Transistor–transistor logic

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A Motorola 68000-based computer with various TTL chips mounted on breadboards. 68k ttl.jpg
A Motorola 68000-based computer with various TTL chips mounted on breadboards.

Transistor–transistor logic (TTL) is a logic family built from bipolar junction transistors. Its name signifies that transistors perform both the logic function (the first "transistor") and the amplifying function (the second "transistor"); it is the same naming convention used in resistor–transistor logic (RTL) and diode–transistor logic (DTL).

In computer engineering, a logic family may refer to one of two related concepts. A logic family of monolithic digital integrated circuit devices is a group of electronic logic gates constructed using one of several different designs, usually with compatible logic levels and power supply characteristics within a family. Many logic families were produced as individual components, each containing one or a few related basic logical functions, which could be used as "building-blocks" to create systems or as so-called "glue" to interconnect more complex integrated circuits. A "logic family" may also refer to a set of techniques used to implement logic within VLSI integrated circuits such as central processors, memories, or other complex functions. Some such logic families use static techniques to minimize design complexity. Other such logic families, such as domino logic, use clocked dynamic techniques to minimize size, power consumption and delay.

Bipolar junction transistor transistor that uses both electron and hole charge carriers.In contrast,unipolar transistors such as field-effect transistors,only use one kind of charge carrier.For their operation,BJTs use 2 junctions between 2 semiconductor types,n-type and p-type

A bipolar junction transistor is a type of transistor that uses both electron and hole charge carriers. In contrast, unipolar transistors, such as field-effect transistors, only use one kind of charge carrier. For their operation, BJTs use two junctions between two semiconductor types, n-type and p-type.

Resistor–transistor logic (RTL) is a class of digital circuits built using resistors as the input network and bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) as switching devices. RTL is the earliest class of transistorized digital logic circuit used; other classes include diode–transistor logic (DTL) and transistor–transistor logic (TTL). RTL circuits were first constructed with discrete components, but in 1961 it became the first digital logic family to be produced as a monolithic integrated circuit. RTL integrated circuits were used in the Apollo Guidance Computer, whose design was begun in 1961 and which first flew in 1966.

Contents

TTL integrated circuits (ICs) were widely used in applications such as computers, industrial controls, test equipment and instrumentation, consumer electronics, and synthesizers. Sometimes TTL-compatible logic levels are not associated directly with TTL integrated circuits, for example, they may be used at the inputs and outputs of electronic instruments. [1]

Integrated circuit electronic circuit manufactured by lithography; set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon 639-1 ısoo

An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece of semiconductor material that is normally silicon. The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip results in circuits that are orders of magnitude smaller, cheaper, and faster than those constructed of discrete electronic components. The IC's mass production capability, reliability and building-block approach to circuit design has ensured the rapid adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using discrete transistors. ICs are now used in virtually all electronic equipment and have revolutionized the world of electronics. Computers, mobile phones, and other digital home appliances are now inextricable parts of the structure of modern societies, made possible by the small size and low cost of ICs.

A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming. Modern computers have the ability to follow generalized sets of operations, called programs. These programs enable computers to perform an extremely wide range of tasks. A "complete" computer including the hardware, the operating system, and peripheral equipment required and used for "full" operation can be referred to as a computer system. This term may as well be used for a group of computers that are connected and work together, in particular a computer network or computer cluster.

Synthesizer electronic instrument capable of producing a wide range of sounds

A synthesizer or synthesiser is an electronic musical instrument that generates audio signals that may be converted to sound. Synthesizers may imitate traditional musical instruments such as piano, flute, vocals, or natural sounds such as ocean waves; or generate novel electronic timbres. They are often played with a musical keyboard, but they can be controlled via a variety of other devices, including music sequencers, instrument controllers, fingerboards, guitar synthesizers, wind controllers, and electronic drums. Synthesizers without built-in controllers are often called sound modules, and are controlled via USB, MIDI or CV/gate using a controller device, often a MIDI keyboard or other controller.

After their introduction in integrated circuit form in 1963 by Sylvania, TTL integrated circuits were manufactured by several semiconductor companies. The 7400 series by Texas Instruments became particularly popular. TTL manufacturers offered a wide range of logic gates, flip-flops, counters, and other circuits. Variations of the original TTL circuit design offered higher speed or lower power dissipation to allow design optimization. TTL devices were originally made in ceramic and plastic dual-in-line (DIP) packages, and flat-pack form. TTL chips are now also made in surface-mount packages.

