the most prominent character ever to take the city was the revolutionary general Pancho Villa. It was also the location of the Torreón massacre, where 303 Chinese immigrants were killed by the revolutionaries over a ten-hour period. [2] During the revolution, Torreon was also the site to an important convention which led to a deal between the insurrected armies. The city is 56 km (35 mi) southwest of historic San Pedro de las Colonias, where some of the Mexican Revolution fighting occurred.

Mexican Revolution major nationwide armed struggle in Mexico between 1910 and 1920

The Mexican Revolution, also known as the Mexican Civil War, was a major armed struggle, lasting roughly from 1910 to 1920, that radically transformed Mexican culture and government. Although recent research has focused on local and regional aspects of the Revolution, it was a genuinely national revolution. Its outbreak in 1910 resulted from the failure of the 35-year-long regime of Porfirio Díaz to find a managed solution to the presidential succession. This meant there was a political crisis among competing elites and the opportunity for agrarian insurrection. Wealthy landowner Francisco I. Madero challenged Díaz in the 1910 presidential election, and following the rigged results, revolted under the Plan of San Luis Potosí. Armed conflict ousted Díaz from power; a new election was held in 1911, bringing Madero to the presidency.

Pancho Villa Mexican revolutionary

Francisco "Pancho" Villa was a Mexican revolutionary general and one of the most prominent figures of the Mexican Revolution.

Torreón massacre racially motivated massacre in 1911 in Torreón, Coahuila, Mexico

The Torreón massacre was a racially motivated massacre that took place on 13–15 May 1911 in the Mexican city of Torreón, Coahuila. Over 300 Chinese residents were killed by the revolutionary forces of Francisco I. Madero. A large number of Chinese homes and establishments were looted and destroyed.

After the Mexican Revolution, the city continued to develop economically; during the first years of the 20th century the primary industry of the city was farming, although other industries later formed or were established in the area.

On September 15, 2007, Torreón celebrated its first 100 years as a chartered city. It held a series of cultural events from September 15, 2006, to September 15, 2007, culminating on the day that the city turned 100 years old.

Geography and climate

One of the few remaining towers (Torreones) in the city Unico y ultimo torreon en Torreon, capital del estado de Coahuila..jpg
One of the few remaining towers (Torreones) in the city
El Torreon monument. Torreon monumento.jpg
El Torreón monument.
The main tower of the central plaza of Torreon Torreon en el jardin principal de la ciudad de Torreon, Coahuila.jpg
The main tower of the central plaza of Torreón

Torreón is near the southwest border of the state of Coahuila, within the Laguna region of the state. The border is delineated by the Nazas River that separates it from Gómez Palacio, Durango. The municipality covers 1,947.7 km2 (752.0 sq mi), including much of the rural area south of the city. The city's elevation is 1,120 m (3,670 ft), which is low for the Mexican interior. The terrain where the urban area is spread is generally flat, with somewhat prominent relief formations (up to 1,600 m (5,249 ft) south and southwest of the city, thus visible at well-nigh any given point in the city. Higher mountains, over 3,000 m (9,843 ft), are on the southern, mostly uninhabited section of the Municipality, the most prominent being El Picacho.

Comarca Lagunera Place in Mexico

The Comarca Lagunera or La Comarca de la Laguna is a region of northern Mexico occupying large portions of the states of Durango and Coahuila, with rich soils produced by periodic flooding of the Nazas and Aguanaval rivers. Neither river drains into either the Pacific Ocean or the Gulf of Mexico, but rather they created a series of inland lakes. The region was developed for large-scale irrigated cotton agriculture. During the Mexican Revolution, the region was the site of fierce fighting. Following the military phase of the Revolution, the region was part of the agrarian reform under President Lázaro Cárdenas. The dam named for Cárdenas now controls flooding of the rivers, but the groundwater resources are no longer recharged as a result. It is the 8th largest metropolitan area in Mexico.

The city features a desert climate (in the Köppen climate classification BWh). Rainfall is scarce but more prominent in the summer, whilst temperatures are very hot by day and cool at night, although the urban heat island effect causes temperatures on summer nights to be considerably warmer than nearby areas. Flora and fauna are those common to semidesert habitats.

Climate data for Torreón (1951–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)35.0
(95.0)
35.0
(95.0)
39.5
(103.1)
41.2
(106.2)
42.2
(108.0)
43.0
(109.4)
40.5
(104.9)
39.2
(102.6)
38.4
(101.1)
36.0
(96.8)
34.8
(94.6)
32.5
(90.5)
43.0
(109.4)
Average high °C (°F)22.3
(72.1)
25.3
(77.5)
26.0
(78.8)
32.5
(90.5)
35.3
(95.5)
35.4
(95.7)
34.3
(93.7)
33.7
(92.7)
31.8
(89.2)
29.5
(85.1)
26.1
(79.0)
22.8
(73.0)
29.6
(85.3)
Daily mean °C (°F)14.5
(58.1)
17.0
(62.6)
19.0
(66.2)
24.1
(75.4)
27.2
(81.0)
28.1
(82.6)
27.4
(81.3)
27.0
(80.6)
25.2
(77.4)
22.4
(72.3)
18.2
(64.8)
15.1
(59.2)
22.1
(71.8)
Average low °C (°F)6.8
(44.2)
8.6
(47.5)
11.9
(53.4)
15.6
(60.1)
19.0
(66.2)
20.8
(69.4)
20.5
(68.9)
20.3
(68.5)
18.6
(65.5)
15.2
(59.4)
10.3
(50.5)
7.4
(45.3)
14.6
(58.3)
Record low °C (°F)−7.0
(19.4)
−5.0
(23.0)
−5.5
(22.1)
1.8
(35.2)
4.0
(39.2)
10.0
(50.0)
11.0
(51.8)
10.0
(50.0)
7.5
(45.5)
4.0
(39.2)
−2.8
(27.0)
−8.0
(17.6)
−8.0
(17.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches)20.1
(0.79)
6.5
(0.26)
6.5
(0.26)
14.1
(0.56)
18.8
(0.74)
34.9
(1.37)
24.2
(0.95)
26.5
(1.04)
18.1
(0.71)
11.8
(0.46)
7.9
(0.31)
16.3
(0.64)
205.8
(8.10)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)2.51.10.71.73.34.35.75.04.72.71.51.834.9
Average relative humidity (%)55463939425053545755535650
Mean monthly sunshine hours 1761762272392712862932642112372141762,770
Source #1: Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (humidity 1981–2000) [3] [4]
Source #2: Ogimet (sun 1981–2010) [5]

