Trần Quốc Tảng

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Trần Quốc Tảng
Prince Hưng Nhượng
Born?
Yên Sinh, Đại Việt
Died1313
An Bang, Đại Việt
IssueEmpress Thuận Thánh Bảo Từ
Prince Văn Huệ Trần Quốc Triều
House Trần Dynasty
Father Trần Hưng Đạo
MotherPrincess Thiên Thành

Trần Quốc Tảng (Hán tự: ; ?1313) was the third son of Trần Hưng Đạo. He was a general of the Trần Dynasty during the reign of emperors Trần Nhân Tông and Trần Anh Tông who was also his son-in-law. As a member of Yên Sinh's line in Trần clan, Trần Quốc Tảng supported the plot of taking over the throne from Trần Cảnh's line which was opposed by his father Trần Quốc Tuấn and his elder brother Trần Quốc Nghiễn, this difference made Hưng Đạo break off the paternal relation with Trần Quốc Tảng until his death in 1300.

Contents

History

Trần Quốc Tảng was born as Prince Hưng Nhượng ( , Vietnamese: Hưng Nhượng vương) in Yên Sinh fief (now Đông Triều District, Quảng Ninh) as the third son of Trần Hưng Đạo, [1] leader of Yên Sinh's line in Trần clan. After the 1237 event in which Trần Liễu, Trần Quốc Tuấn's father, was forced by grand chancellor Trần Thủ Độ, to give up his pregnant wife Thuận Thiên to his younger brother Trần Cảnh, [2] [3] an inherited hatred began to take form between the Yên Sinh's line of Trần Liễu including Trần Quốc Tuấn and Trần Cảnh's line including the emperors Thánh Tông and Nhân Tông. Before his death, Trần Liễu made his son Trần Hưng Đạo promise to revenge for him by taking over the throne but due to the situation of Đại Việt when the Trần Dynasty had to face with three consecutive invasions from the Yuan Dynasty, Trần Quốc Tuấn preferred keeping a harmony between him and Trần Quang Khải who was the other commander of Đại Việt's army and also a member of Trần Cảnh's line. [4] [5]

After being the commander in chief of Đại Việt's army with a supreme power in royal court, Trần Quốc Tuấn began to reflect on his father's last will and thus seek advice from his servants and surbodinates. The idea of taking over the throne was immediately opposed by Trần Quốc Tuấn's two most-trusted servants, Yết Kiêu and Dã Tượng, so did his eldest son Trần Hưng Vũ. While their opinions made Trần Hưng Đạo satisfied, his third son Trần Quốc Tảng, on the contrary, proved to support the plot in suggesting his father the story of Emperor Taizu of Song who founded the Song Dynasty by taking over the throne from Later Zhou. Trần Quốc Tuấn was so angry after hearing his son's response that he even wanted to kill Trần Quốc Tảng but was stopped by Trần Hưng Vũ. Afterwards, Trần Hưng Đạo Trần Quốc Tuấn decided to break off the paternal relation with his son. [6]

Besides the clash with his father, Trần Quốc Tảng's life was rarely mentioned in Đại Việt sử kí toàn thư , the most comprehensive historical account about dynastic eras of Vietnam. It was said that the general Trần Quốc Tảng fought with his brothers under the command of Trần Quốc Tuấn during the second Mongol invasion of Đại Việt [1] and was promoted to governor (tiết độ sứ) after the war. [7] Together with Trần Chiêu Minh, he did participated in a military campaign in 1297 with the purpose of putting down a revolt rose in the mountainous region. [8] Trần Quốc Tảng was also one of the first mandarins in royal court realized the bad character of Trần Khắc Chung after his trip to Champa with the purpose of saving Princess Huyền Trân from the death. [9]

Trần Quốc Tảng deceased in March 1313, he was posthumously entitled as prime minister (thái úy) of the royal court. [10]

Family

In February 1291, Trần Quốc Tảng's daughter was married to crown prince Trần Thuyên [11] and eventually became the Empress Thuận Thánh Bảo Từ, empress and later empress mother of the Trần Dynasty. [12] He had another child, Trần Quốc Triều, who also held an important position in royal court. [13]

