| Trịnh lords |
Lord of Tonkin
|Born||4 December 1720|
|Died||15 February 1767|
|Mother||Vũ Thị Ngọc Nguyên|
Trịnh Doanh (4 December 1720 – 15 February 1767) ruled northern Vietnam (Tonkin) from 1740 to 1767 (he ruled with the title Minh Đô Vương). Trịnh Doanh was a third son of Trịnh Cương, and belonged to the line of Trịnh Lords who ruled northern Vietnam. His rule was spent putting down rebellions against Trịnh rule.
Trịnh Doanh took over from his brother, Trịnh Giang, who, through financial mismanagement and bad behavior, provoked a wave of revolts against his rule. This was a time of increasing peasant revolts in both the north and the south under the Nguyễn Lords. In the north, some of the revolts were apparently led by members of the royal Lê family.
The rebellions which broke out in Tonkin during this period, were almost without number. Princes belonging to the royal family, generals, civil mandarins, common people, and out-casts from the hills, all rose in the provinces against the tyranny of the Trịnh, as well as for their personal interests. Chapter 16 (continued)
Despite the many revolts, Trịnh Doanh defeated them all and passed the rule of Vietnam to his son, Trịnh Sâm.
As far as the Lê Dynasty was concerned, there was just one emperor, Lê Hien Tông (1740–1786), who occupied the royal throne in Hanoi.
| Trịnh lords |
Lord of Tonkin
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The history of Vietnam can be traced back to around 4000 years ago. Archaeological findings from 1965, still under research, show the remains of two hominins closely related to Sinanthropus, dating as far back as the Middle Pleistocene era, roughly half a million years ago. Pre-historic Vietnam was home to some of the world's earliest civilizations and societies—making them one of the world's first people who practiced agriculture. The Red River valley formed a natural geographic and economic unit, bounded to the north and west by mountains and jungles, to the east by the sea and to the south by the Red River Delta. The need to have a single authority to prevent floods of the Red River, to cooperate in constructing hydraulic systems, trade exchange, and to fight invaders, led to the creation of the first Vietnamese states approximately 2879 BC.
Cochinchina or Quinam is a region encompassing the southern third of current Vietnam whose principal city is Saigon. It was a French colony from 1862 to 1954. The later state of South Vietnam was created in 1954 by combining Cochinchina with southern Annam. In Vietnamese, the region is called Nam Bộ. Historically, it was Gia Định (1779–1832), Nam Kỳ (1834–1945), Nam Bộ (1945–48), Nam phần (1948–56), Nam Việt (1956–75), and later Miền Nam. In French, it was called la colonie de Cochinchine.
The name Tây Sơn is used in Vietnamese history in various ways to refer to the period of peasant rebellions and decentralized dynasties established between the end of the figurehead Lê dynasty in 1770 and the beginning of the Nguyễn dynasty in 1802. The name of the rebel leaders' home district, Tây Sơn, came to be applied to the leaders themselves, their uprising or their rule.
The Later Lê dynasty was the longest-ruling Vietnamese dynasty, ruling from 1428 to 1789 with a brief six-year interruption by the Mạc dynasty (1527-1533.) It is usually divided into two historical periods- the Primitive Lê dynasty (1428-1527) in which emperors ruled in their own right, and the Revival Lê dynasty following the dynasty's restoration, in which figurehead emperors reigned under the auspices of the powerful Trịnh family.
Trịnh lords, also known as Trịnh clan or House of Trịnh, were a noble feudal clan who were the de facto rulers of northern Vietnam while Nguyễn lords ruled the southern Vietnam during the Later Lê dynasty. Both of two rulers referred to themselves as Chúa (lord) and controlled their countries while the Later Lê emperors did not have any real power, only maintained their title. The Trịnh lords traced their descent from Trịnh Khả, a friend and advisor to the 15th-century Vietnamese Emperor Lê Lợi. The Trịnh clan had officially 12 lords that ruled Northern Vietnam and the royal court of Later Lê dynasty for more than 2 centuries.
