Toyama (city)

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Toyama

富山市
Toyama montage.jpg
Flag of Toyama, Toyama.svg
Flag
Symbol of Toyama, Toyama.svg
Seal
Toyama in Toyama Prefecture Ja.svg
Location of Toyama in Toyama Prefecture
Japan location map with side map of the Ryukyu Islands.svg
Red pog.svg
Toyama
 
Coordinates: 36°41′45.3″N137°12′49.3″E / 36.695917°N 137.213694°E / 36.695917; 137.213694 Coordinates: 36°41′45.3″N137°12′49.3″E / 36.695917°N 137.213694°E / 36.695917; 137.213694
Country Flag of Japan.svg  Japan
Region Chūbu
Prefecture Flag of Toyama.png  Toyama
First official recorded6th century AD
City settledApril 1, 1889
Government
  MayorMasashi Mori
Area
   Core city 1,241.77 km2 (479.45 sq mi)
Population
 (June 1, 2019)
   Core city 415,844
  Density330/km2 (870/sq mi)
   Metro
[1] (2015)
1,066,328 (16th)
Time zone UTC+9 (JST)
Postal code
930-8510
Symbols 
• Tree Zelkova serrata
• Flower Helianthus annuus
 Flowering tree Camellia japonica
Phone number076-431-6111
Address7-38 Shinsakuramachi, Toyama-shi, Toyama-ken
Website Official website
Toyama city hall Toyama City Hall03nt3200.jpg
Toyama city hall

Toyama (富山市, Toyama-shi, Japanese:  [toꜜjama] ) is the capital city of Toyama Prefecture, Japan, located on the coast of the Sea of Japan in the Chūbu region on central Honshū, about 200 km (120 mi) north of the city of Nagoya and 300 km (190 mi) northwest of Tokyo. As of 1 June 2019, the city had an estimated population of 415,844 in 176,643 households, [2] and a population density of 335 persons per km2. Its total area was 1,241.77 square kilometres (479.45 sq mi).

Contents

The city has been designated an environmental model city by the national government for its efforts to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases.

Geography

Located in the middle of its prefecture, Toyama is a seaside city by the coast of the Sea of Japan. Its municipal territory borders with the Gifu Prefecture and with the municipalities of Imizu, Namerikawa, Tonami, Nanto, Hida and Takayama. [3]

The nearest towns are Imizu (west), and Namerikawa (east), both by the sea and part of the Toyama urban area. The nearest city is Kanazawa, the capital of Ishikawa Prefecture, which is 65 km (40 miles) away.

Surrounding municipalities

Demographics

Per Japanese census data, [4] the population of Toyama has grown over the past 40 years.

Census YearPopulation
1970350,085
1980391,554
1990408,942
2000420,804
2010421,953

Foreign populations in Toyama: [ citation needed ]

EthnicityPopulation
Chinese3,918
Filipino1,452
Brazilian1,423
Korean871
Vietnamese837
Pakistani465
Indonesian152
American145
Others1,505

Climate

Toyama has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa) with hot, humid summers and cool winters. Precipitation is abundant throughout the year, particularly in July, September and from November through January. Despite winter in Toyama being relatively mild, its position near the Sea of Japan places it within the heavy snow belt of Japan and on average 3.8 m (12 ft) of snow falls each season, almost all of it from December through March, as well as occasionally experiencing some tremendous amounts of snowfall.

