Trafalgar Square

Last updated

Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square, London 2 - Jun 2009.jpg
View of the square in 2009
Westminster London UK location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Location within Central London
Former name(s) Charing Cross
Namesake Battle of Trafalgar
Maintained by Greater London Authority
Location City of Westminster, London, England
Postal code WC2
Coordinates 51°30′29″N00°07′41″W / 51.50806°N 0.12806°W / 51.50806; -0.12806 Coordinates: 51°30′29″N00°07′41″W / 51.50806°N 0.12806°W / 51.50806; -0.12806
North Charing Cross Road
East The Strand
South Northumberland Avenue
Whitehall
West The Mall
Construction
Completionc.1840
Other
DesignerSir Charles Barry
Website www.london.gov.uk/trafalgarsquare

Trafalgar Square ( /trəˈfælɡər/ trə-FAL-gər) is a public square in the City of Westminster, Central London, built around the area formerly known as Charing Cross. Its name commemorates the Battle of Trafalgar, a British naval victory in the Napoleonic Wars over France and Spain that took place on 21 October 1805 off the coast of Cape Trafalgar.

City of Westminster City and borough in London

The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough that also holds city status. It occupies much of the central area of Greater London including most of the West End. Historically in Middlesex, it is to the west of the ancient City of London, directly to the east of the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, and its southern boundary is the River Thames. The London borough was created with the 1965 establishment of Greater London. Upon its creation, it inherited the city status previously held by the smaller Metropolitan Borough of Westminster from 1900, which was first awarded to Westminster in 1540.

Central London Innermost part of London, England

Central London is the innermost part of London, in the United Kingdom, spanning several boroughs. Over time, a number of definitions have been used to define the scope of central London for statistics, urban planning and local government. Its characteristics are understood to include a high density built environment, high land values, an elevated daytime population and a concentration of regionally, nationally and internationally significant organisations and facilities.

Contents

The site of Trafalgar Square had been a significant landmark since the 13th century and originally contained the King's Mews. After George IV moved the mews to Buckingham Palace, the area was redeveloped by John Nash, but progress was slow after his death, and the square did not open until 1844. The 169-foot (52 m) Nelson's Column at its centre is guarded by four lion statues. A number of commemorative statues and sculptures occupy the square, but the Fourth Plinth, left empty since 1840, has been host to contemporary art since 1999.

Royal Mews Grade I listed transport museum in City of Westminster, United Kingdom

The Royal Mews is a mews of the British Royal Family. In London the Royal Mews has occupied two main sites, formerly at Charing Cross, and since the 1820s at Buckingham Palace. The site is open to the public throughout much of the year.

George IV of the United Kingdom King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of Hanover

George IV was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover following the death of his father, King George III, on 29 January 1820, until his own death ten years later. From 1811 until his accession, he served as regent during his father's final mental illness.

Buckingham Palace Official London residence and principal workplace of the British monarch

Buckingham Palace is the London residence and administrative headquarters of the monarch of the United Kingdom. Located in the City of Westminster, the palace is often at the centre of state occasions and royal hospitality. It has been a focal point for the British people at times of national rejoicing and mourning.

The square has been used for community gatherings and political demonstrations, including Bloody Sunday in 1887, the culmination of the first Aldermaston March, anti-war protests, and campaigns against climate change. A Christmas tree has been donated to the square by Norway since 1947 and is erected for twelve days before and after Christmas Day. The square is a centre of annual celebrations on New Year's Eve. It was well known for its feral pigeons until their removals in the early 21st century.

Bloody Sunday (1887) London, 13 November 1887

Bloody Sunday took place in London on 13 November 1887, when marchers protesting unemployment and coercion in Ireland, as well as demanding the release of MP William O'Brien, clashed with the Metropolitan Police and the British Army. The demonstration was organised by the Social Democratic Federation and the Irish National League. Violent clashes took place between the police and demonstrators, many "armed with iron bars, knives, pokers and gas pipes". A contemporary report noted that 400 were arrested and 75 persons were badly injured, including many police, two policemen being stabbed and one protester bayonetted.

Climate change Change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns for an extended period

Climate change occurs when changes in Earth's climate system result in new weather patterns that last for at least a few decades, and maybe for millions of years. The climate system comprises five interacting parts, the atmosphere (air), hydrosphere (water), cryosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere. The climate system receives nearly all of its energy from the sun, with a relatively tiny amount from earth's interior. The climate system also gives off energy to outer space. The balance of incoming and outgoing energy, and the passage of the energy through the climate system, determines Earth's energy budget. When the incoming energy is greater than the outgoing energy, earth's energy budget is positive and the climate system is warming. If more energy goes out, the energy budget is negative and earth experiences cooling.

Christmas tree decorated tree used in the celebration of Christmas

A Christmas tree is a decorated tree, usually an evergreen conifer such as a spruce, pine or fir, or an artificial tree of similar appearance, associated with the celebration of Christmas, originating in Northern Europe. The custom was developed in medieval Livonia, and in early modern Germany where Protestant Germans brought decorated trees into their homes. It acquired popularity beyond the Lutheran areas of Germany and the Baltic countries during the second half of the 19th century, at first among the upper classes.

Name

The square is named after the Battle of Trafalgar, a British naval victory in the Napoleonic Wars with France and Spain that took place on 21 October 1805 off the coast of Cape Trafalgar, southwest Spain, although it was not named as such until 1835. [1]

Battle of Trafalgar 1805 battle of the Napoleonic Wars

The Battle of Trafalgar was a naval engagement fought by the British Royal Navy against the combined fleets of the French and Spanish Navies, during the War of the Third Coalition of the Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815).

Royal Navy Maritime warfare branch of the United Kingdoms military

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years' War against the Kingdom of France. The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century; the oldest of the UK's armed services, it is known as the Senior Service.