Sylvania Electric Products U.S. manufacturer of diverse electrical equipment

Sylvania Electric Products was a U.S. manufacturer of diverse electrical equipment, including at various times radio transceivers, vacuum tubes, semiconductors, and mainframe computers such as MOBIDIC. They were one of the companies involved in the development of the COBOL programming language.

Texas Instruments American company that designs and makes semiconductors

Texas Instruments Inc. (TI) is an American technology company that designs and manufactures semiconductors and various integrated circuits, which it sells to electronics designers and manufacturers globally. Its headquarters are in Dallas, Texas, United States. TI is one of the top ten semiconductor companies worldwide, based on sales volume. Texas Instruments's focus is on developing analog chips and embedded processors, which accounts for more than 80% of their revenue. TI also produces TI digital light processing (DLP) technology and education technology products including calculators, microcontrollers and multi-core processors. To date, TI has more than 43,000 patents worldwide.

In electronics, a logic gate is an idealized or physical device implementing a Boolean function; that is, it performs a logical operation on one or more binary inputs and produces a single binary output. Depending on the context, the term may refer to an ideal logic gate, one that has for instance zero rise time and unlimited fan-out, or it may refer to a non-ideal physical device.

TTL became the foundation of computers and other digital electronics. Even after Very-large-scale integration integrated circuits made multiple-circuit-board processors obsolete, TTL devices still found extensive use as the glue logic interfacing between more densely integrated components.

In electronics, glue logic is the custom logic circuitry used to interface a number of off-the-shelf integrated circuits. This is often achieved using common, inexpensive 7400- or 4000-series components. In more complex cases, a programmable logic device like a CPLD or FPGA might be used. The falling price of programmable logic devices, combined with their reduced size and power consumption compared to discrete components, is making them common even for simple systems. In addition, programmable logic can be used to hide the exact function of a circuit, in order to prevent a product from being cloned or counterfeited.

History

A real-time clock built of TTL chips around 1979. TTL Clock.jpg
A real-time clock built of TTL chips around 1979.

TTL was invented in 1961 by James L. Buie of TRW, which declared it, "particularly suited to the newly developing integrated circuit design technology." The original name for TTL was transistor-coupled transistor logic (TCTL). [2] The first commercial integrated-circuit TTL devices were manufactured by Sylvania in 1963, called the Sylvania Universal High-Level Logic family (SUHL). [3] The Sylvania parts were used in the controls of the Phoenix missile. [3] TTL became popular with electronic systems designers after Texas Instruments introduced the 5400 series of ICs, with military temperature range, in 1964 and the later 7400 series, specified over a narrower range and with inexpensive plastic packages, in 1966. [4]

James L. Buie American scientist and inventor

James L. Buie was an American scientist and inventor who worked for TRW Inc. He refined and developed electronic circuitry to the integrated circuit level. This led to the beginning of the integrated circuit industry.

TRW Inc. was an American corporation involved in a variety of businesses, mainly aerospace, automotive, and credit reporting. It was a pioneer in multiple fields including electronic components, integrated circuits, computers, software and systems engineering. TRW built many spacecraft, including Pioneer 1, Pioneer 10, and several space-based observatories. It was #57 on the 1986 Fortune 500 list, and had 122,258 employees. In 1958 the company was called Thompson Ramo Wooldridge, after three prominent leaders. This was later shortened to TRW.

The Texas Instruments 7400 family became an industry standard. Compatible parts were made by Motorola, AMD, Fairchild, Intel, Intersil, Signetics, Mullard, Siemens, SGS-Thomson, Rifa, National Semiconductor, [5] [6] and many other companies, even in the Eastern Bloc (Soviet Union, GDR, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania - for details see 7400 series). Not only did others make compatible TTL parts, but compatible parts were made using many other circuit technologies as well. At least one manufacturer, IBM, produced non-compatible TTL circuits for its own use; IBM used the technology in the IBM System/38, IBM 4300, and IBM 3081. [7]

Motorola, Inc. was an American multinational telecommunications company founded on September 25, 1928, based in Schaumburg, Illinois. After having lost $4.3 billion from 2007 to 2009, the company was divided into two independent public companies, Motorola Mobility and Motorola Solutions on January 4, 2011. Motorola Solutions is generally considered to be the direct successor to Motorola, as the reorganization was structured with Motorola Mobility being spun off. Motorola Mobility was sold to Google in 2012, and acquired by Lenovo in 2014.

Fairchild Semiconductor company

Fairchild Semiconductor International, Inc. was an American semiconductor company based in San Jose, California. Founded in 1957 as a division of Fairchild Camera and Instrument, it became a pioneer in the manufacturing of transistors and of integrated circuits. Schlumberger bought the firm in 1979 and sold it to National Semiconductor in 1987; Fairchild was spun off as an independent company again in 1997. In September 2016, Fairchild was acquired by ON Semiconductor.

