Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt

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Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt
Stratigraphic range: Neogene to Quaternary
Mexico 6 Volcanoes.jpg
Six Mexican Volcanoes
Left to right Ixtaccíhuatl, Popocatépetl, Matlalcueitl (Malinche), Cofre de Perote (most distant), Pico de Orizaba, Sierra Negra
Type Volcanic Arc [1]
Overlies Sierra Madre Occidental [1] [2]
Area160,000 kilometres (99,000 mi)2 [1]
ThicknessEast of 101°W 50-55 km [1] West of 101°W 35-40 km [1]
Coordinates 19°02′N97°16′W / 19.03°N 97.27°W / 19.03; -97.27 .
Region Central Mexico
Extent1,000 kilometres (620 mi) [3]
Eje Neovolcanico Mexico.jpg

The Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (Spanish : Eje Volcánico Transversal), also known as the Transvolcanic Belt and locally as the Sierra Nevada (Snowy Mountain Range), [4] is a volcanic belt that covers central-southern Mexico. Several of its highest peaks have snow all year long, and during clear weather, they are visible to a large percentage of those who live on the many high plateaus from which these volcanoes rise.

Spanish or Castilian, is a Romance language that originated in the Iberian Peninsula and today has over 450 million native speakers in Spain and in the Americas. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.

Volcanic belt A large volcanically active region

A volcanic belt is a large volcanically active region. Other terms are used for smaller areas of activity, such as volcanic fields. Volcanic belts are found above zones of unusually high temperature (700-1400 °C) where magma is created by partial melting of solid material in the Earth's crust and upper mantle. These areas usually form along tectonic plate boundaries at depths of 10–50 km. For example, volcanoes in Mexico and western North America are mostly in volcanic belts, such as the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt that extends 900 km from west to east across central-southern Mexico and the Northern Cordilleran Volcanic Province in western Canada.

Mexico Country in the southern portion of North America

Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometers (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 129 million people, Mexico is the tenth most populous country and the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states plus Mexico City (CDMX), which is the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the country include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana, and León.



The Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt spans across Central-Southern Mexico from the Pacific Ocean to the Gulf of Mexico between 18°30'N and 21°30'N, resting on the southern edge of the North American Plate. [1] [5] This approximately 1000 kilometer long, 90–230 km broad structure is an east-west, active, continental volcanic arc; encompassing an area of approximately 160,000 km2. [1] Over several million years, the subduction of the Rivera and Cocos plates beneath the North American Plate along the northern end of the Middle America Trench formed the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. [6] [7] The Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt is a unique volcanic belt; it is not parallel to the Middle American Trench, and many of the main stratovolcanoes are positioned obliquely to the general position of the arc. In addition to the physiographic complexities, igneous compositions vary—dominant subduction related products contrast with intraplate geo-chemical signatures. [1] [3] The many intriguing aspects of the belt has spurred several hypotheses based on a typical subduction scenario; Intra-plate leaky transform faults, mantle plumes, continental rifting, and jump of the eastward Pacific Rise. [1] [6] These features are partially related to the reactivation of early fault systems during the Trans-Mexican Volcanic belt's evolution. The main brittle fault system's geometry, kinematics, and age define a complex array of what could be multiple factors affecting the deformation of the belt. [1] [2] [8] It exhibits many volcanic features, not limited to large stratovolcanoes, including monogenetic volcano cones, shield volcanoes, lava dome complexes, and major calderas. [3]

Pacific Ocean Ocean between Asia and Australia in the west, the Americas in the east and Antarctica or the Southern Ocean in the south.

The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west and the Americas in the east.

Gulf of Mexico An Atlantic Ocean basin extending into southern North America

The Gulf of Mexico is an ocean basin and a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, largely surrounded by the North American continent. It is bounded on the northeast, north and northwest by the Gulf Coast of the United States, on the southwest and south by Mexico, and on the southeast by Cuba. The U.S. states of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida border the Gulf on the north, which are often referred to as the "Third Coast", in comparison with the U.S. Atlantic and Pacific coasts.

North American Plate Large tectonic plate including most of North America, Greenland and a bit of Siberia

The North American Plate is a tectonic plate covering most of North America, Greenland, Cuba, the Bahamas, extreme northeastern Asia, and parts of Iceland and the Azores. With an area of 76,000,000 km2 (29,000,000 sq mi), it is the Earth's second largest tectonic plate, behind the Pacific Plate.

