Tournai

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Tournai

Tornai  (Picard)

Doornik  (Dutch)
La Grand-Place de Tournai.jpg
Tournai Grand-Place
Flag of Tournai.svg
Flag
Blason de Tournai.svg
Coat of arms
Belgium location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Tournai
Location in Belgium
Location of Tournai in Hainaut
Tournai Hainaut Belgium Map.png
Coordinates: 50°36′N3°23′E / 50.600°N 3.383°E / 50.600; 3.383 Coordinates: 50°36′N3°23′E / 50.600°N 3.383°E / 50.600; 3.383
Country Belgium
Community French Community
Region Wallonia
Province Hainaut
Arrondissement Tournai
Government
  MayorRudy Demotte (PS)
  Governing party/ies PS-cdH
Area
  Total213.75 km2 (82.53 sq mi)
Population
 (2018-01-01) [1]
  Total69,554
  Density330/km2 (840/sq mi)
Postal codes
7500-7548
Area codes 069
Website www.tournai.be

Tournai ( /tʊərˈn/ toor-NAY, French:  [tuʁnɛ] ; Picard : Tornai (and Walloon : Tornè) Walloon:  [tɔʀ.'nɛ]( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); Latin : Tornacum), known in Dutch as Doornik and historically as Dornick in English, is a Walloon municipality of Belgium, 85 kilometres (53 miles) southwest of Brussels on the river Scheldt. In the province of Hainaut, Tournai is part of Eurometropolis Lille–Kortrijk–Tournai, which had 2,155,161 residents in 2008. [2] [3]

Contents

Tournai is one of the oldest cities in Belgium and has played an important role in the country's cultural history. It was the first capital of the Frankish Empire, with Clovis I being born here.

Geography

Tournai is located in the Wallonia and Romance Flanders region of Belgium, at the southern limit of the Flemish plain, in the basin of the River Scheldt (Escaut in French, Schelde in Dutch). Administratively, the town is part of the Province of Hainaut, itself part of Wallonia. It is also a municipality that is part of the French-speaking Community of Belgium. Tournai has its own arrondissements, both administrative and judicial.

Its area of 213.75 square kilometres (82.53 square miles) makes it the largest municipality in size in Belgium; it is also the largest in population in Western Hainaut. The municipality of Tournai consists of the former municipalities of Ere, Saint-Maur, Orcq, Esplechin, Froyennes, Froidmont, Willemeau, Ramegnies-Chin, Templeuve, Chercq, Blandain, Hertain, Lamain, Marquain, Gaurain-Ramecroix, Havinnes, Beclers, Thimougies, Barry, Maulde, Vaulx, Vezon, Kain, Melles, Quartes, Rumillies, Mont-Saint-Aubert, Mourcourt and Warchin.

Geology

Rocks from the Tournai area date from the Carboniferous Period and have been used to define the Tournaisian Age, a subdivision of the Carboniferous lasting from 359 to 345 million years ago. Tournai stone is a dark limestone which takes a polish and was used particularly in the Romanesque period for sculpted items such as Tournai fonts. It is also hard enough to have been used locally for pavements and kerb-stones. It is sometimes called Tournai marble, though this is geologically inaccurate.

History

Historical affiliations

Salian Franks 432–481
Francia 481–843
West Francia 843–987
Pavillon royal de la France.svg Kingdom of France 987–1513
Flag of England.svg  Kingdom of England 1513–1519
Pavillon royal de la France.svg Kingdom of France 1519–1521
Flag of the Low Countries.svg Habsburg Netherlands 1521–1556
Flag of the Low Countries.svg Spanish Netherlands 1556–1668
Pavillon royal de France.svg Kingdom of France 1668–1713
Austrian Low Countries Flag.svg Austrian Netherlands 1714–1794
Flag of France (1794-1815).svg French Republic 1794–1804
Flag of France (1794-1815).svg French Empire 1804–1815
Flag of the Netherlands.svg Kingdom of the Netherlands 1815–1830
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Kingdom of Belgium 1830–present

Tournai, known as Tornacum, was a place of minor importance in Roman times, a stopping place where the Roman road from Cologne on the Rhine to Boulogne on the coast crossed the river Scheldt. It was fortified under Maximian in the 3rd century AD, [4] when the Roman limes was withdrawn to the string of outposts along the road. It came into the possession of the Salian Franks in 432. Under king Childeric I, whose tomb was discovered there in 1653, [5] Tournai was the capital of the Frankish empire. In 486, Clovis moved the center of power to Paris. In turn, a native son of Tournai, Eleutherius, became bishop of the newly created bishopric of Tournai, extending over most of the area west of the Scheldt. In 862 Charles the Bald, first king of Western Francia and still to become Holy Roman Emperor, would make Tournai the seat of the County of Flanders.