Climate data for Toyama (1991−2020 normals, extremes 1939−present)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)20.9
(69.6)
22.5
(72.5)
25.7
(78.3)
32.4
(90.3)
33.3
(91.9)
36.4
(97.5)
38.8
(101.8)
39.5
(103.1)
38.3
(100.9)
33.3
(91.9)
29.2
(84.6)
24.8
(76.6)
39.5
(103.1)
Average high °C (°F)6.3
(43.3)
7.4
(45.3)
11.8
(53.2)
17.6
(63.7)
22.7
(72.9)
25.7
(78.3)
29.8
(85.6)
31.4
(88.5)
27.0
(80.6)
21.6
(70.9)
15.7
(60.3)
9.5
(49.1)
18.9
(66.0)
Daily mean °C (°F)3.0
(37.4)
3.4
(38.1)
6.9
(44.4)
12.3
(54.1)
17.5
(63.5)
21.4
(70.5)
25.5
(77.9)
26.9
(80.4)
22.8
(73.0)
17.0
(62.6)
11.2
(52.2)
5.7
(42.3)
14.5
(58.1)
Average low °C (°F)0.2
(32.4)
0.1
(32.2)
2.6
(36.7)
7.4
(45.3)
12.9
(55.2)
17.7
(63.9)
22.1
(71.8)
23.2
(73.8)
19.1
(66.4)
13.1
(55.6)
7.3
(45.1)
2.5
(36.5)
10.7
(51.3)
Record low °C (°F)−11.9
(10.6)
−11.1
(12.0)
−7.0
(19.4)
−2.2
(28.0)
2.3
(36.1)
7.7
(45.9)
13.0
(55.4)
14.1
(57.4)
8.9
(48.0)
1.9
(35.4)
−2.0
(28.4)
−8.5
(16.7)
−11.9
(10.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches)259.0
(10.20)
171.7
(6.76)
164.6
(6.48)
134.5
(5.30)
122.8
(4.83)
172.6
(6.80)
245.6
(9.67)
207.0
(8.15)
218.1
(8.59)
171.9
(6.77)
224.8
(8.85)
281.6
(11.09)
2,374.2
(93.47)
Average snowfall cm (inches)104
(41)
84
(33)
17
(6.7)
1
(0.4)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
49
(19)
253
(100)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.5 mm)23.719.918.213.512.012.115.311.613.714.217.923.0194.9
Average relative humidity (%)82787268707879777877778176
Mean monthly sunshine hours 68.189.7135.9173.6199.9154.0153.3201.4144.2143.1105.170.71,647.2
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency [5]

History

Early history

The area of present-day Toyama city was part of ancient Etchū Province. The Toyama Plain is good farmland and historically it was a point of strategic and traffic importance since prehistoric times. During the Sengoku period, it was frequently a battlefield, coming under the control of warlord Sassa Narimasa, who built a castle town around Toyama Castle and channeled rivers to bringing about a flourishing agricultural industry. The area subsequently became part of Kaga Domain under the Maeda clan during the Edo period, during which time a positive industrial promotion policy was implemented on the production of Chinese medicine and washi (Japanese paper). Also, thanks to the improvement of kitamaebune sea transportation routes, these industries thrived and Toyama became known nationwide as the province of medicine.

Recent history

After the Meiji Restoration, with the creation of the municipalities system, the city of Toyama was established on April 1, 1889, as one of the first 30 cities in Japan. Economically, the area developed heavy and chemical industries based on abundant hydroelectric electricity. Toyama has become one of the most influential cities on the Sea of Japan with its good water supply, drainage system and thriving agricultural, forestry, fishery, commercial and manufacturing industries.

During World War II, Allied Prisoners of War (POWs) were sent to Toyama as forced labor. [6] The city was almost completely destroyed on the night of August 1–2, 1945. At the time of the bombing, the city was a center for aluminum, ball-bearing and special steel production. Left unscathed however, were the war-related factories just outside the city. [7] [8] The city during the time had a population of around 150,000 residents. The city also held Kakure Kirishitan, or "Hidden Christians" in Japan, forced from Nagasaki into internment camps after the government tried to punish them for their Christian beliefs.

2005 mergers

On April 1, 2005, the towns of Ōsawano and Ōyama (both from Kaminiikawa District), the towns of Fuchū and Yatsuo, and the villages of Hosoiri and Yamada (all from Nei District) were merged into Toyama. Kaminiikawa District and Nei District were both dissolved as a result of this merger.

Government

Toyama has a mayor-council form of government with a directly elected mayor and a unicameral city legislature of 38 members.