Legacy

Sometimes Trần Quốc Tảng was mistaken with his uncle, Master Tuệ Trung, who was elder brother of Trần Hưng Đạo, this confusion came from the collection Hoàng Việt văn tuyển of Bùi Huy Bích. [14] Nowadays, Trần Quốc Tảng was still worshipped as a deity at Cửa Ông Temple (Cẩm Phả District, Quảng Ninh) near his native land and at a temple in Lạng Sơn, [15] every year a traditional festival is held in Cửa Ông to commemorate the feats of Trần Quốc Tảng. [16]

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Prince Chiêu Văn Trần Nhật Duật (1255–1330) was the sixth prince of Trần Thái Tông, first emperor of Trần Dynasty. Being younger brother of the Emperor Trần Thánh Tông, Trần Nhật Duật was one of the most important figures of Trần family and royal court during the reigns of four successive emperors Thánh Tông, Nhân Tông, Anh Tông and Minh Tông. In the second war of resistance against Mongol invasion, Trần Nhật Duật was the general who commanded Đại Việt army to defeat the navy of Mongol general Sogetu in Battle of Hàm Tử, one of the biggest victories of Trần Dynasty. With his knowledge of numerous foreign languages and cultures, Prince Chiêu Văn was also a prominent diplomat of Trần Dynasty who helped the Emperor to maintain good relations with several ethnic groups in the northwestern region of Đại Việt.

Prince Chiêu Minh Trần Quang Khải (1241–1294) was the third son of Trần Thái Tông, first emperor of the Trần Dynasty of Vietnam. Being the younger brother of the Emperor Trần Thánh Tông and holding the position of grand chancellor of the Trần Dynasty for many years, Trần Quang Khải was one of the most important figures of the Trần family and the royal court during the reigns of emperors Thánh Tông and Nhân Tông. In the second war of resistance against the Mongol invasion, Trần Quang Khải and Trần Hưng Đạo were two key commanders of the Đại Việt army who helped the Emperor defeat the troops of Kublai Khan's son prince Toghan. Besides his military and administrative activities, Prince Chiêu Minh was also a famous poet and was credited as the creator of the dance of flowers. Today, Trần Quang Khải is still considered as one of the most famous historical figures of the Trần Dynasty and is worshiped in several temples in Vietnam.

Trần Ích Tắc, or Prince Chiêu Quốc, was a prince of Đại Việt, the fifth son of emperor Trần Thái Tông of the Trần Dynasty, and the younger brother of the Emperor Trần Thánh Tông and grand chancellor Trần Quang Khải.

Prince Tĩnh Quốc Trần Quốc Khang (1237–1300) was the first prince of the Emperor Trần Thái Tông, the eldest brother of Trần Thánh Tông and princes Trần Quang Khải, Trần Ích Tắc and Trần Nhật Duật. Although a son of Thái Tông in name, Trần Quốc Khang's father was actually Prince Hoài Trần Liễu, who was forced by grand chancellor Trần Thủ Độ to give up his wife, Princess Thuận Thiên, to his younger brother Thái Tông when she was already pregnant with Trần Quốc Khang. For this reason, Trần Quốc Khang was not chosen as successor of Thái Tông for the throne and he did not have a significant role in royal court either, as his younger brothers did. Afterwards he was appointed as governor of Nghệ An, a position that his descendants inherited. Since Trần Quốc Khang was in fact a son of Trần Liễu, he was also a natural brother of general Trần Hưng Đạo, commander-in-chief of Đại Việt army.

Prince Yên Sinh Trần Liễu (1211–1251) was the elder brother of the Trần Thái Tông, the first emperor of Trần Dynasty. Initially, Trần Liễu was honoured by his younger brother with the title King Hiển but he was downgraded to Prince Yên Sinh after the short-lived revolt in fury of losing his pregnant wife, Princess Thuận Thiên, to the Emperor under the pressure of Imperial Regent Trần Thủ Độ. Besides this event, Trần Liễu was well known in the history of Vietnam for being father of Trần Hưng Đạo, commander-in-chief of the Đại Việt army during the second and third war of resistance against the Mongol invasion.