Napoleonic Wars Series of early 19th century European wars

The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom. The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and its resultant conflict. The wars are often categorised into five conflicts, each termed after the coalition that fought Napoleon: the Third Coalition (1805), the Fourth (1806–07), the Fifth (1809), the Sixth (1813), and the Seventh (1815).

The name "Trafalgar" is a Spanish word of Arabic origin, derived from either Taraf al-Ghar (طرف الغار 'cape of the cave/laurel') [2] [3] [4] or Taraf al-Gharb (طرف الغرب 'cape of the west'). [5] [4]

Arabic influence on the Spanish language overwhelmingly dates from the Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula between 711 and 1492. The influence results mainly from the large number of Arabic loanwords and derivations in Spanish, plus a few other less obvious effects.

Geography

Trafalgar Square is owned by the Queen in Right of the Crown [lower-alpha 1] and managed by the Greater London Authority, while Westminster City Council owns the roads around the square, including the pedestrianised area of the North Terrace. [7] The square contains a large central area with roadways on three sides and a terrace to the north, in front of the National Gallery. The roads around the square form part of the A4, a major road running west of the City of London. [8] The square was formerly surrounded by a one-way traffic system, but works completed in 2003 reduced the width of the roads and closed the northern side to traffic. [9]

Greater London Authority local authority

The Greater London Authority (GLA), also known as City Hall, is the devolved regional governance body of London, with jurisdiction over both counties of Greater London and the City of London. It consists of two political branches: the executive Mayoralty and the 25-member London Assembly, which serves as a means of checks and balances on the former. Since May 2016, both branches have been under the control of the London Labour Party. The authority was established in 2000, following a local referendum, and derives most of its powers from the Greater London Authority Act 1999 and the Greater London Authority Act 2007.

A4 road (England) major road in England

The A4 is a major road in England from Central London to Avonmouth via Heathrow Airport, Reading, Bath and Bristol. It is historically known as the Bath Road with newer sections including the Great West Road and Portway. The road was once the main route from London to Bath and the west of England and formed, after the A40, the second main western artery from London.

Nelson's Column is in the centre of the square, flanked by fountains designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens between 1937 and 1939 [10] (replacements for two of Peterhead granite, now in Canada) and guarded by four monumental bronze lions sculpted by Sir Edwin Landseer. [11] At the top of the column is a statue of Horatio Nelson, who commanded the British Navy at the Battle of Trafalgar.

Surrounding the square are the National Gallery on the north side and St Martin-in-the-Fields Church to the east. [11] Also on the east is South Africa House, and facing it across the square is Canada House. To the south west is The Mall, which leads towards Buckingham Palace via Admiralty Arch, while Whitehall is to the south and the Strand to the east. Charing Cross Road passes between the National Gallery and the church. [8]

London Underground's Charing Cross station on the Northern and Bakerloo lines has an exit in the square. The lines had separate stations, of which the Bakerloo line one was called Trafalgar Square until they were linked and renamed in 1979 as part of the construction of the Jubilee line, [12] which was rerouted to Westminster in 1999. [13] Other nearby tube stations are Embankment connecting the District, Circle, Northern and Bakerloo lines, and Leicester Square on the Northern and Piccadilly lines. [14]

London bus routes 3, 6, 9, 11, 12, 13, 15, 23, 24, 29, 53, 87, 88, 91, 139, 159, 176, 453 pass through Trafalgar Square. [15]

A point in Trafalgar Square is regarded as the official centre of London in legislation and when measuring distances from the capital. [16]

Trafalgar Square London 1908.jpg
Trafalgar Square, 1908
Trafalgar Square 360 Panorama Cropped Sky, London - Jun 2009.jpg
A 360-degree view of Trafalgar Square in 2009

History

A painting by James Pollard showing the square before the erection of Nelson's Column Trafalgar Square by James Pollard.jpg
A painting by James Pollard showing the square before the erection of Nelson's Column

Building work on the south side of the square in the late 1950s revealed deposits from the last interglacial. Among the findings were the remains of cave lion, rhinoceros, straight-tusked elephant and hippopotamus. [17] [18] [19]

The site of Trafalgar Square has been a significant location since the 13th century. During Edward I's reign, the area was the site of the King's Mews, running north from the original Charing Cross, where the Strand from the City met Whitehall coming north from Westminster. [1] From the reign of Richard II to that of Henry VII, the mews was at the western end of the Strand. The name "Royal Mews" comes from the practice of keeping hawks here for moulting; "mew" is an old word for this. After a fire in 1534, the mews were rebuilt as stables, and remained here until George IV moved them to Buckingham Palace. [20]

Clearance and development

After 1732, the King's Mews were divided into the Great Mews and the smaller Green Mews to the north by the Crown Stables, a large block, built to the designs of William Kent. Its site is occupied by the National Gallery. [21]

In 1826 the Commissioners of H.M. Woods, Forests and Land Revenues instructed John Nash to draw up plans for clearing a large area south of Kent's stable block, and as far east as St Martin's Lane. His plans left open the whole area of what became Trafalgar Square, except for a block in the centre, which he reserved for a new building for the Royal Academy. [22] The plans included the demolition and redevelopment of buildings between St Martin's Lane and the Strand and the construction of a road (now called Duncannon Street) across the churchyard of St Martin-in-the-Fields. [23] The Charing Cross Act was passed in 1826 and clearance started soon after. [22] Nash died soon after construction started, impeding its progress. The square was to be named for William IV commemorating his ascent to the throne in 1830. [24] Around 1835, it was decided that the square would be named after the Battle of Trafalgar as suggested by architect George Ledwell Taylor, commemorating Nelson's victory over the French and Spanish in 1805 during the Napoleonic Wars. [1] [25]

Ten frames of Trafalgar Square shot by Wordsworth Donisthorpe in 1890 Trafalgar Square 1890 - ten remaining frames by Wordsworth Donisthorpe.gif
Ten frames of Trafalgar Square shot by Wordsworth Donisthorpe in 1890