Economy

Hokuriku Electric Power Company (colloquially known as Hokuden), the regional power-supply monopoly, is based in Toyama. [9] Bearing parts and industrial robot company Nachi-Fujikoshi and software company INTEC are also headquartered in Toyama. [10] [11]

Regional banks include Hokuriku Bank, First Bank of Toyama, and Toyama Bank. [12]

Education

Colleges and universities

Primary and secondary education

Toyama has 65 public elementary schools and 26 public middle schools operated by the city government. There is also one public elementary school and one public middle school operated by the national government. The city has fourteen public high schools operated by the Toyama Prefectural Board of Education. and one public combined middle/high school operated by the national government. There are also seven private high schools.

Transportation

Airports

Railway

Highway

Twin towns – sister cities

Toyama is twinned with: [13]

Friendship city

Local attractions

Gohyaku rakan - five hundred statues depicting arhats, at the Chokei-ji temple in Toyama Gohyaku rakan.jpg
Gohyaku rakan - five hundred statues depicting arhats, at the Chōkei-ji temple in Toyama

Festivals and events

Related Research Articles

Toyama Prefecture Prefecture of Japan

Toyama Prefecture is a prefecture of Japan located in the Chūbu region of Honshu. Toyama Prefecture has a population of 1,044,588 and has a geographic area of 4,247.61 km2. Toyama Prefecture borders Ishikawa Prefecture to the west, Gifu Prefecture to the south, Nagano Prefecture to the east, and Niigata Prefecture to the northeast.

Uozu, Toyama City in Chūbu, Japan

Uozu is a city in the eastern part of Toyama Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 March 2018, the city had an estimated population of 42,224 in 16,811 households and a population density of 210 persons per km². Its total area was 200.61 square kilometres (77.46 sq mi).

Oyabe, Toyama City in Chūbu, Japan

Oyabe is a city in Toyama Prefecture, Japan. As of 31 March 2018, the city had an estimated population of 30,328 in 10,331 households. and a population density of 230 persons per km². Its total area was 134.07 square kilometres (51.76 sq mi).

Tonami, Toyama City in Chūbu, Japan

Tonami is a city in Toyama Prefecture, Japan. As of 31 March 2018, the city had an estimated population of 48,659 in 16,739 households and a population density of 384 persons per km². Its total area was 127.03 square kilometres (49.05 sq mi).

Namerikawa, Toyama City in Chūbu, Japan

Namerikawa is a city in eastern Toyama Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 March 2018, the city had an estimated population of 33,320 in 12224 households and a population density of 140 persons per km². Its total area was 54.63 square kilometres (21.09 sq mi). The coast of Namerikawa is the habitat of the world famous glowing firefly squid, which surface yearly in a phenomenon that has been designated a Special Natural Monument by the Japanese government. The city was founded on March 1, 1954.

Etchū Province Former province of Japan

Etchū Province was a province of Japan in the area that is today Toyama Prefecture in the Hokuriku region of Japan. Etchū bordered on Noto and Kaga Provinces to the west, Shinano and Hida Provinces to the south, Echigo Province to the east and the Sea of Japan to the north. Its abbreviated form name was Esshū (越州).

Nanto, Toyama City in Chūbu, Japan

Nanto is a city in Toyama Prefecture, Japan. It is in a mountainous area in the south-west corner of the prefecture just north of Gifu Prefecture. It is home to the Gokayama UNESCO World Heritage site. As of 28 February 2018, the city had an estimated population of 51,669 in 17,761 households and a population density of 75.8 persons per km². Its total area is 668.64 square kilometres (258.16 sq mi).

Imizu City in Chūbu, Japan

Imizu is a city located in Toyama Prefecture, Japan. As of 28 February 2018, the city had an estimated population of 93,447 in 37,734 households and a population density of 850 persons per km². Its total area was 109.43 square kilometres (42.25 sq mi).

Takaoka, Toyama City in Chūbu, Japan

Takaoka is a city in the northwestern portion of Toyama Prefecture, Japan. Takaoka has the second largest population after Toyama City.

Toyama Station Railway station in Toyama, Toyama Prefecture, Japan

Toyama Station is a railway station in Toyama, Toyama Prefecture, Japan, operated by West Japan Railway Company. It is the largest and busiest railway terminal in Toyama.