The Nguyễn lords, also known as Nguyễn clan or House of Nguyễn, were rulers of the Kingdom of Đàng Trong in Central and Southern Vietnam, as opposed to Đàng Ngoài or Outer Realm, ruled by the Trịnh lords.
The Mạc dynasty, as known as Mạc clan or House of Mạc ruled the whole of Đại Việt between 1527 and 1533 and the northern part of the country from 1533 until 1592, when they lost control over the capital Đông Kinh for the last time. Later Mạc representatives ruled over the province of Cao Bằng until 1677.
The Trịnh–Nguyễn Civil War was a long war waged between the two ruling families in Vietnam.
Trịnh Kiểm (1503–1570) ruled northern part of Vietnam from 1545 to 1570. Trịnh Kiểm was the founder of the Trịnh Lords or House of Trịnh who ruled Dai Viet while a succession of figurehead Later Lê Emperors took the role as puppet government. During his rule, the war with the Mạc Dynasty continued. Although he was the de facto ruler of Dai Viet during his reign, he never claimed himself title of Lord, hence he is not the first official Trịnh Lord but his son Trịnh Tùng is the first. Later Trịnh Kiểm was posthumously proclaimed Trịnh Lord by his descendants.
Trịnh Tráng, posthumous name: Văn Tổ Nghị Vương (文祖誼王). He is the second lord of Trịnh ruled Tonkin from 1623 to 1657. He is one of the famous Trịnh lords who ruled Vietnam. He started the Trịnh–Nguyễn War in 1627 and launched several major offensives which failed to crush the Nguyễn lords.
Trịnh Tạc ruled Vietnam from 1657–1682
Trịnh Cương (1686–1729) was the lord who ruled Tonkin from 1709 to 1729. Trịnh Cương was born to Trịnh Bính, a grandson of the former lord Trịnh Căn. He belonged to the line of Trịnh Lords who had ruled parts of Vietnam since 1545. Like his great-grandfather and predecessor, Trịnh Căn, his reign was mostly devoted to administrative reforms.
Trịnh Giang ruled northern Vietnam (Tonkin) from 1729 to 1740. His title as ruling lord (chua) was Uy Nam Vương. He was one of the Trịnh Lords who ruled Vietnam. He was a bad ruler, being wasteful, inept, and callous.
Trịnh Sâm ruled northern Vietnam from 1767 to 1782 AD. He ruled with the title "Tĩnh Đô Vương", and was one of the last of the powerful Trịnh lords. Trịnh Sâm defeated the ancient enemy of the northern state, the Nguyễn lords in the south. The Trịnh line was separate from the royal Lê Dynasty, and the officially recognized king was Lê Hiển Tông (1740–1786), who continued to occupy the royal throne in Thăng Long, but without real power.
Nguyen Kim was a Vietnamese statesman who was the ancestor of the famous Nguyễn Lords who later ruled south Vietnam. During his rule, the war with the Mạc Dynasty started.
Phú Xuân (富春) was the historic capital of the Nguyễn lords, the Tây Sơn dynasty, and later became the Nguyễn dynasty's capital in Huế.
Lê Hiển Tông, born Lê Duy Hiệu, was the penultimate emperor of Vietnamese Lê Dynasty. He reigned from 1740 to 1786 and was succeeded by his grandson Lê Duy Kỳ.
Nguyễn Nhạc was the founder of the Tây Sơn dynasty, reigning from 1778 to 1793.
The Revival Lê dynasty, also called the Later Lê Restoration, was a Vietnamese dynasty that existed between 1533 and 1789. The Revival Lê dynasty and the Primitive Lê dynasty collectively formed the Later Lê dynasty.
Mạc Đăng Dung, also known by his temple name Mạc Thái Tổ (莫太祖), was an emperor of Vietnam and the founder of the Mạc Dynasty. Previously a captain of the imperial guard of one of the Lê Dynasty emperors, he gradually rose to a position of great power. Mạc eventually deposed the last Lê monarch and became a monarch himself.