Geologic framework

Major Volcanoes of Mexico. From west to east, volcanoes part of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic belt are Nevado de Colima, Paricutin, Popocatepetl, and Pico de Orizaba. Map mexico volcanoes.gif
Major Volcanoes of Mexico. From west to east, volcanoes part of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic belt are Nevado de Colima, Parícutin, Popocatépetl, and Pico de Orizaba.

Prior to the formation of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, an older, but related volcanic belt, the Sierra Madre Occidental occupied the area. Resuming in the Eocene, post-Laramide deformation, subduction related volcanism formed the Sierra Madre Occidental silic volcanic arc at a paleo-subduction zone off the coast of Baja California, before the peninsula rifted away. [5] [9] [10] From the ocene to the Middle Miocene, counterclockwise rotation of the volcanic arc transitioned the once active Sierra Madre Occidental to a now active Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. [5] [9] By the Middle Miocene, the transition from the silicic to more mafic compositions was complete, and can be considered the beginning of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. [5] Due to the orthogonal orientation of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt in relation to the trend of Mexican tectonic provinces, its Pre-Cretaceous basement is highly heterogeneous. [1] The Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt east of 101°W rests upon Precambrian terranes, assembled into the Oaxaquia microcontinent and on the Paleozoic Mixteco terrane. West of 101°W, the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt resides on top of the Guerro composite terrane - a make up of Jurassic to Cretaceous marine marginal arcs, which are built on Triassic - Early Jurassic siliclastic turbidites. Assemblage of these basement rocks results with a thickness of 50–55 km east of 101°W and 35–40 km west of 101°W. [1] [8]

Sierra Madre Occidental mountain range

The Sierra Madre Occidental is a major mountain range system of the North American Cordillera, that runs northwest–southeast through northwestern and western Mexico, and along the Gulf of California. The Sierra Madre is part of the American Cordillera, a chain of mountain ranges (cordillera) that consists of an almost continuous sequence of mountain ranges that form the western 'backbone' of North America, Central America, South America and West Antarctica.

The Eocene Epoch, lasting from 56 to 33.9 million years ago, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era. The Eocene spans the time from the end of the Paleocene Epoch to the beginning of the Oligocene Epoch. The start of the Eocene is marked by a brief period in which the concentration of the carbon isotope 13C in the atmosphere was exceptionally low in comparison with the more common isotope 12C. The end is set at a major extinction event called the Grande Coupure or the Eocene–Oligocene extinction event, which may be related to the impact of one or more large bolides in Siberia and in what is now Chesapeake Bay. As with other geologic periods, the strata that define the start and end of the epoch are well identified, though their exact dates are slightly uncertain.

Subduction A geological process at convergent tectonic plate boundaries where one plate moves under the other

Subduction is a geological process that takes place at convergent boundaries of tectonic plates where one plate moves under another and is forced to sink due to gravity into the mantle. Regions where this process occurs are known as subduction zones. Rates of subduction are typically in centimeters per year, with the average rate of convergence being approximately two to eight centimeters per year along most plate boundaries.

Plate evolution

The subducting plates originated from the breakup of the Farallon Plate at approximately 23 Ma, which created two plates at equatorial latitudes, the Cocos Plate and southern Nazca Plate. The Rivera Plate was the last fragment detached from the Cocos Plate, becoming a microplate at around 10 Ma. [1] This small plate is bounded by the Rivera fracture zone, the East Pacific Rise, the Tamayo fracture zone, and the Middle American Trench. The larger Cocos Plate is bordered by the North American Plate (NAM) and the Caribbean Plate to the northeast, the Pacific Plate to the west, and to the south by the Nazca Plate. [1] The Cocos and Rivera are relatively young oceanic plates (25 and 10 Ma) that are subducting along the Middle American Trench at different convergence rates (Rivera = ~30 mm/yr and the Cocos = ~ 50–90 mm/yr). [3] [11] Commonly found subduction related rocks such as calc-alkaline rocks volumetrically occupy a majority of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt but smaller volumes of intraplate-like lavas, potassium rich rocks, and adakites are associated with the area. [3] Middle Miocene adakitic (more felsic) rocks are found furthest from the trench and along the volcanic front of the central Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt during the Pliocene-Quaternary. It has been suggested that slab melting contributed to the adakitic imprint on the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, prompted by the prolonged flat subduction of the Cocos Plate. [3]

Farallon Plate An ancient oceanic plate that has mostly subducted under the west coast of the North American Plate

The Farallon Plate was an ancient oceanic plate that began subducting under the west coast of the North American Plate—then located in modern Utah—as Pangaea broke apart during the Jurassic period. It is named for the Farallon Islands, which are located just west of San Francisco, California.