Toyama Chihō Railway Toyamakō Line

The Toyamakō Line is a tram line operated by Toyama Chihō Railway in the city of Toyama, the capital of Toyama Prefecture. Trams commences at Toyamaeki, beneath Toyama Station, and travels north to Iwasehama in a town of the Toyama Port on Sea of Japan.

Toyama Chihō Railway

The Toyama Chihō Railway is a transportation company in Toyama, Toyama Prefecture, Japan. The company is commonly known as Chitetsu (地鉄). The private company operates railway, tram, and bus services in the eastern part of the prefecture. It also operates as the agency of All Nippon Airways in Toyama area. The company has its root in Toyama Electric Railway founded in 1930. The current company was founded in 1943, when all the private and public operators of railway, tram, and bus lines in the prefecture were merged into one. In 1950, it founded Kaetsunō Railway, planning to build the railway line that links Toyama and Ishikawa. Chitetsu handed over its networks in the western part of Toyama Prefecture, although the plan never came into reality.

Namerikawa Station Railway station in Namerikawa, Toyama Prefecture, Japan

Namerikawa Station is a railway station in the city of Namerikawa, Toyama, Japan, operated jointly by the private railway operator Toyama Chiho Railway and the third-sector railway operator Ainokaze Toyama Railway.

Inarimachi Station (Toyama) Railway station in Toyama, Toyama Prefecture, Japan

Inarimachi Station is a train station in the city of Toyama, Toyama Prefecture, Japan operated by the Toyama Chihō Railway.

Fujikoshi Station Railway station in Toyama, Toyama Prefecture, Japan

Fujikoshi Station is a railway station in the city of Toyama, Toyama Prefecture, Japan, operated by the private railway operator Toyama Chihō Railway.

Minami-Toyama Station Railway station in Toyama, Toyama Prefecture, Japan

Minami-Toyama Station is a railway station in the city of Toyama, Toyama Prefecture, Japan, operated by the private railway operator Toyama Chihō Railway.

Takaoka Castle

Takaoka Castle was a flatland-style Japanese castle in what is now the city of Takaoka, Toyama Japan. It was originally constructed in 1609, and was only used for a few years before being dismantled. The site of its ruins are now a park. The castle is designated one of Japan's Top 100 Castles by the Japanese Castle Foundation.The ruins are protected as a National Historic Site.

Masuyama Castle

Masuyama Castle was a Muromachi period yamashiro-style Japanese castle located in what is now part of the city of Tonami, Toyama Prefecture in the Hokuriku region of Honshu, Japan. The ruins have been protected by the central government as a National Historic Site since 2009. It was also known as Wada Castle

Sakaemachi Station (Toyama) Railway station in Toyama, Toyama Prefecture, Japan

Sakaemachi Station is a railway station in the city of Toyama, Toyama Prefecture, Japan, operated by the private railway operator Toyama Chihō Railway.

References

  1. "UEA Code Tables". Center for Spatial Information Science, University of Tokyo. Retrieved January 26, 2019.
  2. official city statistics (in Japanese)
  3. 4807827 (x a j h) Toyama on OpenStreetMap
  4. Toyama population statistics
  5. 気象庁 / 平年値(年・月ごとの値). Japan Meteorological Agency . Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  6. Pennington, Matthew (25 April 2015). "'The truth needs to be told' about Japan's war history, some vets say". Stars and Stripes. United States. Associated Press. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  7. Info on att.net Archived 2007-02-28 at the Wayback Machine
  8. Info on echigonagaoka.com
  9. "Annual Report 2013". Hokuriku Electric Power Company. Retrieved on August 28, 2014.
  10. "Corporate Info". Nachi-Fujikoshi. Retrieved on August 27, 2014.
  11. "About INTEC". INTEC. Retrieved on August 27, 2014.
  12. "Corporate Data". Hokuhoku Financial Group. Retrieved on August 28, 2014.
  13. "市の国際交流". city.toyama.toyama.jp (in Japanese). Toyama. Retrieved 2020-04-09.
  14. Toyama International Conference Center
  15. Toyama Glass Art Museum
  16. Visit Toyama Archived 2013-05-12 at the Wayback Machine . (2008). Visit Toyama. Retrieved Jan. 6, 2013, from prefectural web site, English version.