Trần Ích Tắc

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Trần Ích Tắc
Prince Chiêu Quốc (stripped)
Born1254
Thăng Long, Đại Việt
Died1329
Hangzhou, Yuan China
IssueTrần Bá Cốc
Posthumous name
Trung Ý vương
House Trần dynasty
Father Trần Thái Tông

Trần Ích Tắc (Hán tự : 陳益稷, Chen Yiji, 1254-1329), or Prince Chiêu Quốc (Vietnamese: Chiêu Quốc vương / ), was a prince of Đại Việt, the fifth son of emperor Trần Thái Tông of the Trần Dynasty, and the younger brother of the Emperor Trần Thánh Tông and grand chancellor Trần Quang Khải.

Contents

Before the invasion of Vietnam by the Yuan Dynasty, Trần Ích Tắc was the most famous prince of Trần Thái Tông, known for his intelligence and broad knowledge. The mansion of Prince Chiêu Quốc in Thăng Long was also a renowned school of the capital. In the beginning of the Yuan-Tran war, Trần Ích Tắc surrendered to Kublai Khan's prince Toghan and thus became the highest ranking official of the Trần Dynasty to do so. However, later the Tran dynasty was ultimately able to defeat the Yuan invasion, partly because of the Tran dynasty's proficiency in Chinese gunpowder. The Tran and Yuan later restored diplomatic and trade relations, and Tran Ich Tac's name was restored over time—as a diplomat who solidified Tran-Yuan relations.

The Yuan Dynasty supported Trần Ích Tắc to become King of Annam but were unable to, so Tran continued to live in Ezhou, Hubei, China, where he lived the rest of his days.

According to official Vietnamese records and Ngô Sĩ Liên, the Chinese leader Chen Youliang (陈友谅;Trần Hữu Lượng), founder of Chen Han in China, was the son of Trần Ích Tắc. [1] [2]

Biography

Trần Ích Tắc was born in 1254 as the fifth son of the Emperor Trần Thái Tông, [3] he was entitled Prince Chiêu Quốc in May 1268. [4] Besides his elder brother the Emperor Trần Thánh Tông, Prince Chiêu Quốc had two other famous brothers who were grand chancellor Prince Chiêu Minh (Chiêu Minh vương) Trần Quang Khải and Prince Chiêu Văn (Chiêu Văn vương) Trần Nhật Duật, both Trần Quang Khải and Trần Nhật Duật were important generals of the Trần Dynasty during the second Mongol invasion of Đại Việt. [5] [6] Although Trần Quang Khải was a famous poet [7] and Trần Nhật Duật was well known for his knowledge, [8] the most famous prince of the Retired Emperor Thái Tông before the war was still Trần Ích Tắc. It was said that Prince Chiêu Quốc was not only intelligent but also fond of learning, besides a broad knowledge of history, art, literature, Trần Ích Tắc was even a skilled player of cuju and xiangqi. The palace of Prince Chiêu Quốc in Thăng Long was a renowned school of the capital where educated many scholars including some future prominent officials of the Trần Dynasty such as Mạc Đĩnh Chi or Bùi Phóng. [4] [9] [10]

the record of Vietnam fpr blaming the surrender of Prince Tran Ich Tac,calling him as women, coward. Da Yue Shi Ji Quan Shu Zhi Chen Yi Ji 2.jpg
the record of Vietnam fpr blaming the surrender of Prince Trần Ích Tắc,calling him as women, coward.

In 1279, the Yuan Dynasty had the decisive victory over the Song Dynasty in the Battle of Yamen which marked the end of the Song Dynasty and the total control of Kublai Khan over China.Ngô Sĩ Liên 1993 , p. 186 As a result, Kublai Khan began to expose his attempt to take over the southern countries like Đại Việt or Champa. In December 1284, the second Yuan's invasion of Đại Việt was opended under the command of Kublai Khan's prince Toghan. [11] Đại Việt was attacked in two directions, Toghan himselft conducted the infantry invaded from the northern border while Yuan's navy under general Sogetu advanced from the southern border through Champa's territory. [12]