Nazca Plate Oceanic tectonic plate in the eastern Pacific Ocean basin

The Nazca Plate, named after the Nazca region of southern Peru, is an oceanic tectonic plate in the eastern Pacific Ocean basin off the west coast of South America. The ongoing subduction, along the Peru–Chile Trench, of the Nazca Plate under the South American Plate is largely responsible for the Andean orogeny. The Nazca Plate is bounded on the west by the Pacific Plate and to the south by the Antarctic Plate through the East Pacific Rise and the Chile Rise respectively. The movement of the Nazca Plate over several hotspots has created some volcanic islands as well as east-west running seamount chains that subduct under South America. Nazca is a relatively young plate both in terms of the age of its rocks and its existence as an independent plate having been formed from the break-up of the Farallon Plate about 23 million years ago. The oldest rocks of the plate are about 50 million years old.

East Pacific Rise A mid-oceanic ridge at a divergent tectonic plate boundary on the floor of the Pacific Ocean

The East Pacific Rise is a mid-oceanic ridge, a divergent tectonic plate boundary located along the floor of the Pacific Ocean. It separates the Pacific Plate to the west from the North American Plate, the Rivera Plate, the Cocos Plate, the Nazca Plate, and the Antarctic Plate. It runs south from the Gulf of California in the Salton Sea basin in Southern California to a point near 55° S, 130° W, where it joins the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge trending west-southwest towards Antarctica, near New Zealand. Much of the rise lies about 3200 km (2000 mi) off the South American coast and rises about 1,800–2,700 m (6,000–9,000 ft) above the surrounding seafloor.

Belt evolution


Volcanic Evolution and changes in composition over time. 1) Early to Late Miocene the belt the Cocos and Rivera plate begin subduction beneath Central Mexico. 2) Late Miocene to Early Pliocene the slab tear begins to propagate West to East across the back northern area of the belt, allowing Asthenospheric heat in to generate the Mafic episode. 3)Latest Miocene - Early Pliocene was the onset of more silic volcanics generated by Flat Slab Subduction which pushed the belt further inland to the north. 4)Late Pliocene to Holocene is characterized by slab rollback sending the volcanic arc trenchward to the present day position Volcanic Evolution of Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt.pdf
Volcanic Evolution and changes in composition over time. 1) Early to Late Miocene the belt the Cocos and Rivera plate begin subduction beneath Central Mexico. 2) Late Miocene to Early Pliocene the slab tear begins to propagate West to East across the back northern area of the belt, allowing Asthenospheric heat in to generate the Mafic episode. 3)Latest Miocene - Early Pliocene was the onset of more silic volcanics generated by Flat Slab Subduction which pushed the belt further inland to the north. 4)Late Pliocene to Holocene is characterized by slab rollback sending the volcanic arc trenchward to the present day position

A polygenetic volcanic field is a group of polygenetic volcanoes, each of which erupts repeatedly, in contrast with monogenetic volcanoes, each of which erupts only once. Polygenetic volcanic fields generally occur where there is a high-level magma chamber. These volcanic fields may show lithological discontinuities due to major changes in magma chemistry, volcanotectonic events, or long erosional intervals, and may last over 10 million years.

Slab (geology) The portion of a tectonic plate that is being subducted

In geology, a slab is the portion of a tectonic plate that is being subducted.

Asthenosphere The highly viscous, mechanically weak and ductile region of the Earths mantle

The asthenosphere is the highly viscous, mechanically weak and ductilely deforming region of the upper mantle of the Earth. It lies below the lithosphere, at depths between approximately 80 and 200 km below the surface. The Lithosphere–asthenosphere boundary is usually referred to as LAB. The asthenosphere is almost solid, although some of its regions could be molten. The lower boundary of the asthenosphere is not well defined. The thickness of the asthenosphere depends mainly on the temperature. However, the rheology of the asthenosphere also depends on the rate of deformation, which suggests that the asthenosphere could be also formed as a result of a high rate of deformation. In some regions the asthenosphere could extend as deep as 700 km (430 mi). It is considered the source region of mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB).

