Trần Bình Trọng

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Trần Bình Trọng
Prince of Bảo Nghĩa
Born1259
Thang Long, Đại Việt
Died1285
Binh Than, Đại Việt
SpousePrincess Thụy Bảo
House Trần Dynasty

Prince of Bảo Nghĩa Trần Bình Trọng (Hán tự: ) (1259–1285) was a general of the Trần Dynasty well known for his heroic action in the war of Dai Viet against the second Mongol invasion. After the capture of Trần Bình Trọng by the army of the Yuan Dynasty, Kublai Khan's prince Toghan attempted to convince the Đại Việt general to surrender by telling him about the situation of the Trần Dynasty, saying that Trần Bình Trọng would get a minister's post in China. However, the general rejected his proposition, and thus, Toghan had him executed. Today, he is widely known as an example of patriotism in Vietnam. The story about Marquis Bảo Nghĩa is taught in Vietnamese textbooks and many places in Vietnam are named in honour of this national hero.

Contents

History

According to Từ điển Bách khoa toàn thư Việt Nam , Marquis Bảo Nghĩa (Vietnamese: Bảo Nghĩa hầu) Trần Bình Trọng was born in 1259 during the reign of the Emperor Trần Thánh Tông. [1] Trần Bình Trọng descended from a family which was origin from the Emperor Lê Đại Hành but married Princess Thụy Bảo of the Trần Dynasty while his father and grandfather were officials under the Emperor Trần Thái Tông, therefore he was granted the royal family name Trần. [2]

In 1279, the Yuan Dynasty won a decisive victory over the Song Dynasty at the Battle of Yamen which marked the end of the Song Dynasty and resulted in the total control of Kublai Khan over China. [3] As a result, Kublai Khan began to expose his attempt to take over the southern countries like Đại Việt or Champa. In December 1284, the second Yuan's invasion of Đại Việt was opened under the command of Kublai Khan's prince Toghan. [4] Đại Việt was attacked in two directions, Toghan himselft conducted the infantry invaded from the northern border while Yuan's navy under general Sogetu advanced from the southern border through Champa's territory. [5] In the beginning of the war, the Retired Emperor Thánh Tông and the Emperor Nhân Tông had to retreat from Thăng Long under the pressure of Yuan army. Grand commander of Đại Việt army Trần Hưng Đạo decided to appoint general Trần Bình Trọng to take charge of holding back the Yuan army so that two Emperors could retreat safely to Thiên Trường. In a battle near Đà Mạc (or Thiên Mạc) in February 1285, Trần Bình Trọng's troops were defeated and the general was captured by the army of prince Toghan. [2] [6] [7]

After the capture, prince Toghan considered Marquis Bảo Nghĩa a talented general so he tried to convince Trần Bình Trọng to surrender and tell him about the situation of the Trần Dynasty. Refusing to co-operate, Trần Bình Trọng kicked off the gold and treasure that they offered. He was asked about the prospect of being a Prince for the Yuan Dynasty, he answered by a phrase which became famous in History of Vietnam: [2] [6]

寧為南鬼,不為北王 Ninh vi Nam quỷ, bất vi Bắc vương.
Ta thà làm ma nước Nam chứ không thèm làm Vương đất Bắc.
I prefer to be a ghost in the South than a King in the North. [8]

Trần Bình Trọng was killed afterwards in the same year at the age of 26. The death of Marquis Bảo Nghĩa was mourned by every member of Trần family and royal court, the Emperor posthumously entitled him as Prince Bảo Nghĩa (Bảo Nghĩa vương). [6] The account of Battle of Đà Mạc and the capture of Trần Bình Trọng also appeared in the historical book of the Yuan Dynasty, the History of Yuan . There was a difference between "Story of Annam" in History of Yuan and Đại Việt sử kí toàn thư about the date of the event at Đà Mạc, the Vietnamese work dated the battle in February while the exact day of the battle in the Chinese book was January 21 of Lunar calendar. According to modern historian Lê Mạnh Thát, the Chinese book might be more accurate in this case because most of the original historical records of the Trần Dynasty were destroyed by the Ming Dynasty during the fourth Chinese domination over Vietnam so maybe Ngô Sĩ Liên committed an error in copying this event. [9]

