Toyoaki Horiuchi

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Toyoaki Horiuchi
Horiuchi Toyoaki.jpg
Native name
堀内 豊秋
Born27 September 1900
Kumamoto, Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan
Died25 September 1948(1948-09-25) (aged 48)
Manado North Sulawesi Indonesia by death penalty
AllegianceMerchant flag of Japan (1870).svg  Empire of Japan
Service/branchNaval ensign of the Empire of Japan.svg  Imperial Japanese Navy
Years of service1923-1945
RankTaisa(大佐,taisa) (captain) of the navy
  • Commander in the parachute troop, naval warships
  • Administrator in occupied land

Toyoaki Horiuchi(Japanese:堀内豊秋, Hepburn:Horiuchi Toyoaki, September 27, 1900 – September 25, 1948) was a Japanese Navy officer; his highest rank was taisa(大佐, captain). He was known for the development of naval gymnastics, which were meant to improve the alertness and flexibility of sailors in closed areas of warships and he was known for leading the paratroopers. He was the first jumper during the drop on an airfield 60 km south of Manado, Indonesia, in the Battle of Manado.

Japanese is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language. It is a member of the Japonic language family, and its relation to other languages, such as Korean, is debated. Japanese has been grouped with language families such as Ainu, Austroasiatic, and the now-discredited Altaic, but none of these proposals has gained widespread acceptance.

Hepburn romanization is a system for the romanization of Japanese that uses the Latin alphabet to write the Japanese language. It is used by most foreigners learning to spell Japanese in the Latin alphabet and by the Japanese for romanizing personal names, geographical locations, and other information such as train tables, road signs, and official communications with foreign countries. Largely based on English writing conventions, consonants closely correspond to the English pronunciation and vowels approximate the Italian pronunciation.

Imperial Japanese Navy Naval branch of the Empire of Japan

The Imperial Japanese Navy was the navy of the Empire of Japan from 1868 until 1945, when it was dissolved following Japan's surrender in World War II. The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) was formed after the dissolution of the IJN.


Early life

He was born in Kumamoto, Kumamoto Prefecture on September 27, 1900 in the house known as Mimageno Kadogoya, since his ancestors were heads of a small town. After graduation from a middle school in 1919, he entered the Naval school at Edajima, Hiroshima Prefecture and graduated in 1922. In the Naval school, he studied not only English but also Spanish and Portuguese. After graduation, he became a naval officer in September 1923, and was ordered to take a pilot student course. Unfortunately, he was struck by a whirling propeller and had to defer his training. [1] He took another course and joined the crew of a destroyer.[ citation needed ] In December 1, 1927 he was promoted to lieutenant and took artillery. In 1928, he became a captain in Japanese cruiser Natori and in 1929, he was a captain in Japanese cruiser Ashigara.[ citation needed ] In 1930, he became a teacher at the Naval school. He was in charge of artillery and gymnastics. In October 1934, he was appointed as the teacher of artillery at Yokosuka. At the end of 1936, he sailed on the Japanese cruiser Isuzu as the artillery officer.[ citation needed ]

Kumamoto Designated city in Kyushu, Japan

Kumamoto is the capital city of Kumamoto Prefecture on the island of Kyushu, Japan.

Kumamoto Prefecture Prefecture of Japan

Kumamoto Prefecture is a prefecture of Japan located on the island of Kyushu. The capital is the city of Kumamoto.

Hiroshima Prefecture Prefecture of Japan

Hiroshima Prefecture is a prefecture of Japan located in the Chūgoku region on Honshu island. The capital is the city of Hiroshima. It has a population of around 2.8 million.

He was known for the development of his own gymnastics based on the Denmark gymnastics. As a teacher of gymnastics at the Naval school, he had long felt a need that those in the navy should attain more alertness and flexibility of actions in the limited spaces of warships and he studied various methods; traditionally the Japanese Imperial Army had employed the Swedish gymnastics. Once, he had a chance of learning the Denmark gymnastics by visiting Danish gymnasts at Okayama, and developed his own system, based on the flexible movements of extremities; because of his peculiar movements, he was nicknamed octopus man. He revealed the superiority of this gymnastics by showing the team he taught won high marks in various games and finally the Ministry of the Navy employed his method of gymnastics. In 1944, he was awarded for his development of gymnastics by the Navy Minister. [2]

Airborne commander

Prior to the beginning of the Pacific War, he was appointed as a special commander, and on January 11, 1942, his troop successfully performed an airborne operation at Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Earlier, he had been the leader in training paratroopers at Tateyama, Chiba, during which a number of trainees died due to various reasons. On November 1940, the trainees were divided into the first special troop, headed by him numbering 750, another troop was headed by Fukumi. He jumped at 9:52 a.m. on January 11, 1942 from a height of 150 meters. His flight was recorded on film and was used for propaganda purposes.[ citation needed ]

Airborne forces Military units, usually light infantry, set up to be moved by aircraft and "dropped" into battle

Airborne forces are military units set up to be moved by aircraft and "dropped" into battle, typically by parachute. Thus, they can be placed behind enemy lines, and have the capability to deploy almost anywhere with little warning. The formations are limited only by the number and size of their aircraft, so given enough capacity a huge force can appear "out of nowhere" in minutes, an action referred to as vertical envelopment.