Mother of the Nation Lady Linh Từ Trần Thị Dung (?–1259) was the last empress and the last empress mother of the Lý Dynasty. She was entitled by the Emperor Lý Huệ Tông as Empress Consort of the Lý Dynasty from 1216 to 1225 before becoming Empress Mother of the Lý Dynasty when her daughter Lý Phật Kim was enthroned as Lý Chiêu Hoàng in 1225. After Trần Thủ Độ, Trần Thị Dung's cousin, successfully overthrew the Lý Dynasty and founded the Trần Dynasty, Trần Thị Dung was downgraded to Princess Thiên Cực while her brother Trần Thừa's son became Trần Thái Tông, first emperor of the Trần Dynasty. Besides Lý Chiêu Hoàng, Trần Thị Dung had another daughter who eventually also became Empress of the Trần Dynasty, the Empress Thuận Thiên.

Empress Thuận Thiên (1216–1248) was the second empress of Trần dynasty, she succeeded her younger sister Empress Chiêu Thánh in 1237 by an arrangement of Trần Thủ Độ in which Prince Hoài Trần Liễu was forced to give up his 3-month pregnant wife Princess Thuận Thiên to the Emperor Trần Thái Tông. Thuận Thiên was born in the royal family of the Lý dynasty as the first child of the Emperor Lý Huệ Tông and Lady Thuận Trinh Trần Thị Dung with whom she witnessed the turbulent time of the Late Lý and Early Trần Dynasty. She was mother of four princes including the second emperor of the Trần Dynasty Trần Thánh Tông and grand chancellor Prince Chiêu Minh Trần Quang Khải.

Marquis Chương Thành Trần Tự Khánh was a general of the Lý Dynasty during the reigns of Lý Cao Tông and Lý Huệ Tông. He was son of Trần Lý, head of the Trần clan, and brother of Trần Thừa and Trần Thị Dung who married to Lý Huệ Tông. Renowned as a skilled general, Trần Tự Khánh was one of the most prominent figures during the turbulent time at the end of Cao Tông and the beginning of Huệ Tông's rule. He had many victories on the battlefield and was responsible for putting down several revolts against the Lý Dynasty. Although died before the coronation of his nephew Trần Thái Tông, Trần Tự Khánh was considered one of the main factors that led to the rising position of the Trần clan in the royal court and ultimately the overthrowing of the Lý Dynasty by Trần Thủ Độ to create the Trần Dynasty.

Phạm Ngũ Lão (1255–1320) was a general of the Trần Dynasty during the reigns of three successive emperors Nhân Tông, Anh Tông and Minh Tông. His talent was noticed by Prince Hưng Đạo Trần Quốc Tuấn who married his adopted daughter to Phạm Ngũ Lão and recommended him for the royal court. Renowned as a prominent general in battlefield, Phạm Ngũ Lão was one of the few commanders of the Vietnamese army during the second and third Mongol invasion who did not come from the Trần clan. After the war of resistance against the Yuan dynasty, Phạm Ngũ Lão continued to participate in numerous military campaigns of the Trần Dynasty in which he often succeeded. Today, Phạm Ngũ Lão is still considered one of the most capable military commanders of both the Trần Dynasty and history of Vietnam.

References

Notes

  1. 1 2 Ngô Sĩ Liên 1993 , p. 190
  2. Trần Trọng Kim 1971 , p. 49
  3. Ngô Sĩ Liên 1993 , pp. 164–166
  4. Ngô Sĩ Liên 1993 , p. 211
  5. Ngô Sĩ Liên 1993 , pp. 205–206
  6. Ngô Sĩ Liên 1993 , pp. 210–211
  7. Ngô Sĩ Liên 1993 , p. 200
  8. Ngô Sĩ Liên 1993 , p. 207
  9. Ngô Sĩ Liên 1993 , pp. 219–220
  10. Ngô Sĩ Liên 1993 , p. 225
  11. Ngô Sĩ Liên 1993 , p. 202
  12. Ngô Sĩ Liên 1993 , p. 227
  13. Ngô Sĩ Liên 1993 , p. 215
  14. Tai th Nguyen (1997). History of Buddhism in Vietnam. CRVP. p. 160. ISBN   1-56518-098-4.
  15. Karen Fjelstad, Nguyễn Thị Hiền (2006). Possessed by the spirits: mediumship in contemporary Vietnamese communities. SEAP Publications. p. 23. ISBN   0-87727-141-0.
  16. Xavier Guillaume. La Terre du Dragon Tome 2 (in French). Editions Publibook. p. 193. ISBN   2-7483-1647-9.

Bibliography