Toulouse

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Toulouse

Tolosa  (Occitan)
Montage Toulouse 3.jpg
Blason ville fr Toulouse (Haute-Garonne).svg
Coat of arms
Motto(s): 
Per Tolosa totjorn mai
(Occitan  for "For Toulouse, always more")
Location of Toulouse
France location map-Regions and departements-2016.svg
Red pog.svg
Toulouse
Languedoc-Roussillon-Midi-Pyrenees region location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Toulouse
Coordinates: 43°36′16″N1°26′38″E / 43.6045°N 1.444°E / 43.6045; 1.444 Coordinates: 43°36′16″N1°26′38″E / 43.6045°N 1.444°E / 43.6045; 1.444
Country France
Region Occitanie
Department Haute-Garonne
Arrondissement Toulouse
Canton Toulouse-1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11
Intercommunality Toulouse Métropole
Government
  Mayor (2014–2020) Jean-Luc Moudenc (LR)
Area
1
118.3 km2 (45.7 sq mi)
  Urban
 (2010)
811.60 km2 (313.36 sq mi)
  Metro
 (2010)
5,381.49 km2 (2,077.80 sq mi)
Population
 (2016-01-01) [1]
482,738
  Rank 4th in France
  Density4,100/km2 (11,000/sq mi)
   Urban
 (Jan. 2013)
948,433 [2]
   Metro
 (Jan. 2013)
1,330,954 [3]
Demonym(s) English: Toulousian
French: Toulousain(e)
Occitan: tolosenc(a)
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
Website www.toulouse.fr
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Toulouse ( /tˈlz/ , [4] French:  [tuluz] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); Occitan : Tolosa [tuˈluzo] ; Latin : Tolosa) is the capital of the French department of Haute-Garonne and of the region of Occitanie. The city is on the banks of the River Garonne, 150 kilometres (93 miles) from the Mediterranean Sea, 230 km (143 mi) from the Atlantic Ocean and 680 km (420 mi) from Paris. It is the fourth-largest city in France, with 466,297 inhabitants as of January 2014. In France, Toulouse is called the "Pink City" (La Ville Rose).

Occitan language Romance language

Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc by its native speakers, is a Romance language. It is spoken in Southern France, Italy's Occitan Valleys, Monaco, as well as Spain's Val d'Aran; collectively, these regions are sometimes referred to as Occitania. Occitan is also spoken in the linguistic enclave of Guardia Piemontese. Some include Catalan in Occitan, as the distance between this language and some Occitan dialects is similar to the distance among different Occitan dialects. In fact, Catalan was considered an Occitan dialect until the end of the 19th century.

In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-five departments are in metropolitan France, and five are overseas departments, which are also classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; the last two have no autonomy, and are used for the organisation of police, fire departments, and sometimes, elections.

Haute-Garonne Department of France in Occitanie

Haute-Garonne is a department in the Occitanie region of Southwest France. Named after the Garonne, its prefecture and main city is Toulouse, the fourth-largest city in France. In 2016, it had a population of 1,348,183.

Contents

The Toulouse Metro area, with 1,312,304 inhabitants as of 2014, is France's fourth-largest metropolitan area, after Paris, Lyon and Marseille, and ahead of Lille and Bordeaux.

Lyon Prefecture and commune in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, France

Lyon or Lyons is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located in the country's east-central part at the confluence of the rivers Rhône and Saône, about 470 km (292 mi) south from Paris, 320 km (199 mi) north from Marseille and 56 km (35 mi) northeast from Saint-Étienne. Inhabitants of the city are called Lyonnais.

Marseille Second-largest city of France and prefecture of Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur

Marseille is the prefecture of the department of Bouches-du-Rhône and region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. It is located on the Mediterranean coast near the mouth of the Rhône. The city covers an area of 241 km2 (93 sq mi) and had a population of 870,018 in 2016. Its metropolitan area, which extends over 3,173 km2 (1,225 sq mi) is the third-largest in France after those of Paris and Lyon, with a population of 1,831,500 as of 2010.

Lille Prefecture and commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Lille is a city at the northern tip of France, in French Flanders. On the Deûle River, near France's border with Belgium, it is the capital of the Hauts-de-France region, the prefecture of the Nord department, and the main city of the European Metropolis of Lille.

