Trabzon Province

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Trabzon Province

Trabzon ili
Trabzon in Turkey.svg
Location of Trabzon Province in Turkey
Country Turkey
Region East Black Sea
Subregion Trabzon
Government
   Electoral district Trabzon
  Governorİsmail Ustaoğlu
Area
  Total6,685 km2 (2,581 sq mi)
Population
 (2018) [1]
  Total807,903
  Density120/km2 (310/sq mi)
Area code 0462
Vehicle registration 61

Trabzon Province (Turkish : Trabzon ili) is a province of Turkey on the Black Sea coast. Located in a strategically important region, Trabzon is one of the oldest trade port cities in Anatolia. Neighbouring provinces are Giresun to the west, Gümüşhane to the southwest, Bayburt to the southeast and Rize to the east. The major ethnic groups are Turks, but the province is also home to a minority of Muslim Pontic Greek speakers, [2] though younger speakers are not always fluent in this language. İsmail Ustaoğlu was appointed the Governor of the province in October 2018. [3]

Contents

The capital of the province is Trabzon.

Districts

Trabzon province is divided into 18 districts:

Districts along the 114 km coastline (from west to east): Beşikdüzü, Vakfıkebir, Çarşıbaşı, Akçaabat, Yomra, Arsin, Araklı, Sürmene and Of. [4]
Districts inland: Tonya, Düzköy, Şalpazarı, Maçka, Köprübaşı, Dernekpazarı, Hayrat and Çaykara.

Beşikdüzü and Şalpazarı gained district status in 1988, Çarşıbaşı, Düzköy, Köprübaşı, Dernekpazarı and Hayrat in 1990.

History

Sumela Monastery in the Pontic Mountains, near Macka Sumela Showing Location.JPG
Sümela Monastery in the Pontic Mountains, near Maçka
A traditional rural Pontic house in Livera village, Macka district Trabzonhouse.jpg
A traditional rural Pontic house in Livera village, Maçka district
Uzungol village and lake in Caykara Uzungol, Caykara, Trabzon.JPG
Uzungöl village and lake in Çaykara
Another village in Caykara Village in Caykara district2.jpg
Another village in Çaykara
A traditional house in Caykara House in Caykara.jpg
A traditional house in Çaykara

Remarkably attractive throughout its history, Trabzon was the subject of hundreds of travel books by western travellers, some of whom had named it "city of tale in the East." The capital city Trabzon was founded, as Trapezus, by Greek colonists from Sinope, modern Sinop, Turkey. Starting from the 9th century BC, the city had also been mentioned by historians such as Homeros, Herodotus, Hesiodos. The first written source regarding Trabzon is Anabasis, authored by Xenophon.

An important Roman and Byzantine centre, it was the capital of the Empire of Trebizond from 1204 to 1461. Trabzon was subsequently made part of the Ottoman Empire by Mehmet the Conqueror. After the region was conquered in 1461, the Fatih Medrese (1462), Hatuniye Medrese (1515), İskender Pasha Medrese (1529) and Hamza Pasha Medrese (1543) were established as important medreses (educational centers; some of them within külliye complexes) of the period. [5] It was initially a sanjak before gaining the status of eyalet , and finally became a vilayet in 1868.

The province was a site of major fighting between Ottoman and Russian forces during the Caucasus Campaign of World War I, which resulted in the capture of the city of Trabzon by the Russian army under command of Grand Duke Nicholas and Nikolai Yudenich in April 1916. The province was restored to Turkish control in early 1918 following Russia's exit from World War I with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.

In Turkey

In September 1935 the third Inspectorate General (Umumi Müfettişlik, UM) was created. [6] Its creation was based on the Law 1164 from June 1927, [7] which was passed in order to Turkefy the population. [8] The Trabzon province was included in this area. The third UM span over the provinces of Erzurum, Artvin, Rize, Trabzon, Kars, Gümüşhane, Erzincan and Ağrı. It was governed by an Inspector General seated in the city of Erzurum. [6] [9] The Inspectorate General was dissolved in 1952 during the Government of the Democrat Party. [10]

Attractions

Demographics

See also

Related Research Articles

Trabzon Metropolitan municipality in Turkey

Trabzon, historically known as Trebizond in English, is a city on the Black Sea coast of northeastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province. Trabzon, located on the historical Silk Road, became a melting pot of religions, languages and culture for centuries and a trade gateway to Persia in the southeast and the Caucasus to the northeast. The Venetian and Genoese merchants paid visits to Trabzon during the medieval period and sold silk, linen and woolen fabric. Both republics had merchant colonies within the city – Leonkastron and the former 'Venetian castle' – that played a role to Trabzon similar to the one Galata played to Constantinople. Trabzon formed the basis of several states in its long history and was the capital city of the Empire of Trebizond between 1204 and 1461. During the early modern period, Trabzon, because of the importance of its port, again became a focal point of trade to Persia and the Caucasus.

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Rize Province is a province of northeast Turkey, on the eastern Black Sea coast between Trabzon and Artvin. The province of Erzurum is to the south. It was formerly known as Lazistan, the designation of the term of Lazistan was officially banned in 1926, by Kemalists. The province is home to Laz, Hemshin, Turkish people and Georgian communities. Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan spent his early childhood in Rize, where his father was a member of the Turkish Coast Guard, and from which both of Erdogan's parents come from.