Siege of Tournai, 1581 Doornik 1581.jpg
Siege of Tournai, 1581

After the partition of the Frankish empire by the Treaties of Verdun (843) and of Meerssen (870), Tournai remained in the western part of the empire, which in 987 became France. The city participated in 11th-century rise of towns in the Low Countries, with a woollen cloth industry based on English wool, which soon made it attractive to wealthy merchants. An ambitious rebuilding of the cathedral was initiated in 1030. The commune's drive for independence from the local counts succeeded in 1187, and the city was henceforth directly subordinated to the French Crown, as the seigneurie de Tournaisis , as the city's environs are called. The stone Pont des Trous  [ fr ] over the Scheldt, with defensive towers at either end, was built in 1290, replacing an earlier wooden structure.

During the 15th century, the city's textile trade boomed and it became an important supplier of tapestry. The art of painting flourished too: Jacques Daret, Robert Campin and Rogier van der Weyden all came from Tournai. It was captured in 1513 by Henry VIII of England, making it the only Belgian city ever to have been ruled by England. It was also represented in the 1515 Parliament of England. [6] The city was handed back to French rule in 1519, following the Treaty of London (1518).

Siege of Tournai, 1709 Eugene-Henry-Fricx-Table-des-cartes-des-Pays-Bas MG 0564.tif
Siege of Tournai, 1709

In 1521, Emperor Charles V added the city to his possessions in the Low Countries, leading to a period of religious strife and economic decline. During the 16th century, Tournai was a bulwark of Calvinism, but eventually it was conquered by the Spanish governor of the Low Countries, the Duke of Parma, following a prolonged siege in 1581. After the fall of the city, its Protestant inhabitants were given one year to sell their possessions and emigrate, a policy that was at the time considered relatively humane, since very often religious opponents were simply massacred.

One century later, in 1668, the city briefly returned to France under Louis XIV in the Treaty of Aachen. After the end of the War of Spanish Succession in 1713, under terms of the Treaty of Utrecht the former Spanish Netherlands, including Tournai, came into possession of the Austrian Habsburgs. In 1794, France annexed the Austrian Netherlands during the French Revolutionary Wars and Tournai became part of the department of Jemmape. From 1815 on, following the Napoleonic Wars, Tournai formed part of the United Netherlands and after 1830 of newly independent Belgium. Badly damaged in 1940, Tournai has since been carefully restored.

Main sights

"Pont des Trous" bridge on the Scheldt river with Our Lady's Cathedral of Tournai in the distance Tournai JPG05a.jpg
"Pont des Trous" bridge on the Scheldt river with Our Lady's Cathedral of Tournai in the distance

Tournai is considered to be one of the most important cultural sites in Belgium. The mixed Romanesque- and Gothic-style cathedral of Notre Dame de Tournai and the belfry, considered the oldest in Belgium, [7] have been designated by UNESCO as World Heritage Sites. [8] [9] Inside the cathedral, the Châsse de Notre-Dame flamande, a beautifully ornate 12th-century reliquary, gives witness to Tournai's wealth in the Middle Ages. Other places of interest are the 13th-century Scheldt bridge (Pont des Trous) [10] and the main square (Grand Place), as well as several old city gates, historic warehouses, and a variety of museums.

On rue Barre-St-Brice are two of the oldest private houses in Europe, dating from between 1175 and 1200 and built in the Romanesque style, [11] while the rue des Jésuites includes a Gothic house from the 13th century.

As in many Belgian cities there are a number of cafés and pubs in the Grand Place. In the middle of the Grand Place there are a series of water fountains while the circular staircase to the top of the belfry can be climbed.

There are several buildings in the art nouveau style.

Culture

A French-speaking Walloon town

Grand Place Tournai, straatzicht Grand Place positie4 foto3 2013-05-08 19.30.jpg
Grand Place

Tournai is a French-speaking town of Belgium. The local language is tournaisien, a Picard dialect similar to that of other communes of Hainaut and Northern France.

Tournai belongs to Romance Flanders, like Lille, Douai, Tourcoing, and Mouscron. The city of Tournai was one of the greatest cultural and economic centers of the County of Flanders. Some traces can still be seen today:

Although Tournai is in the Flemish cultural area (of the Scheldt), it also possesses some treasures of the Mosan style. Indeed, the two most beautiful shrines of the Cathedral, commissioned by the Bishop of Tournai, were made in the region of Liège by the artist Nicholas of Verdun: the shrines of Saint-Eleutherius and of Our Lady of Flanders (13th century). Those shrines testify to the opulence of the towns of Tournai and Liège during the Middle-Ages. The shrine of Our Lady of Flanders has been called one of the seven wonders of Belgium.