Toulouse is the centre of the European aerospace industry, with the headquarters of Airbus (formerly EADS), the SPOT satellite system, ATR and the Aerospace Valley. It also hosts the European headquarters of Intel and CNES's Toulouse Space Centre (CST), the largest space centre in Europe. [5] Thales Alenia Space, ATR, SAFRAN, Liebherr-Aerospace and Airbus Defence and Space also have a significant presence in Toulouse.

Airbus European aircraft manufacturer

Airbus SE is a European multinational aerospace corporation that stood as the world's second biggest aerospace and defence company in 2018, behind only their primary competitor, Boeing. Airbus is registered in the Netherlands; its shares are traded in Germany, France and Spain. It designs, manufactures and sells civil and military aerospace products worldwide and manufactures aircraft in the European Union and various other countries. The company has three divisions: Commercial Aircraft, Defence and Space, and Helicopters, the third being the largest in its industry in terms of revenues and turbine helicopter deliveries.

ATR (aircraft manufacturer) Aircraft manufacturer

ATR is a Franco-Italian aircraft manufacturer headquartered on the grounds of Toulouse Blagnac International Airport in Blagnac, France.

Aerospace Valley is a French cluster of aerospace engineering companies and research centres. The cluster is located in the regions of Occitanie and Nouvelle Aquitaine in the southwest of France and is mainly concentrated in and around the cities of Bordeaux and Toulouse.

The University of Toulouse is one of the oldest in Europe (founded in 1229) and, with more than 103,000 students, it is the fourth-largest university campus in France, after the universities of Paris, Lyon and Lille. [6]

University of Toulouse Former french university in Toulouse existing from 1896 to 1969

The University of Toulouse is a university in France that was established by papal bull in 1229, making it one of the earliest universities to emerge in Europe. Since the closing of the university in 1793 due to the French Revolution, the University of Toulouse no longer exists as a single institution. However, there have been several independent "successor" universities inheriting the name.

University of Paris former university in Paris, France from 1896 to 1968

The University of Paris, metonymically known as the Sorbonne, was a university in Paris, France, active 1150–1793, and 1806–1970.

University of Lyon Cluster of several higher education insitutions in the region of Lyon in the form of a "Community of universities and higher education institutions" Created in 2015.

The University of Lyon, located in Lyon and Saint-Étienne, France, is a center for higher education and research comprising 12 members and 25 associated institutions. The three main universities in this center are: Claude Bernard University Lyon 1, which focuses upon health and science studies and has approximately 27,000 students; Lumière University Lyon 2, which focuses upon the social sciences and has about 30,000 students; Jean Moulin University Lyon 3, which focuses upon the law and humanities with about 20,000 students.

The air route between Toulouse–Blagnac and Paris Orly is the busiest in Europe, transporting 2.4 million passengers in 2014. [7] According to the rankings of L'Express and Challenges, Toulouse is the most dynamic French city. [8] [9] [10]

Toulouse–Blagnac Airport international airport serving Toulouse, France

Toulouse–Blagnac Airport is an international airport located 3.6 nautical miles west northwest of Toulouse, partially in Blagnac, both communes of the Haute-Garonne department in the Occitanie region of France. In 2017, the airport served 9,264,611 passengers. As of April 2017, the airport features flights to 74 destinations mostly in Europe and Northern Africa with a few additional seasonal long-haul connections.

<i>LExpress</i> French weekly news magazine

L'Express is a French weekly news magazine headquartered in Paris. The weekly stands at the political centre in the French media landscape, and has a lifestyle supplement, L'Express Styles, and a job supplement, Réussir.

Challenges is a French-language weekly business magazine headquartered in Paris, France. Its motto is Que dit l'économie cette semaine?.

The city was the capital of the Visigothic Kingdom in the 5th century and the capital of the province of Languedoc in the Late Middle Ages and early modern period (provinces were abolished during the French Revolution), making it the unofficial capital of the cultural region of Occitania (Southern France). It is now the capital of the Occitanie region, the second largest region in Metropolitan France.

Visigothic Kingdom State that emerged after the Visigothic invasion of the Iberian Peninsula

The Visigothic Kingdom or Kingdom of the Visigoths was a kingdom that occupied what is now southwestern France and the Iberian Peninsula from the 5th to the 8th centuries. One of the Germanic successor states to the Western Roman Empire, it was originally created by the settlement of the Visigoths under King Wallia in the province of Gallia Aquitania in southwest Gaul by the Roman government and then extended by conquest over all of Hispania. The Kingdom maintained independence from the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire, whose attempts to re-establish Roman authority in Hispania were only partially successful and short-lived.