In order to avoid the pressure of Yuan's force, the Retired Emperor Thánh Tông and the Emperor Nhân Tông decided to retreat from Thăng Long to Thanh Hóa on March 1 of Lunar calendar 1285. In the same month, Prince Chiêu Quốc Trần Ích Tắc, Marquis Văn Chiêu (Văn Chiêu hầu) Trần Lộng and several officials of the Trần Dynasty surrendered to prince Toghan. [12] According to Đại Việt sử kí toàn thư , Thái Tông was presaged the defection to the north of Trần Ích Tắc before his birth while Trần Ích Tắc also soon exposed his purpose of fighting his elder brother for the throne even by the foreign force. Therefore, on this occasion, Prince Chiêu Quốc decided to defect to the Yuan side with the hope that they would help him take over the position of Emperor of Đại Việt. [12] The defection of Trần Ích Tắc and several high-ranking official of Trần royal court did have an adverse impact for the Trần Dynasty in the beginning of the war of resistance, but Trần clan and royal court were still united by the effort of the Retired Emperor, the Emperor and other important figures like Trần Hưng Đạo, Trần Quang Khải, Trần Nhật Duật. The harmony of them was one of the main factors that led to the victory of the Trần Dynasty over the Mongols' second invasion. [13] [14]

Right after the failed attempt in 1285, the Yuan Dynasty began to prepare for the third major campaign against Đại Việt with the pretext of helping Trần Ích Tắc return as King of Annam.Ngô Sĩ Liên 1993 , p. 195 [14] [15] Their 1287 campaign was eventually ended by the Battle of Bạch Đằng on March 8 of Lunar calendar 1288, where Yuan navy was almost destroyed by the troops of Trần Hưng Đạo. [16] In 1289, Trần Emperor issued an order in which the family name of every defected member of Trần clan was changed to Mai (), for example Trần Lộng (陳弄) was renamed as Mai Lộng (枚弄), being the only defected prince of Trần clan, Trần Ích Tắc was exempted from this order but he was called in historical accounts of the Trần Dynasty by the name "Ả Trần" ("the woman named Trần"). [17] [18] [19]

After the defeat of the Yuan Dynasty in their third invasion of Đại Việt, Trần Ích Tắc continued his life in Ezhou, [15] [20] Hubei, he often appeared in provincial authority when Đại Việt ambassador went to China. One time he met the ambassador Nguyễn Đại Phạp (阮代乏) who was once a scribe in the palace of Trần Ích Tắc's brother, Prince Chiêu Đạo (Chiêu Đạo vương / 昭道王). When Trần Ích Tắc showed his scorn about the profession of Nguyễn Đại Phạp in the past, the ambassador of Đại Việt said: "Things changed. Đại Phạp, once a mere scribe for Prince Chiêu Đạo, now became an ambassador, just like the Mandarin [Ích Tắc], once a prince of the Emperor, now became a defector" ("Việc đời đổi thay, Đại Phạp trước vốn là tên biên chép cho Chiêu Đạo vương, nay là sứ giả, cũng như Bình chương xưa kia là con vua, nay lại là người đầu hàng giặc"). It seemed that Trần Ích Tắc felt ashamed after that event and he did not appear anymore when Đại Việt ambassador was there. [21] He died in 1239 in foreign soil far from his homeland. [12]

In 1354 Chen Youliang, the founder of the rebel Chen Han regime in the late Yuan Dynasty tried to mobilise support from Đại Việt. However the Emperor Trần Dụ Tông refused to help him because the Trần Dynasty needed to concentrate their force in the southern border against Champa. [22] In the account about this event, Ngô Sĩ Liên noted that the Chinese leader Chen Youliang (陈友谅;Vietnamese: Trần Hữu Lượng), founder of Chen Han in China, was the son of Trần Ích Tắc. [1]

Works

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Prince Tĩnh Quốc Trần Quốc Khang (1237–1300) was the first prince of the Emperor Trần Thái Tông, the eldest brother of Trần Thánh Tông and princes Trần Quang Khải, Trần Ích Tắc and Trần Nhật Duật. Although a son of Thái Tông in name, Trần Quốc Khang's father was actually Prince Hoài Trần Liễu, who was forced by grand chancellor Trần Thủ Độ to give up his wife, Princess Thuận Thiên, to his younger brother Thái Tông when she was already pregnant with Trần Quốc Khang. For this reason, Trần Quốc Khang was not chosen as successor of Thái Tông for the throne and he did not have a significant role in royal court either, as his younger brothers did. Afterwards he was appointed as governor of Nghệ An, a position that his descendants inherited. Since Trần Quốc Khang was in fact a son of Trần Liễu, he was also a natural brother of general Trần Hưng Đạo, commander-in-chief of Đại Việt army.

Prince Yên Sinh Trần Liễu (1211–1251) was the elder brother of the Trần Thái Tông, the first emperor of Trần Dynasty. Initially, Trần Liễu was honoured by his younger brother with the title King Hiển but he was downgraded to Prince Yên Sinh after the short-lived revolt in fury of losing his pregnant wife, Princess Thuận Thiên, to the Emperor under the pressure of Imperial Regent Trần Thủ Độ. Besides this event, Trần Liễu was well known in the history of Vietnam for being father of Trần Hưng Đạo, commander-in-chief of the Đại Việt army during the second and third war of resistance against the Mongol invasion.