After the clearance, development progressed slowly. The National Gallery was built on the north side between 1832 and 1838 to a design by William Wilkins, [22] and in 1837 the Treasury approved Wilkins' plan for the laying out of the square, but it was not put into effect. [26] In April 1840, following Wilkins' death, new plans by Charles Barry were accepted, and construction started within weeks. [22] [27] For Barry, as for Wilkins, a major consideration was increasing the visual impact of the National Gallery, which had been widely criticised for its lack of grandeur. He dealt with the complex sloping site by excavating the main area to the level of the footway between Cockspur Street and the Strand, [28] and constructing a 15-foot (4.6 m) high balustraded terrace with a roadway on the north side, and steps at each end leading to the main level. [27] Wilkins had proposed a similar solution with a central flight of steps. [26] Plinths were provided for sculpture and pedestals for lighting. All the stonework was of Aberdeen granite. [27] In 1841 it was decided that two fountains should be included in the layout. [29] The estimated budget, excluding paving and sculptures, was £11,000. [27] The earth removed was used to level Green Park. [28] The square was originally surfaced with tarmacadam, which was replaced with stone in the 1920s. [30]

Trafalgar Square was opened to the public on 1 May 1844. [31]

Nelson's Column

The lions at Nelson's Column were not finished until nearly 30 years after the square opened. Lion-nelson-column-trafalgar-london-uk.jpg
The lions at Nelson's Column were not finished until nearly 30 years after the square opened.

Nelson's Column was planned independently of Barry's work. In 1838 a Nelson Memorial Committee had approached the government proposing that a monument to the victory of Trafalgar, funded by public subscription, should be erected in the square. A competition was held and won by the architect William Railton, who proposed a 218-foot-3-inch (66.52 m) Corinthinan column topped by a statue of Nelson and guarded by four sculpted lions. The design was approved, but received widespread objections from the public. Construction went ahead beginning in 1840 but with the height reduced to 145 feet 3 inches (44.27 m). [32] The column was completed and the statue raised in November 1843. [33]

The last of the bronze reliefs on the column's pedestals was not completed until May 1854, and the four lions, although part of the original design, were only added in 1867. [34] Each lion weighs seven tons. [35] A hoarding remained around the base of Nelson's Column for some years and some of its upper scaffolding remained in place. [36] Landseer, the sculptor, had asked for a lion that had died at the London Zoo to be brought to his studio. He took so long to complete sketches that its corpse began to decompose and some parts had to be improvised. The statues have paws that resemble cats more than lions. [37]

Barry was unhappy about Nelson's Column being placed in the square. In July 1840, when its foundations had been laid, he told a parliamentary select committee that "it would in my opinion be desirable that the area should be wholly free from all insulated objects of art". [27]

In 1940 the Nazi SS developed secret plans to transfer Nelson's Column to Berlin [lower-alpha 2] after an expected German invasion, as related by Norman Longmate in If Britain Had Fallen (1972). [38]

The square has been Grade I listed on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens since 1996. [39]

Redevelopment

A major 18-month redevelopment of the square led by W.S. Atkins with Foster and Partners as sub-consultants was completed in 2003. The work involved closing the eastbound road along the north side and diverting traffic around the other three sides of the square, demolishing the central section of the northern retaining wall and inserting a wide set of steps to the pedestrianised terrace in front of the National Gallery. The construction includes two lifts for disabled access, public toilets and a café. Access between the square and the gallery had been by two crossings at the northeast and northwest corners. [40] [41]

Statues and monuments

Plinths

The statue of Sir Henry Havelock by William Behnes Statue of Henry Havelock, October 2014 (15555081947).jpg
The statue of Sir Henry Havelock by William Behnes

Barry's scheme provided two plinths for sculptures on the north side of the square. [42] A bronze equestrian statue of George IV by Sir Francis Chantrey, originally intended to be placed on top of the Marble Arch, [22] was installed on the eastern plinth in 1844, while the other remained empty until late in the 20th century. [42] There are two other statues on plinths, both installed during the 19th century: General Sir Charles James Napier by George Cannon Adams in the south-west corner in 1855, and Major-General Sir Henry Havelock by William Behnes in the south-east in 1861. [22] In 2000, the Mayor of London, Ken Livingstone, suggested replacing the statues with figures more familiar to the general public. [43]

Fourth plinth

In the 21st century, the empty plinth in the north-west corner of the square, the "Fourth Plinth", has been used to show specially commissioned temporary artworks. The scheme was initiated by the Royal Society of Arts and continued by the Fourth Plinth Commission, appointed by the Mayor of London. [44]

Other sculptures

There are three busts of admirals against the north wall of the square. Those of Lord Jellicoe (by Sir Charles Wheeler) and Lord Beatty (by William MacMillan) were installed in 1948 in conjunction with the square's fountains, which also commemorate them. [45] [46] The third, of the Second World War First Sea Lord Admiral Cunningham (by Franta Belsky) was unveiled alongside them on 2 April 1967. [47]

On the south side of Trafalgar Square, on the site of the original Charing Cross, is a bronze equestrian statue of Charles I by Hubert Le Sueur. It was cast in 1633, and placed in its present position in 1678. [48]

The two statues on the lawn in front of the National Gallery are the statue of James II by Grinling Gibbons to the west of the portico, and of one George Washington, a replica of a work by Jean-Antoine Houdon, to the east. [41] The latter was a gift from the Commonwealth of Virginia, installed in 1921. [49]

Two statues erected in the 19th century have since been removed. One of Edward Jenner, pioneer of the smallpox vaccine, was set up in the south-west corner of the square in 1858, next to that of Napier. Sculpted by William Calder Marshall, it showed Jenner sitting in a chair in a relaxed pose, and was inaugurated at a ceremony presided over by Prince Albert. It was moved to Kensington Gardens in 1862. [50] [51] The other, of General Charles George Gordon by Hamo Thornycroft, was erected on an 18-foot high pedestal between the fountains in 1888. It was removed in 1943 and re-sited on the Victoria Embankment ten years later. [52]