Legacy

Today, Trần Bình Trọng is still considered as one of the finest example of Vietnamese patriotism, especially through his famous phrase. [1] Stories about his spirit and action are taught in schoolbooks of several grades while a main street in Hanoi and many other places in Vietnam are named in honour of this national hero. [10] Trần Bình Trọng is also a subject for several literature and theatre works such as the novel Bên bờ Thiên Mạc (On the riverside of Thiên Mạc) by Hà Ân. [11]

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Marquis Hoài Văn Trần Quốc Toản was a marquis of the Trần Dynasty who was well known for his active role in the second war of resistance of Đại Việt against the Mongol invasion. Although there were only a few historical records about Trần Quốc Toản, he is still widely known as an example of patriotism in Vietnam while he participated and ultimately sacrificed himself for the country at a very young age. Today, story about Trần Quốc Toản is taught in Vietnamese schoolbooks and many places in Vietnam are named in honour of this young hero.

Prince Nhân Huệ Trần Khánh Dư (?–1339) was the adopted prince of the Retired Emperor Trần Thánh Tông and a general of Đại Việt army in royal court of four successive emperors of the Trần Dynasty: Thánh Tông, Nhân Tông, Anh Tông, and Minh Tông. Although notoriously known by his greedy character in peace, Trần Khánh Dư was a prominent general during the war of resistance by the Trần Dynasty against the second and third invasions of the Yuan Dynasty. Especially, Prince Nhân Huệ was considered as one of the most skilled commander of Trần navy who was credited with the victory of Đại Việt in Battle of Vân Đồn (1287).

Trần Ích Tắc, or Prince Chiêu Quốc, was a prince of Đại Việt, the fifth son of emperor Trần Thái Tông of the Trần Dynasty, and the younger brother of the Emperor Trần Thánh Tông and grand chancellor Trần Quang Khải.

Prince Tĩnh Quốc Trần Quốc Khang (1237–1300) was the first prince of the Emperor Trần Thái Tông, the eldest brother of Trần Thánh Tông and princes Trần Quang Khải, Trần Ích Tắc and Trần Nhật Duật. Although a son of Thái Tông in name, Trần Quốc Khang's father was actually Prince Hoài Trần Liễu, who was forced by grand chancellor Trần Thủ Độ to give up his wife, Princess Thuận Thiên, to his younger brother Thái Tông when she was already pregnant with Trần Quốc Khang. For this reason, Trần Quốc Khang was not chosen as successor of Thái Tông for the throne and he did not have a significant role in royal court either, as his younger brothers did. Afterwards he was appointed as governor of Nghệ An, a position that his descendants inherited. Since Trần Quốc Khang was in fact a son of Trần Liễu, he was also a natural brother of general Trần Hưng Đạo, commander-in-chief of Đại Việt army.

Prince Yên Sinh Trần Liễu (1211–1251) was the elder brother of the Trần Thái Tông, the first emperor of Trần Dynasty. Initially, Trần Liễu was honoured by his younger brother with the title King Hiển but he was downgraded to Prince Yên Sinh after the short-lived revolt in fury of losing his pregnant wife, Princess Thuận Thiên, to the Emperor under the pressure of Imperial Regent Trần Thủ Độ. Besides this event, Trần Liễu was well known in the history of Vietnam for being father of Trần Hưng Đạo, commander-in-chief of the Đại Việt army during the second and third war of resistance against the Mongol invasion.