Manado City in North Sulawesi, Indonesia

Manado is the capital city of the Indonesian province of North Sulawesi. Manado is located at the Bay of Manado, and is surrounded by a mountainous area. The city had 675,411 inhabitants at the 2010 Census, making it the second-largest city in Sulawesi after Makassar. The latest official estimate is 701,390.

North Sulawesi Province in Indonesia

North Sulawesi is a province of Indonesia. It is located on the northern peninsula of the island of Sulawesi, on the Minahasa Peninsula, lies south of Philippines and southeast of Malaysia. It borders Philippines to the north, the Maluku Sea to the east, Gorontalo to the west and the Gulf of Tomini to the south. The province's capital and largest city is Manado, and its population was 4,135,526 according to the 2010 census; the latest official estimate is 4,353,540. Manado is also the main gateway and the economic center of the province. Other major towns includes Tomohon and Bitung. There are 41 mountains with an altitude ranging from 1,112–1,995 metres (3,648–6,545 ft). Most geologic conditions are the young volcanic region, a large number of eruptions and the active cone shape of the active volcanoes that adorn the central Minahasa, Bolaang Mongondow and Sangihe Islands.

As an Administrator

According to Japanese reports, Horiuchi treated the inhabitants of the island well, and was appreciated them. During his short tenure, he gave reportedly provided necessary goods such as salt, and reduced the tax to 1/4 of the previous amount. Horiuchi reportedly used the local language and according to one Japanese source, treated the prisoners of war (POWs) of the Netherlands fairly. On January 11, 1992, a goodwill meeting was held in commemoration of the 50th year of the parachute drop. Issai Horiuchi, the son of Horiuchi, carried the photograph of Horiuchi and several hundreds of the inhabitants attended the meeting. [3] Hiroyuki Agawa, who later became a writer, was under Horiuchi when Horiuchi was transferred to Toukou of Taiwan in 1943 as a teacher of Naval students. Horiuchi said to Agawa that he was one of those who were loved by those in the occupied lands. He lost any desire or position when my assistant lieutenant died. To become a good commander, eliminate five desires, especially the sexual desire. Those who lost something will not kill others, but those whose lovers are taken by someone, may kill them. In the occupied lands, the Japanese army and navy made mistakes because of this. [4]

Prisoner of war Person who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict

A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether a combatant or a non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict. The earliest recorded usage of the phrase "prisoner of war" dates back to 1660.

Hiroyuki Agawa author

Hiroyuki Agawa was a Japanese author. He was known for his fiction centered on World War II, as well as his biographies and essays.

Taiwan state in East Asia

Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia. Neighbouring states include the People's Republic of China (PRC) to the west, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. Taiwan is the most populous state and largest economy that is not a member of the United Nations (UN).

As a B-class war criminal

On January 29, 1948, a written indictment was read at the Manado Temporary Military Court which presented charges against Japanese Navy Colonel Toyoaki Horiuchi by the order of the Prosecutor General (dated January 19, 1948). The charges were that Horiuchi ordered or allowed Dutch army officers to be subjected to systemic terrorism. He was in a position of knowing the terrorism and did not punish Japanese officers. In 1942, at least 30 Dutch officers were killed with swords. He was in a position of knowing this but did not take necessary preventive measures. These are against the rules dealing with wartime criminals. Lawyer Ide stated that Horiuchi did not know these facts. There were 9 witnesses, most from the Dutch side. Horiuchi sent a letter of testimony that he did not know these facts. However, he felt responsible as an officer of superior rank. For a long time, he believed that we should love enemies. In January 1942, when he set up the parachute troop center, he strongly banned violence to those on the Dutch side. We treated these officers with respect and courtesy. He was impressed by Van den Berg officer who asked for permission while he was responsible. He punished his officers who gave him some violence. Based on his conviction, he freed 650 men of Indonesia. He admitted some of the violence had not been reported to him. [5]

Biographical timeline

After the war

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  1. Uehara[2011:71]
  2. Koizumi[2009:7the chapter]
  3. Uehara 2011:preface
  4. Uehara[2010:221]
  5. Uehara[2011:307-319]
  6. Horiuchi2011:369-370