Fountains

Fountain at Trafalgar Square, 2014 Trafalgar square fountain, June 7 2014.JPG
Fountain at Trafalgar Square, 2014

In 1841, following suggestions from the local paving board, Barry agreed that two fountains should be installed to counteract the effects of reflected heat and glare from the asphalt surface. The First Commissioner of Woods and Forests welcomed the plan because the fountains reduced the open space available for public gatherings and reduced the risk of riotous assembly. [53] The fountains were fed from two wells, one in front of the National Gallery and one behind it connected by a tunnel. Water was pumped to the fountains by a steam engine housed in a building behind the gallery. [22]

In the late-1930s it was decided to replace the pump and the centrepieces of the fountains. The new centrepieces, designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens, were memorials to Lord Jellicoe and Lord Beatty, although busts of the admirals, initially intended to be placed in the fountain surrounds were placed against the northern retaining wall when the project was completed after the Second World War. [54] The fountains cost almost £50,000. The old ones were presented to the Canadian government and are now located in Ottawa's Confederation Park and Regina's Wascana Centre. [55] [56]

A programme of restoration was completed by May 2009. The pump system was replaced with one capable of sending an 80-foot (24 m) jet of water into the air. [57] A LED lighting system that can project different combinations of colours on to the fountains was installed to reduce the cost of lighting maintenance and to coincide with the 2012 Summer Olympics. [55]

Pigeons

People sitting on lions and feeding pigeons in the square People feeding pigeons in Trafalgar Square c.1993.jpg
People sitting on lions and feeding pigeons in the square

The square was once famous for feral pigeons and feeding them was a popular activity. Pigeons began flocking to the square before construction was completed and feed sellers became well known in the Victorian era. [58] The desirability of the birds' presence was contentious: their droppings disfigured the stonework and the flock, estimated at its peak to be 35,000, was considered a health hazard. [59] [60] A stall seller, Bernie Rayner, infamously sold bird seed to tourists at inflated prices. [61]

In February 2001, the sale of bird seed in the square was stopped [59] and other measures were introduced to discourage the pigeons including the use of birds of prey. [62] Supporters continued to feed the birds but in 2003 the mayor, Ken Livingstone, enacted bylaws to ban feeding them in the square. [63] In September 2007 Westminster City Council passed further bylaws banning feeding birds on the pedestrianised North Terrace and other pavements in the area. [64] Nelson's column was repaired from years of damage from pigeon droppings at a cost of £140,000. [61]

Events

New Year

For many years, revellers celebrating the New Year have gathered in the square despite a lack of celebrations being arranged. The lack of official events was partly because the authorities were concerned that encouraging more partygoers would cause overcrowding. Since 2003, a firework display centred on the London Eye and South Bank of the Thames has been provided as an alternative. Since 2014, New Year celebrations have been organised by the Greater London Authority in conjunction with the charity Unicef, who began ticketing the event to control crowd numbers. [65]

Christmas

The Trafalgar Square Christmas tree in 2008 Trafalgar Square Christmas tree8.jpg
The Trafalgar Square Christmas tree in 2008

A Christmas ceremony has been held in the square every year since 1947. [66] A Norway spruce (or sometimes a fir) is presented by Norway's capital city, Oslo as London's Christmas tree, a token of gratitude for Britain's support during World War II. [66] (Besides war-time support, Norway's Prince Olav and the country's government lived in exile in London throughout the war. [66] )

The Christmas tree is decorated with lights that are switched on at a seasonal ceremony. [67] It is usually held twelve days before Christmas Day. The festivity is open to the public and attracts a large number of people. [68] The switch-on is usually followed by several nights of Christmas carol singing and other performances and events. [69] On the twelfth night of Christmas, the tree is taken down for recycling. Westminster City Council threatened to abandon the event to save £5,000 in 1980 but the decision was reversed. [66]

The tree is selected by the Head Forester from Oslo's municipal forest and shipped, across the North Sea to the Port of Felixstowe, then by road to Trafalgar Square. The first tree was 48 feet (15 m) tall, but more recently has been around 75 feet (23 m). In 1987, protesters chained themselves to the tree. [66] In 1990, a man sawed into the tree with a chainsaw a few hours before a New Year's Eve party was scheduled to take place. He was arrested and the tree was repaired by tree surgeons who removed gouged sections from the trunk while the tree was suspended from a crane. [70]

Political demonstrations

A demonstration in Trafalgar Square Rally at Trafalgar Square, part of the Mud March.jpg
A demonstration in Trafalgar Square

The square has become a social and political focus for visitors and Londoners, developing over its history from "an esplanade peopled with figures of national heroes, into the country's foremost place politique", as historian Rodney Mace has written. Since its construction, it has been a venue for political demonstrations. [41] The great Chartist rally in 1848, a campaign for social reform by the working class began in the square. [41] A ban on political rallies remained in effect until the 1880s, when the emerging Labour movement, particularly the Social Democratic Federation, began holding protests. On 8 February 1886 (also known as "Black Monday"), protesters rallied against unemployment leading to a riot in Pall Mall. A larger riot ("Bloody Sunday") occurred in the square on 13 November 1887. [71]

The Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament's first Aldermaston March, protesting against the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), began in the square in 1958. [41] One of the first significant demonstrations of the modern era was held in the square on 19 September 1961 by the Committee of 100, which included the philosopher Bertrand Russell. The protesters rallied for peace and against war and nuclear weapons. In March 1968, a crowd of 10,000 demonstrated against US involvement in the Vietnam War before marching to the American Embassy in Grosvenor Square. [72]

Protesting against harassment of photographers under anti-terrorism law, 23 January 2010 DemonstrationAgainstAntiTerrorismLawLondon23Jan.jpg
Protesting against harassment of photographers under anti-terrorism law, 23 January 2010