Provinces of France Former subdivisions of France

France was organized into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the department system superseded provinces. The provinces of France were roughly equivalent to the historic counties of England. They came into their final form over the course of many hundreds of years, as many dozens of semi-independent fiefs and former independent countries came to be incorporated into the French royal domain. Because of the haphazard manner in which the provinces evolved, each had its own sets of feudal traditions, laws, taxation systems, courts, etc., and the system represented an impediment to effective administration of the entire country from Paris. During the early years of the French Revolution, in an attempt to centralize the administration of the whole country, and to remove the influence of the French nobility over the country, the entirety of the province system was abolished and replaced by the system of departments in use today.

Languedoc Place in France

Languedoc is a former province of France. Its territory is now contained in the modern-day region of Occitanie in the south of France. Its capital city was Toulouse. It had an area of approximately 42,700 square kilometers.

A city with unique architecture made of pinkish terracotta bricks, which earned it the nickname la Ville Rose ("the Pink City"), Toulouse counts two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Canal du Midi (designated in 1996 and shared with other cities), and the Basilica of St. Sernin, the largest remaining Romanesque building in Europe, [11] designated in 1998 because of its significance to the Santiago de Compostela pilgrimage route.

Geography

Toulouse is in the south of France, north of the department of Haute-Garonne, on the axis of communication between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.

Hydrography

The city is traversed by the Canal de Brienne, the Canal du Midi and the rivers Garonne, Touch and Hers-Mort.

Climate

Toulouse has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa in the Köppen climate classification), with too much precipitation in the summer months preventing the city from being classified as a Mediterranean climate zone.

Climate data for Toulouse (TLS), elevation: 151 m (495 ft), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1947–present
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)21.2
(70.2)
24.1
(75.4)
27.1
(80.8)
30.0
(86.0)
33.4
(92.1)
40.2
(104.4)
40.2
(104.4)
40.7
(105.3)
35.3
(95.5)
30.8
(87.4)
24.3
(75.7)
21.1
(70.0)
40.7
(105.3)
Average high °C (°F)9.5
(49.1)
11.1
(52.0)
14.5
(58.1)
17.0
(62.6)
21.0
(69.8)
25.2
(77.4)
28.0
(82.4)
27.9
(82.2)
24.6
(76.3)
19.5
(67.1)
13.3
(55.9)
9.9
(49.8)
18.5
(65.3)
Daily mean °C (°F)5.9
(42.6)
7.0
(44.6)
9.8
(49.6)
12.1
(53.8)
16.0
(60.8)
19.7
(67.5)
22.3
(72.1)
22.2
(72.0)
19.0
(66.2)
15.0
(59.0)
9.5
(49.1)
6.5
(43.7)
13.8
(56.8)
Average low °C (°F)2.4
(36.3)
3.0
(37.4)
5.0
(41.0)
7.1
(44.8)
10.9
(51.6)
14.3
(57.7)
16.5
(61.7)
16.5
(61.7)
13.4
(56.1)
10.5
(50.9)
5.8
(42.4)
3.2
(37.8)
9.1
(48.4)
Record low °C (°F)−18.6
(−1.5)
−19.2
(−2.6)
−8.4
(16.9)
−3.0
(26.6)
−0.8
(30.6)
4.0
(39.2)
7.6
(45.7)
5.5
(41.9)
1.9
(35.4)
−3.0
(26.6)
−7.5
(18.5)
−12.0
(10.4)
−19.2
(−2.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches)51.3
(2.02)
41.6
(1.64)
49.1
(1.93)
69.6
(2.74)
74.0
(2.91)
60.3
(2.37)
37.7
(1.48)
46.8
(1.84)
47.4
(1.87)
57.0
(2.24)
51.1
(2.01)
52.4
(2.06)
638.3
(25.13)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)9.27.88.69.69.97.15.06.16.58.19.28.695.7
Average snowy days2.12.01.00.20.00.00.00.00.00.00.61.67.5
Average relative humidity (%)87827776767268717481858878
Mean monthly sunshine hours 92.5115.0175.1186.1209.2227.6252.6238.8204.0149.296.085.32,031.3
Source #1: Meteo France [12] [13]
Source #2: Infoclimat.fr (relative humidity 1961–1990) [14]