Empress Thuận Thiên (1216–1248) was the second empress of Trần dynasty, she succeeded her younger sister Empress Chiêu Thánh in 1237 by an arrangement of Trần Thủ Độ in which Prince Hoài Trần Liễu was forced to give up his 3-month pregnant wife Princess Thuận Thiên to the Emperor Trần Thái Tông. Thuận Thiên was born in the royal family of the Lý dynasty as the first child of the Emperor Lý Huệ Tông and Lady Thuận Trinh Trần Thị Dung with whom she witnessed the turbulent time of the Late Lý and Early Trần Dynasty. She was mother of four princes including the second emperor of the Trần Dynasty Trần Thánh Tông and grand chancellor Prince Chiêu Minh Trần Quang Khải.

Phạm Ngũ Lão (1255–1320) was a general of the Trần Dynasty during the reigns of three successive emperors Nhân Tông, Anh Tông and Minh Tông. His talent was noticed by Prince Hưng Đạo Trần Quốc Tuấn who married his adopted daughter to Phạm Ngũ Lão and recommended him for the royal court. Renowned as a prominent general in battlefield, Phạm Ngũ Lão was one of the few commanders of the Vietnamese army during the second and third Mongol invasion who did not come from the Trần clan. After the war of resistance against the Yuan dynasty, Phạm Ngũ Lão continued to participate in numerous military campaigns of the Trần Dynasty in which he often succeeded. Today, Phạm Ngũ Lão is still considered one of the most capable military commanders of both the Trần Dynasty and history of Vietnam.

Trần Quốc Tảng was the third son of Trần Hưng Đạo. He was a general of the Trần Dynasty during the reign of emperors Trần Nhân Tông and Trần Anh Tông who was also his son-in-law. As a member of Yên Sinh's line in Trần clan, Trần Quốc Tảng supported the plot of taking over the throne from Trần Cảnh's line which was opposed by his father Trần Quốc Tuấn and his elder brother Trần Quốc Nghiễn, this difference made Hưng Đạo break off the paternal relation with Trần Quốc Tảng until his death in 1300.

Lê Phụ Trần (?–?) was a general of the Trần Dynasty during the reigns of three successive emperors: Thái Tông, Thánh Tông, and Nhân Tông.

Lê Văn Hưu (1230–1322) was an historian of the Trần Dynasty. He is best known for his work the Đại Việt sử ký, the first comprehensive historical record of the history of Vietnam. Although the book was lost during the Fourth Chinese domination in Vietnam, its contents, including Lê Văn Hưu's comments on various events in the history of Vietnam, were used by other Vietnamese historians as a base for their works, notably the Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư by Ngô Sĩ Liên.

References

  1. 1 2 Ngô Sĩ Liên 1993 , p. 251
  2. 《大越史記全書》本紀卷之七:“甲午(紹豐)十四年元至正十四年春二月,北邊帥臣驛奏,元陳友諒起兵,遣使來乞和親友諒,陳益稷子。”、“辛丑(大治)四年元至正二十一年二月,明太祖攻江州。陳友諒退居武昌,使人來乞師,不許。”
  3. Ngô Sĩ Liên 1993 , p. 166
  4. 1 2 Ngô Sĩ Liên 1993 , p. 180
  5. Ngô Sĩ Liên 1993 , p. 181
  6. Ngô Sĩ Liên 1993 , pp. 193–194
  7. Ngô Sĩ Liên 1993 , p. 205
  8. Ngô Sĩ Liên 1993 , p. 241
  9. Trần Trọng Kim 1971 , p. 52
  10. Chapuis 1995 , p. 82
  11. Ngô Sĩ Liên 1993 , pp. 189–190
  12. 1 2 3 4 Ngô Sĩ Liên 1993 , p. 193
  13. Trần Trọng Kim 1971 , p. 57
  14. 1 2 Chapuis 1995 , p. 83
  15. 1 2 Trần Trọng Kim 1971 , p. 60
  16. Ngô Sĩ Liên 1993 , pp. 197–198
  17. Ngô Sĩ Liên 1993 , p. 200
  18. Trần Trọng Kim 1971 , p. 63
  19. Chapuis 1995 , p. 84
  20. National Bureau for Historical Record 1998 , p. 232
  21. Ngô Sĩ Liên 1993 , p. 203
  22. Ngô Sĩ Liên 1993 , p. 256

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