Empress Thuận Thiên (1216–1248) was the second empress of Trần dynasty, she succeeded her younger sister Empress Chiêu Thánh in 1237 by an arrangement of Trần Thủ Độ in which Prince Hoài Trần Liễu was forced to give up his 3-month pregnant wife Princess Thuận Thiên to the Emperor Trần Thái Tông. Thuận Thiên was born in the royal family of the Lý dynasty as the first child of the Emperor Lý Huệ Tông and Lady Thuận Trinh Trần Thị Dung with whom she witnessed the turbulent time of the Late Lý and Early Trần Dynasty. She was mother of four princes including the second emperor of the Trần Dynasty Trần Thánh Tông and grand chancellor Prince Chiêu Minh Trần Quang Khải.

Phạm Ngũ Lão (1255–1320) was a general of the Trần Dynasty during the reigns of three successive emperors Nhân Tông, Anh Tông and Minh Tông. His talent was noticed by Prince Hưng Đạo Trần Quốc Tuấn who married his adopted daughter to Phạm Ngũ Lão and recommended him for the royal court. Renowned as a prominent general in battlefield, Phạm Ngũ Lão was one of the few commanders of the Vietnamese army during the second and third Mongol invasion who did not come from the Trần clan. After the war of resistance against the Yuan dynasty, Phạm Ngũ Lão continued to participate in numerous military campaigns of the Trần Dynasty in which he often succeeded. Today, Phạm Ngũ Lão is still considered one of the most capable military commanders of both the Trần Dynasty and history of Vietnam.

Lý Thần Tông (1116–1138), personal name Lý Dương Hoán, was the fifth monarch of the Lý Dynasty, reigning over Đại Việt from 1127 to his death in 1138. Becoming the ruler of Đại Việt at the age of twelve, Lý Thần Tông successfully maintained the order of the royal court and strengthened the stability of the country with the assistance of capable officials. For that reason, Đại Việt under Lý Thần Tông was able to witness a peaceful period like during the reign of his predecessors. However, Lý Thần Tông died at age 23 before passing the throne to his crown prince Lý Thiên Tộ.

Following is the family tree of Vietnamese monarchs from the autonomous period of the Khúc clan (905–923) to the reign of Bảo Đại (1926–1945), the last emperor of the Nguyễn dynasty. Emperors, kings and lords of each monarch are denoted by different colours with the period of their reigns.

<i>An Nam chí lược</i>

The An Nam chí lược is a historical text that was compiled by the Vietnamese historian Lê Tắc during his exile in China in early 14th century. Published for the first time in 1335 during the reign of the Yuan Dynasty, An Nam chí lược became one of the few historical books about Đại Việt that survive from the 14th and 15th centuries and it is considered the oldest historical work by a Vietnamese that has been preserved.

References

Notes

  1. 1 2 "Trần Bình Trọng". Từ điển Bách khoa toàn thư Việt Nam (in Vietnamese). Retrieved 2009-11-27.
  2. 1 2 3 Ngô Sĩ Liên 1993 , p. 192
  3. Ngô Sĩ Liên 1993 , p. 186
  4. Ngô Sĩ Liên 1993 , pp. 189–190
  5. Ngô Sĩ Liên 1993 , p. 193
  6. 1 2 3 Trần Trọng Kim 1971 , p. 57
  7. Chapuis 1995 , p. 83
  8. Translated by Oscar Chapuis. The South here denoted Đại Việt while the North is the Yuan Dynasty. Chapuis 1995, p. 83; Tran Thi Hao (2007). Une introduction à la connaissance du Vietnam (in French). Editions L'Harmattan. p. 51. ISBN   978-2-296-03378-8.
  9. Lê Mạnh Thát. "Emperor Nhân Tông and the War of Defense in 1285". Thuvienhoasen.org. Archived from the original on December 2, 2008. Retrieved 2009-11-27.CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  10. Vietnam Country Map. Periplus Travel Maps. 2002–2003. ISBN   0-7946-0070-0.
  11. "Cai Luong devotees scramble for Bach Tuyet tickets". Vietnamnet.vn. 2006-09-26. Archived from the original on February 23, 2007. Retrieved 2009-11-27.

Bibliography