Intel American semiconductor company

Intel Corporation is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley. It is the world's second largest and second highest valued semiconductor chip manufacturer based on revenue after being overtaken by Samsung, and is the inventor of the x86 series of microprocessors, the processors found in most personal computers (PCs). Intel ranked No. 46 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue.

The term "TTL" is applied to many successive generations of bipolar logic, with gradual improvements in speed and power consumption over about two decades. The most recently introduced family 74Fxx is still sold today[ when? ], and was widely used into the late 90s. 74AS/ALS Advanced Schottky was introduced in 1985. [8] As of 2008, Texas Instruments continues to supply the more general-purpose chips in numerous obsolete technology families, albeit at increased prices. Typically, TTL chips integrate no more than a few hundred transistors each. Functions within a single package generally range from a few logic gates to a microprocessor bit-slice. TTL also became important because its low cost made digital techniques economically practical for tasks previously done by analog methods. [9]

The Kenbak-1, ancestor of the first personal computers, used TTL for its CPU instead of a microprocessor chip, which was not available in 1971. [10] The Datapoint 2200 from 1970 used TTL components for its CPU and was the basis for the 8008 and later the x86 instruction set. [11] The 1973 Xerox Alto and 1981 Star workstations, which introduced the graphical user interface, used TTL circuits integrated at the level of Arithmetic logic units (ALUs) and bitslices, respectively. Most computers used TTL-compatible "glue logic" between larger chips well into the 1990s. Until the advent of programmable logic, discrete bipolar logic was used to prototype and emulate microarchitectures under development.

Implementation

Fundamental TTL gate

Two-input TTL NAND gate with a simple output stage (simplified). TTL npn nand.svg
Two-input TTL NAND gate with a simple output stage (simplified).

TTL inputs are the emitters of bipolar transistors. In the case of NAND inputs, the inputs are the emitters of multiple-emitter transistors, functionally equivalent to multiple transistors where the bases and collectors are tied together. [12] The output is buffered by a common emitter amplifier.

Inputs both logical ones. When all the inputs are held at high voltage, the base–emitter junctions of the multiple-emitter transistor are reverse-biased. Unlike DTL, a small “collector” current (approximately 10µA) is drawn by each of the inputs. This is because the transistor is in reverse-active mode. An approximately constant current flows from the positive rail, through the resistor and into the base of the multiple emitter transistor. [13] This current passes through the base–emitter junction of the output transistor, allowing it to conduct and pulling the output voltage low (logical zero).

An input logical zero. Note that the base–collector junction of the multiple-emitter transistor and the base–emitter junction of the output transistor are in series between the bottom of the resistor and ground. If one input voltage becomes zero, the corresponding base–emitter junction of the multiple-emitter transistor is in parallel with these two junctions. A phenomenon called current steering means that when two voltage-stable elements with different threshold voltages are connected in parallel, the current flows through the path with the smaller threshold voltage. That is, current flows out of this input and into the zero (low) voltage source. As a result, no current flows through the base of the output transistor, causing it to stop conducting and the output voltage becomes high (logical one). During the transition the input transistor is briefly in its active region; so it draws a large current away from the base of the output transistor and thus quickly discharges its base. This is a critical advantage of TTL over DTL that speeds up the transition over a diode input structure. [14]

The main disadvantage of TTL with a simple output stage is the relatively high output resistance at output logical "1" that is completely determined by the output collector resistor. It limits the number of inputs that can be connected (the fanout). Some advantage of the simple output stage is the high voltage level (up to VCC) of the output logical "1" when the output is not loaded.

A common variation omits the collector resistor of the output transistor, making an open-collector output. This allows the designer to fabricate logic by connecting the open-collector outputs of several logic gates together and providing a single external pull-up resistor. If any of the logic gates becomes logic low (transistor conducting), the combined output will be low. Examples of this type of gate are the 7401 [15] and 7403 series. Open-collector outputs of some gates have a higher maximum voltage, such as 15V for the 7426, [16] useful when driving other than TTL loads.

TTL with a "totem-pole" output stage

Standard TTL NAND with a "totem-pole" output stage, one of four in 7400 7400 Circuit.svg
Standard TTL NAND with a "totem-pole" output stage, one of four in 7400

To solve the problem with the high output resistance of the simple output stage the second schematic adds to this a "totem-pole" ("push–pull") output. It consists of the two n-p-n transistors V3 and V4, the "lifting" diode V5 and the current-limiting resistor R3 (see the figure on the right). It is driven by applying the same current steering idea as above.