Cause of flat slab subduction

Flat slab subduction can commonly be explained by oceanic plateau subduction and a fast overriding plate. Central Mexico's flat subduction is not evident. The Trans-Mexican Volcanic belt's flat slab is confined between ~101°W and 96°W; this region may be explained by thicker continental crust. Existence of thick strong crust combined with decreasing fluid input contributed to narrowing the asthenospheric wedge, increasing viscosity and suction forces, which led to flat subduction—preventing the oceanic plate from entering the mantle. [1] [11]

Flat slab subduction is characterized by a low subduction angle beyond the seismogenic layer and a resumption of normal subduction far from the trench. A slab refers to the subducting lower plate. Although, some would characterize flat slab subduction as any shallowly dipping lower plate as in western Mexico. Flat slab subduction is associated with the pinching out of the asthenosphere, an inland migration of arc magmatism, and an eventual cessation of arc magmatism. The coupling of the flat slab to the upper plate is thought to change the style of deformation occurring on the upper plate's surface and form basement-cored uplifts like the Rocky Mountains. The flat slab also may hydrate the lower continental lithosphere and be involved in the formation of economically important ore deposits. During the subduction, a flat slab itself may be deformed, or buckling, causing sedimentary hiatus in marine sediments on the slab. The failure of a flat slab is associated with ignimbritic volcanism and the reverse migration of arc volcanism. Multiple working hypotheses about the cause of flat slabs are subduction of thick, buoyant oceanic crust (15–20 km) and trench rollback accompanying a rapidly overriding upper plate and enhanced trench suction. The west coast of South America has two of the largest flat slab subduction zones. Flat slab subduction is occurring at 10% of subduction zones.

Oceanic plateau Relatively flat submarine region that rises well above the level of the ambient seabed

An oceanic or submarine plateau is a large, relatively flat elevation that is higher than the surrounding relief with one or more relatively steep sides.

Continental crust Layer of rock that forms the continents and continental shelves

Continental crust is the layer of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks that forms the continents and the areas of shallow seabed close to their shores, known as continental shelves. This layer is sometimes called sial because its bulk composition is richer in silicates and aluminium minerals and has a lower density compared to the oceanic crust, called sima which is richer in magnesium silicate minerals and is denser. Changes in seismic wave velocities have shown that at a certain depth, there is a reasonably sharp contrast between the more felsic upper continental crust and the lower continental crust, which is more mafic in character.



From the west, the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt runs from Colima and Jalisco east through northern Michoacán, southern Guanajuato, southern Querétaro, México State, southern Hidalgo, the Distrito Federal, northern Morelos, Puebla, and Tlaxcala, to central Veracruz.

The Mexican Plateau lies to the north, bounded by the Sierra Madre Occidental to the west and Sierra Madre Oriental to the east. The Cofre de Perote and Pico de Orizaba volcanoes, in Puebla and Veracruz, mark the meeting of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt with the Sierra Madre Oriental. To the south, the basin of the Balsas River lies between the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and the Sierra Madre del Sur. This area is also a distinct physiographic province of the larger Sierra Madre System physiographic division. [4]

The Sierra de Ajusco-Chichinauhtzin also forms part of the belt. [15]


Pico de Orizaba Pico de Orizaba 1 Zoom.jpg
Pico de Orizaba

The highest point, also the highest point in Mexico, is Pico de Orizaba (5,636 metres (18,491 ft)) also known as Citlaltépetl, located at 19°01′N97°16′W / 19.017°N 97.267°W / 19.017; -97.267 . This, and several of the other high peaks, are active or dormant volcanoes.

Other notable volcanoes in the range include (from west to east) Nevado de Colima (4,339 metres (14,236 ft)), Parícutin (2,774 metres (9,101 ft)), Nevado de Toluca (4,577 metres (15,016 ft)), Popocatépetl (5,452 metres (17,887 ft)), Iztaccíhuatl (5,286 metres (17,343 ft)), Matlalcueitl (4,461 metres (14,636 ft)) Cofre de Perote (4,282 metres (14,049 ft)) and Sierra Negra, a companion of the Pico de Orizaba (4,580 metres (15,030 ft)). [4]


The mountains are home to the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt pine-oak forests, one of the Mesoamerican pine-oak forests sub-ecoregions.

The Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt has many endemic species, including the Transvolcanic jay (Aphelocoma ultramarina). [4]

See also

Related Research Articles

Stratovolcano Tall, conical volcano built up by many layers of hardened lava and other ejecta

A stratovolcano, also known as a composite volcano, is a conical volcano built up by many layers (strata) of hardened lava, tephra, pumice and ash. Unlike shield volcanoes, stratovolcanoes are characterized by a steep profile with a summit crater and periodic intervals of explosive eruptions and effusive eruptions, although some have collapsed summit craters called calderas. The lava flowing from stratovolcanoes typically cools and hardens before spreading far, due to high viscosity. The magma forming this lava is often felsic, having high-to-intermediate levels of silica, with lesser amounts of less-viscous mafic magma. Extensive felsic lava flows are uncommon, but have travelled as far as 15 km (9.3 mi).

Ring of Fire Area of high earthquake and volcanic activity, also the circum-Pacific belt

The Ring of Fire is a major area in the basin of the Pacific Ocean where many earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur. In a large 40,000 km (25,000 mi) horseshoe shape, it is associated with a nearly continuous series of oceanic trenches, volcanic arcs, and volcanic belts and plate movements. It has 452 volcanoes.

Cocos Plate A young oceanic tectonic plate beneath the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of Central America

The Cocos Plate is a young oceanic tectonic plate beneath the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of Central America, named for Cocos Island, which rides upon it. The Cocos Plate was created approximately 23 million years ago when the Farallon Plate broke into two pieces, which also created the Nazca Plate. The Cocos Plate also broke into two pieces, creating the small Rivera Plate. The Cocos Plate is bounded by several different plates. To the northeast it is bounded by the North American Plate and the Caribbean Plate. To the west it is bounded by the Pacific Plate and to the south by the Nazca Plate.

Volcán Atitlán mountain

Volcán Atitlán is a large, conical, active stratovolcano adjacent to the caldera of Lake Atitlán in the Guatemalan Highlands of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas range. It is within the Sololá Department, southwestern Guatemala.

Volcanic arc A chain of volcanoes formed above a subducting plate

A volcanic arc is a chain of volcanoes formed above a subducting plate, positioned in an arc shape as seen from above. Offshore volcanoes form islands, resulting in a volcanic island arc. Generally, volcanic arcs result from the subduction of an oceanic tectonic plate under another tectonic plate, and often parallel an oceanic trench. The oceanic plate is saturated with water, and volatiles such as water drastically lower the melting point of the mantle. As the oceanic plate is subducted, it is subjected to greater and greater pressures with increasing depth. This pressure squeezes water out of the plate and introduces it to the mantle. Here the mantle melts and forms magma at depth under the overriding plate. The magma ascends to form an arc of volcanoes parallel to the subduction zone.

Central America Volcanic Arc

The Central American Volcanic Arc is a chain of volcanoes which extends parallel to the Pacific coast line of the Central American Isthmus, from Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and down to northern Panama. This volcanic arc, which has a length of 1,500 kilometres (930 mi), is formed by an active subduction zone along the western boundary of the Caribbean Plate.

Magmatism geological process

Magmatism is the emplacement of magma within and at the surface of the outer layers of a terrestrial planet, which solidifies as igneous rocks. It does so through magmatic activity or igneous activity, the production, intrusion and extrusion of magma or lava. Volcanism is the surface expression of magmatism.

Volcanology of Canada

Volcanology of Canada includes lava flows, lava plateaus, lava domes, cinder cones, stratovolcanoes, shield volcanoes, submarine volcanoes, calderas, diatremes, and maars, along with examples of more less common volcanic forms such as tuyas and subglacial mounds. It has a very complex volcanological history spanning from the Precambrian eon at least 3.11 billion years ago when this part of the North American continent began to form.

Andean Volcanic Belt Volcanic belt in South America

The Andean Volcanic Belt is a major volcanic belt along the Andean cordillera in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. It is formed as a result of subduction of the Nazca Plate and Antarctic Plate underneath the South American Plate. The belt is subdivided into four main volcanic zones that are separated from each other by volcanic gaps. The volcanoes of the belt are diverse in terms of activity style, products, and morphology. While some differences can be explained by which volcanic zone a volcano belongs to, there are significant differences within volcanic zones and even between neighboring volcanoes. Despite being a type location for calc-alkalic and subduction volcanism, the Andean Volcanic Belt has a broad range of volcano-tectonic settings, as it is a rift systems and extensional zones, transpressional faults, subduction of mid-ocean ridges and seamount chains apart from a large range on crustal thicknesses and magma ascent paths, and different amount of crustal assimilations.

