Torstein Eckhoff

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Torstein Einang Eckhoff (5 June 1916 – 17 April 1993) was a Norwegian civil servant and professor of law at the University of Oslo.

Norwegians are a North Germanic ethnic group native to Norway. They share a common culture and speak the Norwegian language. Norwegian people and their descendants are found in migrant communities worldwide, notably in the United States, Canada, Australia, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Brazil, Mexico, New Zealand and South Africa.

University of Oslo Norwegian public research university

The University of Oslo, until 1939 named the Royal Frederick University, is the oldest university in Norway, located in the Norwegian capital of Oslo. Until 1 January 2016 it was the largest Norwegian institution of higher education in terms of size, now surpassed only by the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. The Academic Ranking of World Universities has ranked it the 58th best university in the world and the third best in the Nordic countries. In 2015, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranked it the 135th best university in the world and the seventh best in the Nordics. While in its 2016, Top 200 Rankings of European universities, the Times Higher Education listed the University of Oslo at 63rd, making it the highest ranked Norwegian university.


Personal life

He was born in Vestre Slidre as the son of shipmaster Trygve Eckhoff (1884–1957) and his wife Sigrid Einang (1886–1971). He was a brother of designer Mathias Gerrard Eckhoff, [1] a second cousin of jurist Ernst Fredrik Eckhoff and actor Johannes Eckhoff, and a grandnephew of architect Niels Stockfleth Darre Eckhoff. [2] In 1941 he married psychologist Eva Bergliot Råness (1921–1991). [1] They resided at Eiksmarka. [3]

Vestre Slidre Municipality in Oppland, Norway

Vestre Slidre is a municipality in Oppland county, Norway. It is part of the traditional region of Valdres. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Slidre. The old municipality of Slidre was divided into Vestre Slidre and Øystre Slidre in 1849.

Ernst Fredrik Eckhoff was a Norwegian judge.

Johannes Eckhoff 1919-2007 Norwegian actor

Johannes Nicolai Eckhoff was a Norwegian actor. He made his stage debut at Trøndelag Teater in 1939, and has later worked for Centralteatret, Det Nye Teater and Riksteatret. He participated in the film Englandsfarere in 1946, and in Kampen om tungtvannet from 1948. He contributed to several radio and television series for children at the Norwegian Broadcasting


Eckhoff finished his secondary education in 1934, and enrolled in law studies at the University of Oslo. He graduated with the cand.jur. degree in 1938, and worked as a deputy judge on the island of Senja until 1940. He then became a lecturer of law, and released several books during World War II. His 1945 book Rettskraft earned him the dr.juris degree in 1947. In 1945 he was hired in the Ministry of Justice and the Police, where he was promoted to assistant secretary after one year. He spent a period from 1947 to 1948 in the United States; this resulted in the book Rettsvesen og rettsvitenskap i USA (1953). [1]

Examen artium was the name of the academic certification conferred in Denmark and Norway, qualifying the student for admission to university studies. Examen artium was originally introduced as the entrance exam of the University of Copenhagen in 1630. The University of Copenhagen was the only university of Denmark-Norway until The Royal Frederick University in Christiania was founded in 1811.

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city is New York City. Most of the country is located contiguously in North America between Canada and Mexico.

In 1953 he left the Ministry of Justice, being appointed as a lecturer at the University of Oslo. He was a member of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters from 1955, and was promoted to professor of jurisprudence in 1957. [1] He retired in 1986. [4] Among the books he wrote are Rettskildelære (1971) and Forvaltningsrett (1978). The latter has since his death been updated and edited by Eivind Smith, while the former is taken care of by Jan E. Helgesen. [1] Both books are still important parts of the curriculum at the University of Oslo. [5] [6] Eckhoff was also known for cooperating with law sociologist Vilhelm Aubert and philosopher of law Nils Kristian Sundby. [4] He held honorary degrees at the University of Bergen, the Stockholm University and the University of Turku, and a festschrift was issued for his seventieth birthday. [1]

Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters academy of sciences

The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters is a learned society based in Oslo, Norway.

Eivind Smith Norwegian legal scholar

Eivind Smith is a Norwegian jurist and professor of law.

Sociology of law sub-discipline of sociology or an interdisciplinary approach within legal studies

The sociology of law is often described as a sub-discipline of sociology or an interdisciplinary approach within legal studies. Some see sociology of law as belonging "necessarily" to the field of sociology, but others tend to consider it a field of research caught up between the disciplines of law and sociology. Still others regard it neither a subdiscipline of sociology nor a branch of legal studies but as a field of research on its own right within the broader social science tradition. Accordingly, it may be described without reference to mainstream sociology as "the systematic, theoretically grounded, empirical study of law as a set of social practices or as an aspect or field of social experience". It has been seen as treating law and justice as fundamental institutions of the basic structure of society mediating "between political and economic interests, between culture and the normative order of society, establishing and maintaining interdependence, and constituting themselves as sources of consensus, coercion and social control".

Regarded as Norway's leading authority on European Community law, Eckhoff was known for his work outside of academica as an opponent of Norwegian membership in the community, later the European Union. [1] He referred to the European Economic Area agreement as "a constitutional catastrophe", [7] and played an important role in the debate leading up to the Norwegian rejection in the Norwegian European Union membership referendum of 1994. However, he did not live to see the result as he died in April 1993 in Copenhagen. [1]

European Union Economic and political union of European states

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. Its members have a combined area of 4,475,757 km2 (1,728,099 sq mi) and an estimated total population of about 513 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, and only those matters, where members have agreed to act as one. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries and regional development. For travel within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002 and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency.

European Economic Area Area of the European Unions internal market and some of EFTA states established in 1994

The European Economic Area (EEA), which was established via the EEA Agreement in 1992, is an international agreement which enables the extension of the European Union (EU)'s single market to non-EU member parties. The EEA links the EU member states and three European Free Trade Association (EFTA) states into an internal market governed by the same basic rules. These rules aim to enable free movement of labour, goods, services, and capital within the European Single Market, including the freedom to choose residence in any country within this area. The EEA was established on 1 January 1994 upon entry into force of the EEA Agreement. The contracting parties are the EU, its member states, and three EFTA member states.

A referendum on joining the European Union was held in Norway on 27 and 28 November 1994. After a long period of heated debate, the "no" side won with 52.2 per cent of the vote, on a turnout of 88.6 per cent. Membership of what was then the European Community had previously been rejected in a 1972 referendum, and by French veto in 1962.

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  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Eng, Svein. "Torstein Eckhoff". In Helle, Knut (ed.). Norsk biografisk leksikon (in Norwegian). Oslo: Kunnskapsforlaget. Retrieved 7 March 2009.
  2. Henriksen, Petter, ed. (2007). "Eckhoff". Store norske leksikon (in Norwegian). Oslo: Kunnskapsforlaget. Retrieved 21 April 2009.
  3. "Torstein Eckhoff 75 år 5. juni" (in Norwegian). Norwegian News Agency. 15 May 1991.
  4. 1 2 Falkanger, Thor (2007). "Torstein Eckhoff". In Henriksen, Petter (ed.). Store norske leksikon (in Norwegian). Oslo: Kunnskapsforlaget. Retrieved 5 March 2009.
  5. Curriculum, University of Oslo 2008
  6. Curriculum, University of Oslo 2008
  7. Skre, Oddvar (12 January 2009). "EØS pluss/minus" (in Norwegian). Nei til EU. Archived from the original on 5 September 2012. Retrieved 24 April 2009.