When V2 is "off", V4 is "off" as well and V3 operates in active region as a voltage follower producing high output voltage (logical "1").

When V2 is "on", it activates V4, driving low voltage (logical "0") to the output. Again there is a current-steering effect: the series combination of V2's C-E junction and V4's B-E junction is in parallel with the series of V3 B-E, V5's anode-cathode junction, and V4 C-E. The second series combination has the higher threshold voltage, so no current flows through it, i.e. V3 base current is deprived. Transistor V3 turns "off" and it does not impact on the output.

In the middle of the transition, the resistor R3 limits the current flowing directly through the series connected transistor V3, diode V5 and transistor V4 that are all conducting. It also limits the output current in the case of output logical "1" and short connection to the ground. The strength of the gate may be increased without proportionally affecting the power consumption by removing the pull-up and pull-down resistors from the output stage. [17] [18]

The main advantage of TTL with a "totem-pole" output stage is the low output resistance at output logical "1". It is determined by the upper output transistor V3 operating in active region as an emitter follower. The resistor R3 does not increase the output resistance since it is connected in the V3 collector and its influence is compensated by the negative feedback. A disadvantage of the "totem-pole" output stage is the decreased voltage level (no more than 3.5 V) of the output logical "1" (even if the output is unloaded). The reason of this reduction are the voltage drops across the V3 base–emitter and V5 anode–cathode junctions.

Interfacing considerations

Like DTL, TTL is a current-sinking logic since a current must be drawn from inputs to bring them to a logic 0 voltage level. The driving stage must absorb up to 1.6 mA from a standard TTL input while not allowing the voltage to rise to more than 0.4 volts. [19] . The output stage of the most common TTL gates is specified to function correctly when driving up to 10 standard input stages (a fanout of 10). TTL inputs are sometimes simply left floating to provide a logical "1", though this usage is not recommended. [20]

Standard TTL circuits operate with a 5-volt power supply. A TTL input signal is defined as "low" when between 0 V and 0.8 V with respect to the ground terminal, and "high" when between 2 V and VCC (5 V), [21] [22] and if a voltage signal ranging between 0.8 V and 2.0 V is sent into the input of a TTL gate, there is no certain response from the gate and therefore it is considered "uncertain" (precise logic levels vary slightly between sub-types and by temperature). TTL outputs are typically restricted to narrower limits of between 0.0 V and 0.4 V for a "low" and between 2.4 V and VCC for a "high", providing at least 0.4 V of noise immunity. Standardization of the TTL levels is so ubiquitous that complex circuit boards often contain TTL chips made by many different manufacturers selected for availability and cost, compatibility being assured. Two circuit board units off the same assembly line on different successive days or weeks might have a different mix of brands of chips in the same positions on the board; repair is possible with chips manufactured years later than original components. Within usefully broad limits, logic gates can be treated as ideal Boolean devices without concern for electrical limitations. The 0.4V noise margins are adequate because of the low output impedance of the driver stage, that is, a large amount of noise power superimposed on the output is needed to drive an input into an undefined region.

In some cases (e.g., when the output of a TTL logic gate needs to be used for driving the input of a CMOS gate), the voltage level of the "totem-pole" output stage at output logical "1" can be increased closer to VCC by connecting an external resistor between the V3 collector and the positive rail. It pulls up the V5 cathode and cuts-off the diode. [23] However, this technique actually converts the sophisticated "totem-pole" output into a simple output stage having significant output resistance when driving a high level (determined by the external resistor).

Packaging

Like most integrated circuits of the period 1963–1990, commercial TTL devices are usually packaged in dual in-line packages (DIPs), usually with 14 to 24 pins, [24] for through-hole or socket mounting. Epoxy plastic (PDIP) packages were often used for commercial temperature range components, while ceramic packages (CDIP) were used for military temperature range parts.

Beam-lead chip dies without packages were made for assembly into larger arrays as hybrid integrated circuits. Parts for military and aerospace applications were packaged in flatpacks, a form of surface-mount package, with leads suitable for welding or soldering to printed circuit boards. Today[ when? ], many TTL-compatible devices are available in surface-mount packages, which are available in a wider array of types than through-hole packages.

TTL is particularly well suited to bipolar integrated circuits because additional inputs to a gate merely required additional emitters on a shared base region of the input transistor. If individually packaged transistors were used, the cost of all the transistors would discourage one from using such an input structure. But in an integrated circuit, the additional emitters for extra gate inputs add only a small area.