Throughout the 1980s, a continuous anti-apartheid protest was held outside South Africa House. In 1990, the Poll Tax Riots began by a demonstration attended by 200,000 people and ultimately caused rioting in the surrounding area. [41] More recently, there have been anti-war demonstrations opposing the Afghanistan War and the Iraq War. [73] A large vigil was held shortly after the terrorist bombings in London on Thursday, 7 July 2005. [74]

In December 2009, participants from the Camp for Climate Action occupied the square for the two weeks during which the UN Conference on Climate Change took place in Copenhagen. [75] It was billed as a UK base for direct action on climate change and saw various actions and protests stem from the occupation. [76] [77] [78]

In March 2011, the square was occupied by a crowd protesting against the UK Budget and proposed budget cuts. During the night the situation turned violent as the escalation by riot police and protesters damaged portions of the square. [79] In November 2015 a vigil against the terrorist attacks in Paris was held. Crowds sang the French national anthem, La Marseillaise , and held banners in support of the city and country. [80]

Every year on the anniversary of the Battle of Trafalgar (21 October), the Sea Cadet Corps holds a parade in honour of Admiral Lord Nelson and the British victory over the combined fleets of Spain and France at Trafalgar. [81] The Royal British Legion holds a Silence in the Square event on Armistice Day, 11 November, in remembrance of those who died in war. The event includes music and poetry readings, culminating in a bugler playing the Last Post and a two-minute silence at 11 am. [82]

Sport

In the 21st century, Trafalgar Square has been the location for several sporting events and victory parades. In June 2002, 12,000 people gathered to watch the England national football team's World Cup quarter-final against Brazil on giant video screens which had been erected for the occasion. [83] The square was used by the England national rugby union team on 9 December 2003 to celebrate their victory in the 2003 Rugby World Cup, [84] and on 13 September 2005 for the England national cricket team's victory in the Ashes series. [85]

On 6 July 2005 Trafalgar Square hosted the announcement of London's bid to host the 2012 Summer Olympics. [86] A countdown clock was erected in March 2011, although engineering and weather-related faults caused it to stop a day later. [87] In 2007, it hosted the opening ceremonies of the Tour de France [88] and was part of the course for subsequent races. [89]

Other uses

Trafalgar Square temporarily grassed over in May 2007 Trafalgar Square Grass - May 2007.jpg
Trafalgar Square temporarily grassed over in May 2007

The Sea Cadets hold an annual celebration of the Battle of Trafalgar victory along the square. The parade runs from Horse Guard's Parade, along Whitehall to Nelson's Column. [90]

As an archetypal London location, Trafalgar Square featured in film and television productions during the Swinging London era of the late 1960s, including The Avengers , [91] Casino Royale , [92] Doctor Who , [93] and The Ipcress File . [94] It was used for filming several sketches and a cartoon backdrop in the BBC comedy series Monty Python's Flying Circus . [95] In May 2007, the square was grassed over with 2,000 square metres of turf for two days in a campaign by London authorities to promote "green spaces" in the city. [96]

In July 2011, due to building works in Leicester Square, the world premiere of the final film in the Harry Potter series, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 2 , was held in Trafalgar Square, with a 0.75-mile (1.21 km) red carpet linking the squares. Fans camped in Trafalgar Square for up to three days before the premiere, despite torrential rain. It was the first film premiere ever to be held there. [97]

Cultural references

A Lego architecture set based on Trafalgar Square was released in 2019. It contains models of the National Gallery and Nelson's Column alongside miniature lions, fountains and double-decker buses. [98]

Trafalgar Square is one of the squares on the standard British Monopoly Board. It is in the red set alongside the Strand and Fleet Street. [99]

Other Trafalgar Squares

Trafalgar Square in Sunderland: a group of merchant seamen's almshouses dating from 1840. Trafalgar Square, Sunderland 1.jpg
Trafalgar Square in Sunderland: a group of merchant seamen's almshouses dating from 1840.

A Trafalgar Square in Stepney is recorded in Lockie's Topography of London , published in 1810. [100] Trafalgar Square in Scarborough, North Yorkshire gives its name to the Trafalgar Square End at the town's North Marine Road cricket ground. [101]

National Heroes Square in Bridgetown, Barbados, was named Trafalgar Square in 1813, before its better-known British namesake. It was renamed in 1999 to commemorate national heroes of Barbados. [102] There is a life scale replica of the square in Bahria Town, Lahore, Pakistan where it is a tourist attraction and centre for local residents. [103]

See also

Related Research Articles

Edward Hodges Baily sculptor from England, UK

Edward Hodges Baily was an English sculptor who was born in Downend in Bristol.

Nelsons Column victory column in London

Nelson's Column is a monument in Trafalgar Square in the City of Westminster, Central London built to commemorate Admiral Horatio Nelson, who died at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. The monument was constructed between 1840 and 1843 to a design by William Railton at a cost of £47,000. It is a column of the Corinthian order built from Dartmoor granite. The Craigleith sandstone statue of Nelson is by E.H. Baily, and the four bronze lions on the base, added in 1867, were designed by Sir Edwin Landseer.

Yinka Shonibare British- Nigerian artist

Yinka Shonibare, is a British-Nigerian artist living in the United Kingdom. His work explores cultural identity, colonialism and post-colonialism within the contemporary context of globalisation. A hallmark of his art is the brightly coloured Dutch wax fabric he uses. Because he has a physical disability that paralyses one side of his body, Shonibare uses assistants to make works under his direction.

National Heroes Square Location in Bridgetown, Barbados

National Heroes Square, formerly Trafalgar Square, is located in Bridgetown, the capital and principal commercial centre of the island-nation of Barbados. The square lies along Upper Broad Street and is on the northern shore of the Careenage, found directly in the centre of Bridgetown.