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Hakkâri Province Province of Turkey

Hakkâri Province, is a province in the southeast of Turkey. The administrative centre is the city of Hakkâri. The province covers an area of 7,121 km² and had a population of 286,470 in 2018. The province was created in 1936 out of Van Province and borders Şırnak Province to the west, Van Province to the north, Iran to the east, and Iraq to the south. The current Governor is İdris Akbıyık. The province is a stronghold for Kurdish nationalism and a hotspot in the Kurdish–Turkish conflict.

Pontic Greeks

The Pontic Greeks are an ethnically Greek group who traditionally lived in the region of Pontus, on the shores of the Black Sea and in the Pontic Mountains of northeastern Anatolia. Many later migrated to other parts of Eastern Anatolia, to the former Russian province of Kars Oblast in the Transcaucasus, and to Georgia in various waves between the Ottoman conquest of the Empire of Trebizond in 1461 and the Russo-Turkish War of 1828-1829. Those from southern Russia, Ukraine, and Crimea are often referred to as "Northern Pontic [Greeks]", in contrast to those from "South Pontus", which strictly speaking is Pontus proper. Those from Georgia, northeastern Anatolia, and the former Russian Caucasus are in contemporary Greek academic circles often referred to as "Eastern Pontic [Greeks]" or as Caucasian Greeks, but also include the Turkic-speaking Urums.

Erzincan Province Province of Turkey

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Gümüşhane Province Province of Turkey

Gümüşhane Province is a province in northern Turkey, bordering Bayburt to the east, Trabzon to the north, Giresun and Erzincan to the west. It covers an area of 6,575 km² and has a population of 129,618 in 2010. The population was 186,953 in 2000. The name Gümüşhane means silver house. The city has a rich mining history and was the source of exports for Trabzon. The current Governor is Kamuran Taşbilek, he was appointed on the 27 October 2019.

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Trebizond Vilayet

The Vilayet of Trebizond or Trabzon was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) in the north-eastern part of the Ottoman Empire and corresponding to the area along the eastern Black Sea coastline and the interior highland region of the Pontic Alps. The region was populated mainly by ethnic Turks in the western half and Laz-speaking Muslims in the eastern half, although throughout the period of Ottoman rule there was a history of conversion to Turkish Islam of many of the region's Pontic Greeks - with even Gulbahar Hatun, the mother of sultan Selim the Grim said to be of Pontic Greek origin.

Çaykara Place in Trabzon, Turkey

Çaykara is a town and district of Trabzon Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey. As of 2014, the District Mayor of Çaykara is Hanefi Tok (AKP). Çaykara village lies in a V-shaped valley along the Solaklı River in the Pontic Mountains, at an elevation of around 300 metres. Çaykara district lies to the south of Dernekpazarı (Kondu) and forms the upper part of the Of-valley system, with peaks reaching to over 3300 meters. The western half of İkizdere district - which lies just east of Çaykara and is now part of Rize province - was historically also part of the same administrative and cultural region. Large swathes of the district are made up of old-growth temperate broadleaf and mixed forest, gradually making way for alpine tundra at higher altitudes.

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Şırnak Province Province of Turkey

Şırnak Province is a province of Turkey in the Southeastern Anatolia Region. Şırnak Province was created in 1990, with areas that were formerly part of the Siirt and Mardin Provinces. It borders both Kurdistan Region of Iraq and Syria. The current Governor of the province is Ali Hamza Pehlivan. As of 2013, the province had an estimated population of 475,255 people.

Inspectorates-General or General Inspectorates was a regional governorship whose authorities prevailed over civilian, military and judicial institutions under their domain of the direct command of Mustafa Kemal in order to establishing authoritarian rule and to consolidate the authority in the process of Turkification of religious and ethnic minorities.

Turkish dialects

There is considerable dialectal variation in Turkish.

The First Inspectorate-General refers to a former regional administrative area in Turkey. The First Inspectorate-General span over the provinces Hakkari, Siirt, Şırnak, Mardin, Şanlıurfa, Bitlis, Elazığ and Van.

The Fourth Inspectorate-General refers to a regional administrative subdivision in the Dersim region.

References

  1. "Population of provinces by years - 2000-2018". Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  2. Pontic Greek: Romeika of Trabzon Archived 2008-06-11 at the Wayback Machine
  3. "İsmail USTAOĞLU". www.trabzon.gov.tr. Retrieved 2020-04-12.
  4. Trabzon city Archived 2011-11-03 at the Wayback Machine
  5. Trabzon history Archived 2008-06-12 at the Wayback Machine
  6. 1 2 "Üçüncü Umumi Müfettişliği'nin Kurulması ve III. Umumî Müfettiş Tahsin Uzer'in Bazı Önemli Faaliyetleri". Dergipark. p. 2. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
  7. Aydogan, Erdal. "Üçüncü Umumi Müfettişliği'nin Kurulması ve III. Umumî Müfettiş Tahsin Uzer'in Bazı Önemli Faaliyetleri" . Retrieved 8 April 2020.
  8. Üngör, Umut. "Young Turk social engineering : mass violence and the nation state in eastern Turkey, 1913- 1950" (PDF). University of Amsterdam. pp. 244–247. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
  9. Bayir, Derya (2016-04-22). Minorities and Nationalism in Turkish Law. Routledge. pp. 139–141. ISBN   978-1-317-09579-8.
  10. Fleet, Kate; Kunt, I. Metin; Kasaba, Reşat; Faroqhi, Suraiya (2008-04-17). The Cambridge History of Turkey. Cambridge University Press. p. 343. ISBN   978-0-521-62096-3.

Coordinates: 40°46′50″N39°48′44″E / 40.78056°N 39.81222°E / 40.78056; 39.81222