Main sights

Cristo de las Noas Cristo de las Noas.jpg
Cristo de las Noas
Statue of Don Quijote. El Quijote Torreon Coah.jpg
Statue of Don Quijote.
Cuatro Caminos Mall Centrocomercialtorreon.jpg
Cuatro Caminos Mall

Cristo de las Noas, at 21.80 m (71.5 ft), is the third tallest statue of Christ in Latin America, only smaller than the statue of Christ The Redeemer in Brazil and Cristo de la Concordia in Cochabamba, Bolivia. Situated on the top of a hill, this image of Jesus with extended arms symbolises protection for the inhabitants of Torreon. [6] The hilltop has a Catholic church and offers a view of the entire city. [7]

There are also several shopping centers in the city, including Galerias Laguna, Plaza Cuatro Caminos and Intermall.

El Canal de la Perla. Canal de la Perla Torreon Coah.jpg
El Canal de la Perla.

The "Canal de la Perla" (the Pearl Watercourse), an underground watercourse built in the 19th century to drive the Nazas' river water to the fields near the city, was re-discovered in 2003 and re-opened in 2014. It now passes under the oldest part of the city and it can be visited and walked through. It is also used for cultural and artistic exhibitions.

In 2006, the "Museo Arocena" (Arocena Museum) that holds art collections from the pre-Hispanic times to the present, was opened; it also has a section dedicated to Mexico's and Torreón's history. There are also temporal expositions, conferences, book fairs, movies, and activities for children.

Economy

The area was originally a center for ranching. With irrigation the city became an important center for support for farming and processing of cotton. In the middle of the 20th century, it became an industrial city. The city has industries in textiles, clothing and metals processing. Some important industries and companies that have business here, like Peñoles, an important Mexican mining group, and Motores John Deere, Lala, an important dairy products company, Yura Corporation, stores like Soriana, Cimaco, Extra, among others.

Education

Universities

Torreón and the surrounding comarca are served by several public and private universities. Some of the most recognized institutions in the area are:

Building at the Iberoamerican University Edificio D Ibero Torreon.jpg
Building at the Iberoamerican University

Sports

Estadio Corona Un partido de Santos Laguna vs. Gimnasia de La Plata.jpg
Estadio Corona

Torreón has a football team in the Liga MX, Santos Laguna. The team won championships in 1996, 2001, 2008, 2012, 2015, and 2018. It used to play in Estadio Corona, until 2009 when it moved to the Territorio Santos Modelo to meet the growing demands of its fan base.

Estadio Revolucion Estadio Revolucion.Torreon.jpg
Estadio Revolución

The city is also home to a baseball team called "Vaqueros Laguna" (Laguna Cowboys).

Torreón's professional basketball team, Jefes de Fuerza Lagunera, play in the Municipal Auditorium, which seats approximately 3,000 people. They are members of the LNBP (Liga Nacional de Baloncesto Profesional) which is considered to be the top basketball league in Mexico.

Former NFL placekicker and Super Bowl XXI champion, Raul Allegre, is a Torreón native.

Events

Cotton and Grape Fair

The main annual festival in Torreón is the Cotton and Grape Fair (Feria del Algodón y La Uva) which takes place in September. It contains cultural events, music, food and amusement rides.

Independence Day

It takes place on September 15 and 16. There are celebrations all around the city, but the most important is the one celebrated in the Plaza Mayor. People wear traditional Mexican clothes, eat traditional dishes and "Antojitos". At night the city mayor makes the traditional celebration of "El Grito". The next day (September 16) there is a parade on the Morelos Avenue.

Twin towns

Notable people

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 "Número de habitantes. Coahuila de Zaragoza". www.cuentame.inegi.org.mx.
  2. Jacques, Leo M. Dambourges (Autumn 1974). "The Chinese Massacre in Torreon (Coahuila) in 1911". Arizona and the West . University of Arizona Press. 16 (3): 233–246. JSTOR   40168453.
  3. "NORMALES CLIMATOLÓGICAS 1951–2010" (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. Archived from the original on April 22, 2014. Retrieved February 19, 2013.
  4. "NORMALES CLIMATOLÓGICAS 1981–2000" (PDF) (in Spanish). Comision Nacional Del Agua. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 2, 2014. Retrieved February 19, 2013.
  5. "CLIMAT summary for 76382: Torreon, Coah. (Mexico) – Section 2: Monthly Normals". CLIMAT monthly weather summaries. Ogimet. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
  6. Travel Torreón. "Cristo de las Noas". Archived from the original on 2011-07-17. Retrieved 28 July 2010.
  7. [ dead link ] "Cristo de las Noas". Archived from the original on August 14, 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-17.

Notes