Carlton House Terrace Grade I listed building in City of Westminster, United Kingdom

Carlton House Terrace is a street in the St James's district of the City of Westminster in London. Its principal architectural feature is a pair of terraces of white stucco-faced houses on the south side of the street overlooking St. James's Park. These terraces were built on Crown land between 1827 and 1832 to overall designs by John Nash, but with detailed input by other architects including Decimus Burton, who exclusively designed No. 3 and No.4.

Mowbray Park

Mowbray Park is a municipal park in the centre of Sunderland, Tyne and Wear, England, located a few hundred yards from the busy thoroughfares of Holmeside and Fawcett Street and bordered by Sunderland Museum and Winter Gardens to the north, Burdon Road to the west, Toward Road to the east and Park Road to the south. The park was voted best in Britain in 2008.

Save the Trafalgar Square Pigeons organization

Save the Trafalgar Square Pigeons is an organisation that claims to oppose cruelty to wild birds, especially pigeons, in Trafalgar Square, London, England since the organisation's creation in 2000.

Monuments and memorials to Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson

Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, 1st Duke of Bronté, was a British flag officer in the Royal Navy famous for his participation in the Napoleonic Wars, most notably in the Battle of Trafalgar, during which he was killed. He was responsible for several famous victories that helped to secure British control of the seas, both securing Britain from French invasion and frustrating Napoleon's imperial ambitions. After his death during his defeat of the combined French and Spanish fleets at Trafalgar, there was a public outpouring of grief. Nelson was accorded a state funeral and was buried in St Paul's Cathedral.

The Fourth plinth is the northwest plinth in Trafalgar Square in central London. It was originally intended to hold an equestrian statue of William IV, but remained bare due to insufficient funds. For over 150 years the fate of the plinth was debated; in 1998, the Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce (RSA) commissioned three contemporary sculptures to be displayed temporarily on the plinth. Shortly afterwards, Chris Smith, Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport, commissioned Sir John Mortimer to seek opinions from public art commissioners, critics and members of the public as to the future of the plinth.

Statue of Nelson Mandela, Parliament Square sculpture in Parliament Square, London, by Ian Walters

The statue of Nelson Mandela in Parliament Square, London, is a bronze sculpture of former President of South Africa and anti-apartheid activist Nelson Mandela. Originally proposed to Mandela by Donald Woods in 2001, a fund was set up and led by Woods's wife and Lord Richard Attenborough after the death of Woods. The Mayor of London fought for permission from Westminster City Council to locate the statue on the north terrace of Trafalgar Square, but after an appeal it was located in Parliament Square instead where it was unveiled on 29 August 2007.

Equestrian statue of George IV, Trafalgar Square public sculpture in Trafalgar Square, London, England

The statue of George IV in Trafalgar Square, London, is a bronze equestrian statue by Sir Francis Legatt Chantrey. It depicts the King dressed in ancient Roman attire and riding bareback. The sculpture was originally designed to sit on top of the Marble Arch at the entrance to Buckingham Palace, but was placed in its current location following the King's death.

<i>Hahn/Cock</i> sculpture by Katharina Fritsch

Hahn/Cock is a sculpture of a giant blue cockerel by the German artist Katharina Fritsch. It was unveiled in London's Trafalgar Square on 25 July 2013 and was displayed on the vacant fourth plinth. The fibreglass work stood 4.72 metres (15.5 ft) high and was the sixth work to be displayed on the plinth, on which it stayed until 17 February 2015. It was subsequently acquired by Glenstone, a private museum, and exhibited at the National Gallery of Art in Washington, DC, following its 2016 reopening.

Statue of Henry Havelock, Trafalgar Square statue in Trafalgar Square, London

A bronze statue of Henry Havelock by the sculptor William Behnes, stands in Trafalgar Square in London, United Kingdom. It occupies one of the four plinths in Trafalgar Square, the one to the southeast of Nelson's Column.

Statue of Charles James Napier, Trafalgar Square statue in Trafalgar Square, London

A bronze statue of Charles James Napier by the sculptor George Gammon Adams stands in Trafalgar Square in London, United Kingdom. It occupies one of the four plinths in Trafalgar Square, the one to the southwest of Nelson's Column.

Statue of Edward Jenner, London statue in Kensington Gardens, London

A statue of Edward Jenner, the physician, scientist and pioneer of the world's first vaccine, is located in Kensington Gardens in London. A work of the sculptor William Calder Marshall, the bronze was originally unveiled by Albert, Prince Consort in Trafalgar Square on 17 May 1858, before being moved to its present location in 1862. It is a Grade II listed building.

<i>Paternoster</i> (sculpture) sculpture by Elisabeth Frink

Paternoster, also known as Shepherd and Sheep or Shepherd with his Flock, is an outdoor 1975 bronze sculpture by Elisabeth Frink, installed in Paternoster Square near St Paul's Cathedral in London, United Kingdom.

Statue of General Gordon statue in London

A bronze statue of General Charles George Gordon by Hamo Thornycroft stands on a stone plinth in the Victoria Embankment Gardens in London. It has been Grade II listed since 1970. A similar statue stands at Gordon Reserve, near Parliament House in Melbourne, Australia, on its original tall plinth.