History

Vomitorium at the Roman amphitheatre in Toulouse Amphitheatre-Toulouse 2.JPG
Vomitorium at the Roman amphitheatre in Toulouse

Early history

The Garonne Valley was a central point for trade between the Pyrenees, the Mediterranean and the Atlantic since at least the Iron Age. The historical name of the city, Tolosa (Τολῶσσα in Greek, and of its inhabitants, the Tolosates, first recorded in the 2nd century BC), it is of unknown meaning or origin, possibly from Aquitanian, or from Iberian, [16] but has also been connected to the name of the Gaulish Volcae Tectosages. [17]

Tolosa enters the historical period in the 2nd century BC, when it became a Roman military outpost. After the conquest of Gaul, it was developed as a Roman city of Gallia Narbonensis. In the 5th century, Tolosa fell to the Visigothic kingdom and became one of its major cities, in the early 6th century even serving as its capital, before it fell to the Franks under Clovis in 507 (Battle of Vouillé). From this time, Toulouse was the capital of Aquitaine within the Frankish realm.

In 721, Duke Odo of Aquitaine defeated an invading Umayyad Muslim army at the Battle of Toulouse. Odo's victory was a small obstacle to Muslim expansion into Christian Europe, and Muslims finally occupied a large territory including Poitiers. Charles Martel, a decade later, won the Battle of Tours, also called the Battle of Poitiers.

The Frankish conquest of Septimania followed in the 750s, and a quasi-independent County of Toulouse emerged within the Carolingian sub-kingdom of Aquitaine by the late 8th century. The Battle of Toulouse of 844, pitting Charles the Bald against Pepin II of Aquitaine, was key in the Carolingian Civil War.

County of Toulouse

Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse was a leader of the First Crusade Raymond IV of Toulouse.jpg
Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse was a leader of the First Crusade

The town became the capital of the County of Toulouse during the Carolingian era.

The Dominican Order was founded in Toulouse in 1215 by Saint Dominic in the context of struggle against the Cathar heresy.

In the Treaty of Paris of 1229, Toulouse formally submitted to the crown of France. The county's sole heiress Joan was engaged to Alphonse, Count of Poitiers, a younger brother of Louis IX of France. The marriage became legal in 1241, but it remained childless so that after Joan's death the county fell to the crown of France by inheritance. Also in 1229, University of Toulouse was established after the Parisian model, intended as a means to dissolve the heretic movement. [ citation needed ]

Various monastic orders, like the congregation of the order of frères prêcheurs, were started. They found home in Les Jacobins. [ citation needed ] In parallel, a long period of inquisition began inside the Toulouse walls. The fear of repression obliged the notabilities to exile, or to convert themselves. The inquisition lasted nearly 400 years, making Toulouse its capital. Count Raimond VII was convicted of heresy and died in 1249 without an heir. [ citation needed ]

Within the Kingdom of France

In 1271, Toulouse was incorporated into the kingdom of France and declared a "royal city". [ citation needed ] In 1323 the Consistori del Gay Saber was established in Toulouse to preserve the lyric art of the troubadours. Toulouse became the centre of Occitan literary culture for the next hundred years; the Consistori was last active in 1484. [ citation needed ]

The 14th century brought a pogrom against Toulouse's Jewish population by Crusaders in 1320, [18] the Black Death in 1348, then the Hundred Years' War. Despite strong immigration, the population lost 10,000 inhabitants in 70 years. By 1405 Toulouse had only 19,000 people. [19]

The situation improved in the 15th century. [20] Charles VII established a parliament. Reinforcing its place as an administrative center, the city grew richer, participating in the trade of Bordeaux wine with England, as well as cereals and textiles. A primary source of income was the production and export of pastel, a blue dye made from woad. [21]

The Capitole de Toulouse, Toulouse's city hall, is an example of the 18th-century architectural projects in the city. Capitole de Toulouse.jpg
The Capitole de Toulouse, Toulouse's city hall, is an example of the 18th-century architectural projects in the city.