Festivities

Education

The Faculty of architecture, architectural engineering and urban planning of the University of Louvain (UCLouvain) is located in Tournai.

People born in Tournai

Twin towns

Related Research Articles

Walloons French-speaking people who live in Belgium, principally in Wallonia

Walloons are a Romance ethnic group native to Belgium, principally its southern region of Wallonia, who primarily speak langues d'oïl dialects such as Belgian French, Picard and Walloon. Walloons are a distinctive ethnic community within Belgium. Important historical and anthropological criteria bind Walloons to the French people.

Scheldt river in France, Belgium and the Netherlands

The Scheldt is a 350-kilometre (220 mi) long river in northern France, western Belgium, and the southwestern part of the Netherlands. Its name is derived from an adjective corresponding to Old English sceald ("shallow"), Modern English shoal, Low German schol, West Frisian skol, and Swedish (obsolete) skäll ("thin").

Seventeen Provinces Union of states in the Netherlands in the 15th and 16th centuries

The Seventeen Provinces were the Imperial states of the Habsburg Netherlands in the 16th century. They roughly covered the Low Countries, i.e. what is now the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and most of the French departments of Nord and Pas-de-Calais (Artois). Also within this area were semi-independent fiefdoms, mainly ecclesiastical ones, such as Liège, Cambrai and Stavelot-Malmedy.

Wallonia Region of Belgium

Wallonia is a region of Belgium. As the southern portion of the country, Wallonia is primarily French-speaking, and accounts for 55% of Belgium's territory, but only a third of its population. The Walloon Region was not merged with the French Community of Belgium, which is the political entity responsible for matters related mainly to culture and education, because the French Community of Belgium encompasses both Wallonia and the majority French-Speaking Brussels-Capital Region.

Hainaut Province Province of Belgium

Hainaut, historically also known as Heynowes in English, is a province of Wallonia and Belgium.

Dendermonde Municipality in Flemish Community, Belgium

Dendermonde is a city in the Flemish province of East Flanders in Belgium. The municipality comprises the city of Dendermonde and the towns of Appels, Baasrode, Grembergen, Mespelare, Oudegem, Schoonaarde, and Sint-Gillis-bij-Dendermonde. Dendermonde is at the mouth of the river Dender, where it flows into the Scheldt. The town has a long-standing folkloric feud with Aalst, south along the same river, which dates from the Middle Ages.

Rogier van der Weyden or Roger de la Pasture was an Early Netherlandish painter whose surviving works consist mainly of religious triptychs, altarpieces and commissioned single and diptych portraits. He was highly successful and internationally famous in his lifetime; his paintings were exported – or taken – to Italy and Spain, and he received commissions from, amongst others, Philip the Good, Netherlandish nobility, and foreign princes. By the latter half of the 15th century, he had eclipsed Jan van Eyck in popularity. However his fame lasted only until the 17th century, and largely due to changing taste, he was almost totally forgotten by the mid-18th century. His reputation was slowly rebuilt during the following 200 years; today he is known, with Robert Campin and van Eyck, as the third of the three great Early Flemish artists, and widely as the most influential Northern painter of the 15th century.

Robert Campin first great master of Flemish and Early Netherlandish painting

Robert Campin, now usually identified with the Master of Flémalle, was the first great master of Flemish and Early Netherlandish painting. Campin's identity and the attribution of the paintings in both the "Campin" and "Master of Flémalle" groupings have been a matter of controversy for decades. Campin was highly successful during his lifetime, and thus his activities are relatively well documented, but he did not sign or date his works, and none can be securely connected with him. A corpus of work attached to the unidentified "Master of Flémalle", so named in the 19th century after three religious panels said to have come from a monastery in Flémalle. They are each assumed to be wings of triptychs or polyptychs, and are the Virgin and Child with a Firescreen now in London, a panel fragment with the Thief on the Cross in Frankfurt, and the Brussels version of the Mérode Altarpiece.

Burgundian Netherlands the Netherlands from 1384 to 1482

In the history of the Low Countries, the Burgundian Netherlands were a number of Imperial and French fiefs ruled in personal union by the House of Valois-Burgundy in the period from 1384 to 1482 and later their Habsburg heirs. The area comprised large parts of present-day Belgium and the Netherlands, as well as Luxembourg and parts of northern France.

French Flanders

French Flanders is a part of the historical County of Flanders in present-day France where Flemings were traditionally the dominant ethnic group and where a dialect of Dutch was or still is traditionally spoken. The region lies in the modern-day region of Hauts-de-France and roughly corresponds to the arrondissements of Lille, Douai and Dunkirk on the southern border with Belgium. Together with French Hainaut and the Cambrésis, it makes up the French Department of Nord.