References

Notes

  1. "Queen in Right of the Crown" is legal fiction denoting the land is privately owned by the Queen and it is legally possible, though unlikely, to be sold to another individual. The Crown Jewels are under similar ownership. [6]
  2. Hitler had specifically requested that all of Rembrandt's paintings in the National Gallery be seized as part of the move, as he particularly admired the artist's work. [38]

Citations

  1. 1 2 3 Weinreb et al. 2008, p. 934.
  2. "2". 15 December 2004. Archived from the original on 15 December 2004.
  3. Entry algar, in DRAE dictionary
  4. 1 2 Richard Burton. "The Arabian Nights". footnote 82.
  5. Joseph E. Garreau. "A Cultural Introduction to the Languages of Europe" . Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  6. "The convenient fiction of who owns priceless treasure". The Guardian. 30 May 2002. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
  7. "Trafalgar Square (Hansard, 27 November 2003)". Hansard.millbanksystems.com. 27 November 2003. Archived from the original on 19 January 2012. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
  8. 1 2 "Trafalgar Square". Google Maps. Archived from the original on 30 June 2017. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
  9. "TRAVEL ADVISORY; Boon to Pedestrians In Central London". The New York Times . 3 August 2003. Archived from the original on 10 May 2013. Retrieved 22 November 2011.
  10. Barker 2005, p. 43.
  11. 1 2 Thornbury, Walter (1878). Trafalgar Square and the National Gallery. Old and New London. 3. London. pp. 141–149. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
  12. Clayton, Antony (2000). Subterranean City: Beneath the Streets of London. Historical Publications. p. 165. ISBN   978-0-948667-69-5.
  13. "Take a behind-the-scenes tour of the disused parts of Charing Cross tube station". Time Out. 16 April 2015. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
  14. "Standard tube map" (PDF). Transport for London. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 January 2016. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
  15. "Central London Bus Map" (PDF). Transport for London. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 March 2017. Retrieved 19 December 2015.
  16. Where Is The Centre Of London? Archived 17 August 2010 at the Wayback Machine BBC
  17. Sutcliffe, A.J. (1985). On the track of Ice Age mammals. https://archive.org/stream/ontrackoficeagem00sutc: Harvard University Press. p. 139. ISBN   978-0674637771.
  18. Franks, J.W. (1960). "Interglacial deposits at Trafalgar Square, London". The New Phytologist. 59 (2): 145–150. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.1960.tb06212.x. JSTOR   2429192.
  19. J W Franks (9 September 1959). "Interglacial Deposits at Trafalgar Square, London". New Phytologist. 59 (2): 145–152. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.1960.tb06212.x.
  20. "The History of the Royal Mews". Royal Collection Trust. Archived from the original on 25 November 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
  21. Mace 1976, p. 29.
  22. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 G. H. Gater (1940). F. R. Hiorns (ed.). "Trafalgar Square and the National Gallery". Survey of London. 20: St Martin-in-the-Fields, pt III: Trafalgar Square & Neighbourhood: 15–18. Archived from the original on 6 April 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
  23. Mace 1976, p. 37.
  24. Moore 2003, p. 176.
  25. Cardinal, Marc (2010). Wanderlust: Based on the true-life journals of Sydney Taylor. AuthorHouse. p. 209. ISBN   978-1-4490-7907-9.
  26. 1 2 "Design for a national Naval Monument". The Architectural Magazine and Journal. 4: 524. 1837. quoting the ' 'Observer' ' of 24 September 1837
  27. 1 2 3 4 5 Report from the Select Committee on Trafalgar Square together with the Minutes of Evidence, Printed by the House of Commons, 1840, retrieved 6 October 2011
  28. 1 2 "Public Buildings &c Trafalgar Square". The Civil Engineer and Architect's Journal. 3: 255. 1840.
  29. Mace 1976, p. 107.
  30. Bradley, Simon; Pevsner, Nikolaus (2003). London 6: Westminster. The Buildings of England. Yale UniversityPress.
  31. Cunningham, Peter (1849). "London Occurrences 1837–1843". Handbook of London Past and Present. London: John Murray. p. lxv. Archived from the original on 10 March 2016. Retrieved 26 February 2016.
  32. Moore 2003, p. 177.
  33. Mace 1976, p. 90.
  34. Mace 1976, pp. 107–8.
  35. Bow Bells – A Magazine of General Literature, John Dicks, 1867, archived from the original on 2 April 2017, retrieved 31 March 2017
  36. "Opening of Trafalgar Square". The Times. 31 July 1839. p. 6.
  37. "The faulty lions of Trafalgar Square". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
  38. 1 2 Longmate 2012, p. 137.
  39. Historic England, "Trafalgar Square (1001362)", National Heritage List for England , retrieved 11 July 2017
  40. "Trafalgar Square redevelopment". Foster+Partners. Archived from the original on 15 November 2015. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
  41. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Weinreb et al. 2008, p. 935.
  42. 1 2 "Suggestions for Trafalgar Square's Vacant Plinth". Government News. 27 December 1999. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  43. Paul Kelso (20 October 2000). "Mayor attacks generals in battle of Trafalgar Square". The Guardian . London. Retrieved 25 May 2007.
  44. "Fourth Plinth". Greater London Council. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
  45. Baker, Margatet (2008), Discovering London Statues and Monuments, Osprey Publishing, p. 9
  46. "McMillan, William (1887–1977)". Your Archives, The National Archives . Retrieved 30 May 2011.
  47. Bust of Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope by Franta Belsky, Your Archives, The National Archives, archived from the original on 24 February 2013, retrieved 27 November 2007
  48. John Gorton: A Topographical Dictionary of Great Britain and Ireland, 1833, p. 687
  49. Weinreb et al. 2008, p. 875.
  50. "The Jenner Monument". Dublin Hospital Gazette. 5: 176. 1858.
  51. Edward Walford (1878). "Kensington Gardens". Old and New London: Volume 5. Institute of Historical Research. Archived from the original on 25 May 2011. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
  52. Mace 1976, pp. 125–126.
  53. Mace 1976, p. 87.
  54. Mace 1976, pp. 130–1.
  55. 1 2 Kennedy, Maev (29 May 2009), "Trafalgar Square fountain spurts to new heights", The Guardian, London, archived from the original on 15 July 2014, retrieved 25 May 2010
  56. "Trafalgar Square fountains". 2003. Retrieved 16 July 2009.