Within the French Republic

The Battle of Toulouse (1814) was one of the final battles of the Napoleonic Wars, four days after Napoleon's surrender of the French Empire to the nations of the Sixth Coalition. Toulouse, the regional capital, proved stoutly defended by Marshal Soult.

Population

Historical population
Urban Area Metropolitan
Area
1695
43,000
1750
48,000
1790
52,863
1801
50,171
1831
59,630
1851
95,277
1872
126,936
1911
149,000
1936
213,220
1946
264,411
1954
268,865
1962
329,044
1968
439,764
474,000
1975
509,939
585,000
1982
541,271
645,000
1990
650,336
797,373
1999
761,090
964,797
2006
851,947
1,169,865
2015
948,433
1,330,954

The population of the city proper (French: commune ) was 479,638 at the January 2015 census, [22] with 1,330,954 inhabitants in the metropolitan area (within the 2010 borders of the metropolitan area), up from 1,169,865 at the January 2006 census (within the same 2010 borders of the metropolitan area). [3] Thus, the metropolitan area registered a population growth rate of +1.5% per year between 2006 and 2011, the highest growth rate of any French metropolitan area larger than 500,000 inhabitants, although it is slightly lower than the growth rate registered between the 1999 and 2006 censuses.

Toulouse is the fourth largest city in France, after Paris, Marseille and Lyon, and the fourth-largest metropolitan area after Paris, Lyon, and Marseille.

Fueled by booming aerospace and high-tech industries, population growth of +1.49% a year in the metropolitan area in the 1990s (compared with +0.37% for metropolitan France), and a record +1.87% a year in the early 2000s (+0.68% for metropolitan France), which is the highest population growth of any French metropolitan area larger than 500,000 inhabitants, means the Toulouse metropolitan area overtook Lille as the fourth-largest metropolitan area of France at the 2006 census.

A local Jewish group estimates there are about 2,500 Jewish families in Toulouse. A Muslim association has estimated there are some 35,000 Muslims in town. [23]

Government and politics

Toulouse Métropole

The Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse (Communauté d'agglomération du Grand Toulouse) was created in 2001 to better coordinate transport, infrastructure and economic policies between the city of Toulouse and its immediate independent suburbs. It succeeds a previous district which had been created in 1992 with fewer powers than the current council. It combines the city of Toulouse and 24 independent communes, covering an area of 380 km2 (147 sq mi), totalling a population of 583,229 inhabitants (as of 1999 census), 67% of whom live in the city of Toulouse proper. As of February 2004 estimate, the total population of the Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse was 651,209 inhabitants, 65.5% of whom live in the city of Toulouse. Due to local political feuds, the Community of Agglomeration only hosts 61% of the population of the metropolitan area, the other independent suburbs having refused to join in. Since 2009, the Community of agglomeration has become an urban community (in French: communauté urbaine). This has become a métropole in 2015, spanning 37 communes. [24]

Local politics

Toulouse's city hall, the Capitole de Toulouse, and the square of the same name with the Occitan cross designed by Raymond Moretti on the ground Toulouse Capitole Night Wikimedia Commons.jpg
Toulouse's city hall, the Capitole de Toulouse, and the square of the same name with the Occitan cross designed by Raymond Moretti on the ground
The fountain in Wilson Square (Place du President Thomas Wilson) shows the poet Peire Godolin Alexandre Falguiere - Peire Godolin -Toulouse.jpg
The fountain in Wilson Square (Place du Président Thomas Wilson) shows the poet Pèire Godolin

One of the major political figures in Toulouse was Dominique Baudis, the mayor of Toulouse between 1983 and 2001, member of the centrist UDF. [ citation needed ] First known as a journalist famous for his coverage of the war in Lebanon, 36-year-old Dominique Baudis succeeded his father Pierre Baudis in 1983 as mayor of Toulouse. (Pierre Baudis was mayor from 1971 to 1983.) The Baudis dynasty succeeded in turning Toulouse into a center-right stronghold, whereas historically the city had been left-leaning since the 19th century. [ citation needed ]

During his time as mayor, Toulouse's economy and population boomed. [ citation needed ] He tried to strengthen the international role of Toulouse (such as its Airbus operations), as well as revive the cultural heritage of the city. The Occitan cross, flag of Languedoc and symbol of the counts of Toulouse, was chosen as the new flag of the city, instead of the traditional coat of arms of Toulouse (which included the fleur de lis of the French monarchy). Many cultural institutions were created, in order to attract foreign expatriates and emphasise the city's past. For example, monuments dating from the time of the counts of Toulouse were restored, the city's symphonic concert hall (Halle aux Grains) was refurbished, a city theater was built, a Museum of Modern Art was founded, the Bemberg Foundation (European paintings and bronzes from the Renaissance to the 20th century) was established, a huge pop music concert venue (Zénith, the largest in France outside Paris) was built, the space museum and educational park Cité de l'Espace was founded, etc.