The Tehuantepec Ridge is a linear undersea ridge located off the west coast of Mexico in the Pacific Ocean. It is the remnant of an old fracture zone, and not a tectonic spreading center ridge. It extends from the eastern end of the Clipperton Fracture Zone northeastward toward Mexico into Chiapas and El Chichón until it is subducted into the Middle America Trench. It lies within the tectonic Cocos Plate, separating the lower and older seafloor of the Guatemala Basin which lies southeast of the ridge from higher and younger seafloor which lies to its northwest.

Calabozos mountain in Chile

Calabozos is a Holocene caldera in central Chile's Maule Region. Part of the Chilean Andes' volcanic segment, it is considered a member of the Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ), one of the three distinct volcanic belts of South America. This most active section of the Andes runs along central Chile's western edge, and includes more than 70 of Chile's stratovolcanoes and volcanic fields. Calabozos lies in an extremely remote area of poorly glaciated mountains.

Sierra Chichinautzin

The Sierra Chichinautzin volcanic field, also known as El Pedegral, is located in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, approximately 350 kilometres (220 mi) from where the Cocos Plate subducts beneath the North American Plate.


Incapillo is a Pleistocene caldera, a depression formed by the collapse of a volcano, in the La Rioja province of Argentina. Part of the Argentine Andes, it is considered the southernmost volcanic centre in the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes with Pleistocene activity. Incapillo is one of several ignimbritic or calderic systems that, along with 44 active stratovolcanoes, are part of the Central Volcanic Zone.

Mascota volcanic field is a volcanic field in Mexico. It is formed by cinder cones and lava domes that lie 50 kilometres (31 mi) east of Puerto Vallarta. Several other volcanic fields lie in the neighbourhood.

Naolinco volcanic field

Naolinco volcanic field is a volcanic field in Veracruz, Mexico. It lies in the region of the cities of Jalapa and Naolinco, and the town of Naolinco lies in the field.

San Borja volcanic field is a volcanic field in Baja California, northeast of the Vizcaino Peninsula. It is formed by a plateau of lava flows and a number of scoria cones. The field started erupting over twelve million years ago and has endured several changes in regional tectonics.

Geology of Sicily

The geology of Sicily records the collision of the Eurasian and the African plates during westward-dipping subduction of the African slab since late Oligocene. Major tectonic units are the Hyblean foreland, the Gela foredeep, the Apenninic-Maghrebian orogen, and the Calabrian Arc. The orogen represents a fold-thrust belt that folds Mesozoic carbonates, while a major volcanic unit is found in an eastern portion of the island. The collision of Africa and Eurasia is a retreating subduction system, such that the descending Africa is falling away from Eurasia, and Eurasia extends and fills the space as the African plate falls into the mantle, resulting in volcanic activity in Sicily and the formation of Tyrrhenian slab to the north.

Arizaro volcanic field

Arizaro volcanic field is a group of volcanoes west of the Salar de Arizaro

Aleutian subduction zone Convergence boundary between the North American Plate and the Pacific Plate, that extends from the Alaska Range to the Kamchatka Peninsula.

The Aleutian subduction zone is a ~2500 mile-long convergence boundary between the North American Plate and the Pacific Plate, that extends from the Alaska Range to the Kamchatka Peninsula. Here, the Pacific Plate is being subducted underneath the North American plate and the rate of subduction changes from west to east from 7.5 cm/yr to 5.1 cm/yr. The Aleutian subduction zone includes two prominent features, the Aleutian arc and the Aleutian trench. The island arc was created via volcanic eruptions from dehydration of the subducting slab at ~100 km depth. The trench is a narrow and deep morphology that occurs between the two converging plates as the subucting slab dives beneath the overriding plate.


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  15. Jimenez Gonzalez, Victor Manuel (2014). Guía de Viaje del Distrito Federal (DF) [Federal District Travel Guide (DF)] (in Spanish). Solaris Comunicación. p. 39.