At least one computer manufacturer, IBM, built its own flip chip integrated circuits with TTL; these chips were mounted on ceramic multi-chip modules. [25] [26]

Comparison with other logic families

TTL devices consume substantially more power than equivalent CMOS devices at rest, but power consumption does not increase with clock speed as rapidly as for CMOS devices. [27] Compared to contemporary ECL circuits, TTL uses less power and has easier design rules but is substantially slower. Designers can combine ECL and TTL devices in the same system to achieve best overall performance and economy, but level-shifting devices are required between the two logic families. TTL is less sensitive to damage from electrostatic discharge than early CMOS devices.

Due to the output structure of TTL devices, the output impedance is asymmetrical between the high and low state, making them unsuitable for driving transmission lines. This drawback is usually overcome by buffering the outputs with special line-driver devices where signals need to be sent through cables. ECL, by virtue of its symmetric low-impedance output structure, does not have this drawback.

The TTL "totem-pole" output structure often has a momentary overlap when both the upper and lower transistors are conducting, resulting in a substantial pulse of current drawn from the power supply. These pulses can couple in unexpected ways between multiple integrated circuit packages, resulting in reduced noise margin and lower performance. TTL systems usually have a decoupling capacitor for every one or two IC packages, so that a current pulse from one TTL chip does not momentarily reduce the supply voltage to another.

Several manufacturers now supply CMOS logic equivalents with TTL-compatible input and output levels, usually bearing part numbers similar to the equivalent TTL component and with the same pinouts. For example, the 74HCT00 series provides many drop-in replacements for bipolar 7400 series parts, but uses CMOS technology.

Sub-types

Successive generations of technology produced compatible parts with improved power consumption or switching speed, or both. Although vendors uniformly marketed these various product lines as TTL with Schottky diodes, some of the underlying circuits, such as used in the LS family, could rather be considered DTL. [28]

Variations of and successors to the basic TTL family, which has a typical gate propagation delay of 10ns and a power dissipation of 10 mW per gate, for a power–delay product (PDP) or switching energy of about 100 pJ, include:

Most manufacturers offer commercial and extended temperature ranges: for example Texas Instruments 7400 series parts are rated from 0 to 70 °C, and 5400 series devices over the military-specification temperature range of −55 to +125 °C.

Special quality levels and high-reliability parts are available for military and aerospace applications.

Radiation-hardened devices (for example from the SNJ54 series) are offered for space applications.

Applications

Before the advent of VLSI devices, TTL integrated circuits were a standard method of construction for the processors of mini-computer and mainframe processors; such as the DEC VAX and Data General Eclipse, and for equipment such as machine tool numerical controls, printers and video display terminals. As microprocessors became more functional, TTL devices became important for "glue logic" applications, such as fast bus drivers on a motherboard, which tie together the function blocks realized in VLSI elements.

Analog applications

While originally designed to handle logic-level digital signals, a TTL inverter can be biased as an analog amplifier. Connecting a resistor between the output and the input biases the TTL element as a negative feedback amplifier. Such amplifiers may be useful to convert analog signals to the digital domain but would not ordinarily be used where analog amplification is the primary purpose. [29] TTL inverters can also be used in crystal oscillators where their analog amplification ability is significant.

A TTL gate may operate inadvertently as an analog amplifier if the input is connected to a slowly changing input signal that traverses the unspecified region from 0.8 V to 2 V. The output can be erratic when the input is in this range. A slowly changing input like this can also cause excess power dissipation in the output circuit. If such an analog input must be used, there are specialized TTL parts with Schmitt trigger inputs available that will reliably convert the analog input to a digital value, effectively operating as a one bit A to D converter.

See also

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  26. Seraphim, D. P.; Feinberg, I. (1981), "Electronic Packaging Evolution in IBM", IBM Journal of Research and Development, 25 (5): 617–630, doi:10.1147/rd.255.0617
  27. Horowitz, Paul; Hill, Winfield (1989), The Art of Electronics (2nd ed.), Cambridge University Press, p. 970, ISBN   0-521-37095-7 states, "...CMOS devices consume power proportional to their switching frequency...At their maximum operating frequency they may use more power than equivalent bipolar TTL devices."
  28. Ayers, J. UConn EE 215 notes for lecture 4. Harvard University faculty web page. Archive of web page from University of Connecticut. n.d. Retrieved 17 September 2008.
  29. Wobschall, D. (1987), Circuit Design for Electronic Instrumentation: Analog and Digital Devices from Sensor to Display (2d ed.), New York: McGraw Hill, pp. 209–211, ISBN   0-07-071232-8

Further reading