To deal with growth, major housing and transportation projects were launched. Line A of the underground was opened in 1993, and line B opened in 2007. The creation of a system of underground car parking structures in Toulouse city centre was sharply criticised by the Green Party. [25]

In 2000, Dominique Baudis was at the zenith of his popularity, with approval rates of 85%. [ citation needed ] He announced that he would not run for a fourth (6-year) term in 2001. He explained that with 3 terms he was already the longest-serving mayor of Toulouse since the French Revolution; he felt that change would be good for the city, and that the number of terms should be limited. He endorsed Philippe Douste-Blazy, then UDF mayor of Lourdes as his successor. Baudis has since been appointed president of the CSA ( Conseil supérieur de l'audiovisuel ) in Paris, the French equivalent of the American FCC.

Philippe Douste-Blazy narrowly won in the 2001 elections, which saw the left making its best showing in decades. Douste-Blazy had to deal with a reinvigorated political opposition, as well as with the dramatic explosion of the AZF plant in late 2001.

In March 2004, he entered the national government, and left Toulouse in the hands of his second-in-command Jean-Luc Moudenc, elected mayor by the municipal council. In March 2008, Moudenc was defeated by the Socialist Party's candidate Pierre Cohen.

At the next elections in 2014 Moudenc defeated Cohen in a rematch to re-take the job with more than 52% of the votes.

Mayors

Mayor Term startTerm end Party
Raymond Badiou1944September 1958 SFIO
G. CarrèreSeptember 195816 October 1958 SFIO
Louis Bazerque 16 October 19581971 SFIO
Pierre Baudis March 1971March 1983 UDF
Dominique Baudis March 198323 January 2001 UDF
Guy Hersant23 January 200123 March 2001 UDF
Philippe Douste-Blazy 23 March 200130 April 2004 UDF
Françoise de Veyrinas 30 April 20046 May 2004 UMP
Jean-Luc Moudenc 6 May 200417 March 2008 UMP
Pierre Cohen 17 March 20084 April 2014 PS
Jean-Luc Moudenc 4 April 2014incumbent UMP

Sights

Toulouse Cathedral Facade de la cathedrale Saint-Etienne de Toulouse.jpg
Toulouse Cathedral

The Capitole de Toulouse (mainly 18th century), houses the Hôtel de Ville (city hall), the Théâtre du Capitole (opera house), and the 16th-century Donjon du Capitole tower. It is located on the Place du Capitole. The Cité de l'espace (Space City) is a theme park of space exploration. The Médiathèque José Cabanis is a library. The Jardin des Plantes is a large park spanning several blocks, including a museum, cafés, activities for children and a botanical garden. Toulouse has many hôtels particuliers (large single-family homes usually enclosing an inner courtyard), the most significant being the Hôtel d'Assézat, which now houses five centuries of European art from the Renaissance to the 19th century.

The Bazacle is a ford across the Garonne river, built in the late 12th century and also used for hydroelectricity. The river is crossed by the Pont Neuf from the 16th century.

Religious buildings

Toulouse Cathedral is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Toulouse. Saint-Sernin Basilica, part of the Way of Saint James UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the largest Romanesque church in Europe. The Daurade basilica, of the 18th–19th century, was founded as a temple to the Roman god Apollo before conversion to Christianity in 410 AD. The Church of the Jacobins, (French: Ensemble conventuel des Jacobins) in Toulouse is the burial place of Saint Thomas Aquinas.