  57. Kennedy, Maev (29 May 2009). "Trafalgar Square fountain spurts to new heights". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
  58. Moore 2003, p. 181.
  59. 1 2 Pigeon feed seller takes flight, BBC News, 7 February 2001, archived from the original on 8 August 2017, retrieved 30 April 2013
  60. Jones, Richard (2015). House Guests, House Pests: A Natural History of Animals in the Home. Bloomsbury. p. 85. ISBN   978-1-4729-0624-3.
  61. 1 2 McSmith, Andy (23 October 2011). "The pigeons have gone, but visitors are flocking to Trafalgar Square". The Independent. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
  62. Bird control contractor appointed in 2004 to deter pigeons from Trafalgar Square, vvenv.co.uk, 8 October 2004, archived from the original on 25 April 2012, retrieved 19 October 2011
  63. "Feeding Trafalgar's pigeons illegal". BBC News. 17 November 2003. Archived from the original on 15 March 2009. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
  64. Pigeon feeding banned in Trafalgar Square, 24dash.com, 10 September 2007, archived from the original on 29 June 2012, retrieved 17 September 2007
  65. "London New Year's Eve with Unicef". Greater London Authority. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
  66. 1 2 3 4 5 "Shedding light on Christmas". BBC News. 21 December 1997. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
  67. "Trafalgar Square tree lighting ceremony". Met Office. Archived from the original on 31 October 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
  68. "Trafalgar Square sparkles blue as Christmas tree lights go on". London Evening Standard. Archived from the original on 9 December 2012. Retrieved 28 February 2013.
  69. "Christmas in Trafalgar Square". Greater London Council. 5 November 2015. Archived from the original on 9 December 2015. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
  70. Associated Press (31 December 1990). "Man Takes Chain Saw to Trafalgar Square Tree, but Tannenbaum Stands". Los Angeles Times . Archived from the original on 23 December 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
  71. Crick 1994, p. 47.
  72. "On This Day – 17 March – 1968: Anti-Vietnam demo turns violent". bbc.co.uk. BBC News. 2008. Archived from the original on 11 January 2015. Retrieved 2 January 2015.
  73. Keith Flett (8 January 2005), "The Committee of 100: Sparking a new left", Socialist Worker (1933), archived from the original on 21 March 2006, retrieved 10 March 2006
  74. London falls silent for bomb dead, BBC News, 14 July 2005, archived from the original on 22 July 2006, retrieved 22 June 2007
  75. "COP OUT CAMP OUT Âť Camp for Climate Action". Climatecamp.org.uk. Archived from the original on 29 September 2011. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
  76. "UK Indymedia – Climate protestors scale Canadian Embassy and deface flag". Indymedia.org.uk. 15 December 2009. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
  77. "UK Indymedia – Climate Camp Trafalgar- Ice Bear action". Indymedia.org.uk. 18 December 2009. Archived from the original on 11 October 2011. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
  78. "UK Indymedia – Thur Dec 17 protest outside Danish Embassy, London". Indymedia.org.uk. 17 December 2009. Archived from the original on 11 October 2011. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
  79. Wikinews:Battle for Trafalgar Square, London as violence breaks out between demonstrators and riot police
  80. "Paris terror attacks". The Independent. 14 November 2015. Archived from the original on 22 November 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
  81. "Sea Cadets in Battle of Trafalgar parade". The Daily Telegraph. 21 October 2012. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
  82. "Armistice Day: Nation remembers war dead". BBC News. 11 November 2015. Archived from the original on 14 November 2015. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
  83. England fans mourn defeat, BBC News, 21 June 2002, archived from the original on 8 April 2008, retrieved 24 May 2007
  84. "England honours World Cup stars". BBC Sport. 9 December 2003. Archived from the original on 21 October 2007. Retrieved 16 December 2015.
  85. "Fans hail England's Ashes heroes". BBC News. 13 September 2005. Archived from the original on 10 September 2007. Retrieved 16 December 2015.
  86. "2005: London to host 2012 Olympics". BBC News. Archived from the original on 9 February 2016. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
  87. Magnay, Jacquelin (15 March 2011). "London 2012 Olympics: Trafalgar Square countdown clock stops". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 23 December 2015. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
  88. "Crowds turn out for Tour opening". BBC News. 6 July 2007. Archived from the original on 15 July 2007. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
  89. "London gets ready to welcome back the Tour de France on Monday". Transport For London. 4 July 2014. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
  90. "Sea Cadets in Battle of Trafalgar parade". The Daily Telegraph. 21 October 2012. Archived from the original on 22 June 2017. Retrieved 31 March 2017.
  91. Chapman, James (2002). Saints and Avengers: British Adventure Series of the 1960s. I.B.Tauris. p. 72. ISBN   978-1-86064-753-6.
  92. Burlingame, Jon (2012). The Music of James Bond. Oxford University Press. p. 68. ISBN   978-0-19-986330-3.
  93. Muir, John Kenneth (1999). A Critical History of Doctor Who on Television. McFarland. p. 228. ISBN   978-0-7864-3716-0.
  94. James, Simon (2007). London Film Location Guide. Anova Books. p. 91. ISBN   978-0-7134-9062-6.
  95. Larsen 2008, p. 203.
  96. Trafalgar Square green with turf, BBC News, 24 May 2007, archived from the original on 27 August 2017, retrieved 18 December 2015
  97. Masters, Tim (7 July 2011). "Harry Potter premiere: Stars and fans bid tearful goodbye". BBC Entertainment & Arts. Archived from the original on 21 April 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
  98. "Lego's Next Architecture Set Will Be London's Trafalgar Square". Arch Daily. 11 April 2019. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
  99. Moore 2003, p. 185.
  100. Lockie, John (1810). Lockie's Topography of London and its Environs. London.
  101. "Ground Development". Scarborough Cricket Club. Archived from the original on 18 March 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
  102. Whiting, Keith (2012). Barbados Adventure Guides Series. Hunter Publishing. p. 35. ISBN   978-1-58843-652-8.
  103. "Safe Behind Their Walls". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 7 May 2015. Retrieved 31 January 2015.

Sources

Further reading