Jacques Daret Dutch painter

Jacques Daret was an Early Netherlandish painter born in Tournai, where he would spend much of his life. Daret spent 15 years as a pupil in the studio of Robert Campin, alongside Rogier or Rogelet de le Pasture, and afterwards became a master in his own right. He became a favorite of the Burgundian court, and his patron for 20 years was the abbot of St. Vaast in Arras, Jean de Clercq.

Tournai Cathedral cathedral

The Tournai Cathedral, or Cathedral of Our Lady , is a Roman Catholic church, see of the Diocese of Tournai in Tournai, Belgium. It has been classified both as a Wallonia's major heritage since 1936 and as a World Heritage Site since 2000.

Belfries of Belgium and France group of 56 historical buildings designated by UNESCO as World Heritage Site

The Belfries of Belgium and France are a group of 56 historical buildings designated by UNESCO as World Heritage Site, in recognition of an architectural manifestation of emerging civic independence from feudal and religious influences in historic Flanders and neighboring regions of the Duchy of Burgundy.

Kortrijk Municipality in Flemish Region, Belgium

Kortrijk, also known in English as Courtrai or Courtray, is a Belgian city and municipality in the Flemish province of West Flanders.

History of Flanders

This article describes the history of Flanders. The definition of the territory called "Flanders", however, has varied throughout history.

Tournaisis region in Belgium

The Tournaisis was a small territory in the Low Countries independent during the Middle Ages, consisting of the city of Tournai and the surrounding area.

Despite its size, Belgium has a long and distinguished artistic tradition that goes back to the Middle Ages, considerably pre-dating the foundation of the current state in 1830. Art from the areas making up modern Belgium is called in English Netherlandish up to the separation with the Netherlands from 1570 on, and Flemish until the 18th century.

<i>Jean Wauquelin presenting his Chroniques de Hainaut to Philip the Good</i> miniature attributed to Rogier van der Weyden or his workshop

Jean Wauquelin presenting his 'Chroniques de Hainaut' to Philip the Good is a presentation miniature believed to have been painted by the Flemish artist Rogier van der Weyden. It decorates the frontispiece to the Chroniques de Hainaut, MS KBR.9242, a translation from Latin into French of a three volume history in of the County of Hainaut by Jean Wauquelin. The Latin text was originally written by the 14th century Franciscan historian Jacques de Guyse.

County of Flanders French fiefdom and historic territory in the Low Countries

The County of Flanders was a historic territory in the Low Countries.

Chronicles of Hainaut manuscript by Jean Wauquelin

The Chronicles of Hainaut is an illuminated manuscript in three volumes, tracing the history of the county of Hainaut up to the end of the 14th century. Its text was produced around 1446-1450 by Jean Wauquelin as a French translation of Annales historiae illustrium principum Hannoniæ, a three-volume Latin work produced by Jacques de Guise around 1390-1396. It was made for Philip the Good of Burgundy and is now in the Bibliothèque royale de Belgique in Brussels.

References

  1. "Wettelijke Bevolking per gemeente op 1 januari 2018". Statbel. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  2. List of municipalities
  3. "EUROMETROPOLIS : Eurometropolis Lille-Kortrijk-Tournai , the 1st european cross-bordrer metropolis". eurometropolis.eu. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
  4. Williams, Stephen. Diocletian and the Roman Recovery. New York: Routledge, 1997:50f.
  5. Archaeology in Europe Educational Resources. "Location of Childeric's Grave". Archived from the original on 1 July 2015. Retrieved 21 May 2015.
  6. Davies, C. S. L. "Tournai and the English crown, 1513-1519." Historical Journal (1998): 1-26.
  7. UNESCO, UNESCO » Culture » World Heritage Centre » The List » World Heritage List >> Belfries of Belgium and France >> Documents. "World Heritage Scanned Nomination" (in French). https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/nominations/943bis.pdf. p. 3. Retrieved 21 May 2015. Selon certaines sources, le beffroi de Tournai, considéré comme le plus ancien en Belgique (1187)CS1 maint: location (link)
  8. UNESCO, World Heritage List. "Notre-Dame Cathedral in Tournai". UNESCO » Culture » World Heritage Centre » The List » World Heritage List. Retrieved 21 May 2015.
  9. UNESCO, World Heritage List. "Belfries of Belgium and France" . Retrieved 21 May 2015.
  10. Tournai Office du Tourisme. "The " Pont des Trous"". Home / See & do / Attractions /The " Pont des Trous".
  11. Tourisme Wallonie. "Visite : Monument LES MAISONS ROMANES" (in French). Retrieved 21 May 2015.
  12. "Tournai jumelé avec Bethléem". dhnet.be. Retrieved 15 February 2017.