Economy

The main Airbus factory in Blagnac, near Toulouse, lies next to Toulouse Airport Airbus Toulouse plant entrance DSC02696.jpg
The main Airbus factory in Blagnac, near Toulouse, lies next to Toulouse Airport

The main industries are aeronautics, space, electronics, information technology and biotechnology. Toulouse hosts the Airbus headquarters and assembly-lines of Airbus A320, A330, A350 and A380. (A320 lines also exist in Hamburg, Germany, Tianjin, China, and Mobile, Alabama, USA.) Airbus has its head office in Blagnac, near Toulouse. [26] [27] Airbus's France division has its main office in Toulouse. [27] Toulouse also hosts the headquarters of ATR, Sigfox, one of the two headquarters of Liebherr Aerospace and Groupe Latécoère. The Concorde supersonic aircraft was also constructed in Toulouse.

Education

Portal of the college de l'Esquile (1556), a symbol of the University's seniority Ancien petit Seminaire de l'Esquile.jpg
Portal of the college de l'Esquile (1556), a symbol of the University's seniority

Toulouse has the fourth-largest student population in France after Paris, Lyon and Lille with 103,000 students (2012). [28]

Colleges and universities

IONIS Education Group Toulouse campus Entree campus IPSA Toulouse (2).jpg
IONIS Education Group Toulouse campus
ENAC entrance Entree de l'ENAC Toulouse.jpg
ENAC entrance

The University of Toulouse (Université de Toulouse), established in 1229, is located here (now split into three separate universities). Like the universities in Oxford and Paris, the University of Toulouse was established at a time when Europeans were starting to translate the writings of Arabs of Andalus and Greek philosophers. These writings challenged European ideology—inspiring scientific discoveries and advances in the arts—as society began seeing itself in a new way. These colleges were supported by the Church, in hopes of reconciling Greek philosophy and Christian theology.

Toulouse is also the home of Toulouse Business School (TBS), Toulouse School of Economics (TSE), the Institut supérieur européen de gestion group (ISEG Group), the Institut supérieur européen de formation par l'action (ISEFAC), E-Artsup and several engineering schools:

Primary and secondary schools

The most well known high schools in Toulouse are Lycée Pierre-de-Fermat  [ fr ], Lycée Saint-Joseph and Lycée Saint-Sernin.

International schools serving area expatriates are in nearby Colomiers:

Transport

Line A of the Toulouse Metro. MetroA.jpg
Line A of the Toulouse Metro.

Train

The main railway station, with regional and national services, is Toulouse-Matabiau.

Metro

In addition to an extensive bus system, the Toulouse Metro is a VAL (Véhicule Automatique Léger) metro system made up of driverless (automatic) rubber-tired trains. Line A runs for 12.5 km (7.8 mi) from Balma-Gramont in the north-east to Basso Cambo in the south-west. Line B, which opened in June 2007, serves 20 stations north to south and intersects line A at Jean Jaurès.

Line C has existed since line A was completed. It is not VAL but an urban railway line operated by SNCF. It connects to line A at Arènes. Two other stations located in Toulouse are also served by line C. Lardenne, formerly named "Gare des Capelles", changed its name in September 2003 when line C opened. [29] Le TOEC station opened on 1 September 2003 with the creation of line C, allowing an urban train service in Toulouse and close western suburbs. [29]

Similarly, Line D runs south from Toulouse Matabiau to Muret.

Tramway

The tramway line T1 (operating since December 2010), runs from Beauzelle to Toulouse passing through Blagnac. All urban bus, metro and tram services are operated by Tisséo. Tramway line T2 is a branch of the first line serving notably Toulouse Blagnac airport.

Bicycle

In 2007, a citywide bicycle rental scheme called VélôToulouse was introduced, [30] with bicycles available from automated stations for a daily, weekly, monthly or yearly subscription.

Airports

Airports include:

Canal

The Canal du Midi begins in Toulouse and runs up to Sète.

Toulouse public transportation statistics

The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Toulouse, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 44 min. 9.1% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 9 min, while 10.4% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 7 km, while 8% travel for over 12 km in a single direction. [31]

Communications

Toulouse is the home of Bonhoure Radio Tower, a 61-metre high lattice tower used for FM and TV transmission. [32] In 2001 a large (100 km) optical fiber (symmetric 360Gbit/s) network named Infrastructure Métropolitaine de Télécommunications was deployed around the city and suburbs. [33]

Culture

Musee des Augustins Cloitres des Augustins-Toulouse-2005-05-14.jpg
Musée des Augustins

The Théâtre du Capitole is the home of opera and ballet; there has been a theatre on the site since 1736. [34] The Orchestre National du Capitole, long associated with Michel Plasson, plays at the Halle aux Grains. [35]

Le Château d'Eau, [36] an old 19th-century water-tower, was converted as a gallery in 1974 by Jean Dieuzaide, a French photographer from Toulouse and is now one of the oldest public places dedicated to photography in the world. Toulouse's art museums include the Musée des Augustins, the Musée des Abattoirs, the Musée Georges Labit, and the Fondation Bemberg in the Hôtel d'Assézat. The Musée Saint-Raymond is devoted to Antiquity and the Muséum de Toulouse to natural history.

Toulouse is the seat of the Académie des Jeux Floraux, the equivalent of the French Academy for the Occitan-speaking regions of southern France, making Toulouse the unofficial capital of Occitan culture. The traditional Cross of Toulouse (from Provence, under the name of cross of Provence), emblem of the County of Toulouse and commonly widespread around all of Occitania during the Middle Ages is the symbol of the city and of the newly founded Midi-Pyrénées région, as well as a popular Occitan symbol.

The city's gastronomic specialties include the Saucisse de Toulouse, a type of sausage, cassoulet Toulousain, a bean and pork stew, and garbure , a cabbage soup with poultry. Also, foie gras, the liver of an overfed duck or goose, is a delicacy commonly made in the Midi-Pyrénées. [37]

Sport

Toulouse Olympique playing rugby league against Gateshead Thunder (June 2009) TOteam.jpg
Toulouse Olympique playing rugby league against Gateshead Thunder (June 2009)

Stade Toulousain of the Top 14 is one of the most successful rugby union clubs in all of Europe, having been crowned European champions four times and French champions twenty times. [38] [39]

Toulouse Olympique represents the city in rugby league, playing in the English/European 2nd tier Championship from 2017.

The city also has a professional football team, Toulouse FC, who play in Ligue 1, the highest level of football in France, and won the 1957 Coupe de France Final. The club play at the Stadium Municipal, which was a venue during the 1998 FIFA World Cup and 2007 Rugby World Cup, as well as hosting important club rugby games and several Rugby League World Cups. Toulouse was also a host of EuroBasket 1999.

Notable people

Bust of mathematician Pierre de Fermat in the Capitole de Toulouse Capitole Toulouse - Salle Henri-Martin - Buste de Pierre de Fermat.jpg
Bust of mathematician Pierre de Fermat in the Capitole de Toulouse

Several notable Toulousains have been scientists, such as Jean Dausset, 1980 winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine; 17th-century mathematician Pierre de Fermat, who spent his life in Toulouse, where he wrote Fermat's Last Theorem and was a lawyer in the city's Parlement; Paul Sabatier, 1912 winner of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry; Albert Fert, [40] 2007 winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics who grew up in Toulouse where he attended the Lycée Pierre-de-Fermat  [ fr ] and Jean Tirole, owner of the 2014 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences, chairman and founder of the Toulouse School of Economics along with Jean-Jacques Laffont.

Musically, Toulouse is one of the two controversial, disputed birthplaces of Carlos Gardel (the other being Tacuarembo, Uruguay), probably the most prominent figure in the history of the tango. The city's most renowned songwriter is Claude Nougaro. The composer and organist Georges Guiraud (1868–1928) was born in Toulouse.

Concerning arts, Toulouse is the birthplace of Impressionist painter Henri Martin as well as sculptors Alexandre Falguière and Antonin Mercié. Moreover, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres and Antoine Bourdelle were trained at the Toulouse fine arts school. Post Impressionist painter Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec's (1864-1901) father was Count Alphonse Charles de Toulouse-Lautrec Monfa (1838-1913) and was part of an aristocratic family of Counts of Toulouse, Odet de Foix, Vimcomte de Lautrec and the Viscounts of Montfa. French graffiti artist Cyril Kongo was born in Toulouse in 1969.

Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse, one of the leaders of the First Crusade, was born in Toulouse. Aviation pioneer Clément Ader and psychiatrist Jean-Étienne Dominique Esquirol were also natives.

International relations

Twin towns and sister cities

Toulouse is twinned with: [41]

Other cooperations

Toulouse also has accords of cooperation with the following towns: [42]

See also

Related Research Articles

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Midi-Pyrénées Region of France

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