The Transitional Military Council (French : Conseil militaire de transition, CMT; Arabic : المجلس العسكري الانتقالي, al-Majlis al-‘askarī al-intiqālī) is the ruling military junta in Chad. It announced the death of former President Idriss Déby on 20 April 2021, and declared that it would take charge of the government of Chad and continue hostilities against FACT rebels in the north of the country. It is chaired by Mahamat Idriss Déby, the son of the late President, making him the de facto President of Chad.
On 20 April 2021, the spokesman of the CMT, General Azem Bermandoa Agouna, announced its formation on state television, after the death of the former president Idriss Déby in combat against FACT rebels.On the same day, Mahamat Idriss Déby named 15 generals, including himself who will be part of the Council and 14 others who were loyalists to his father. It said that the Council would take power for eighteen months, after which elections will be held.
On 22 April 2021, the Union des syndicats du Tchad (Union of Trade Unions of Chad) called for a general strike.It was also reported that some officers in the army were opposed to the coup. The junta successfully suppressed protests. Hostilities against the FACT continued, but the CMT said on 6 May that it had successfully repelled them.
Reuters reported that the Council has replaced the Constitution of Chad with a new charter, granting Mahamat the interim presidency and making him the leader of the armed forces.On 27 April the CMT the formation of a transitional government led by the civilian politician Albert Pahimi Padacké. France expressed its support for a 'civilian-military transition' on 23 April.
The African Union's members were divided on sanctions: whilst its rules require them, other members expressed concerns because of Chad's importance in fighting terrorism.Eventually the AU sent a delegation to Chad. At a meeting held on 12 May, a report to the Peace and Security Council of the African Union proposed three options. The first option was to fully support the CMT whilst sending an envoy to hold the military to its promise to hold elections within 18 months. The second was to demand equal power sharing with a civilian government. The third was to demand power should be handed over to a civilian government, with a military vice-president appointed for security matters. The report said that the transitional charter was ‘wholly inadequate’ and urged a redrafting of the constitution. It further proposed the demobilisation of rebel forces and their participation in talks; that prospect had previously been rejected by the CMT. The report was criticised by Delphine Djiraibé of the Public Interest Legal Centre, who criticised the delay in releasing the report and its failure to recommend sanctions.
The following are members of the CMT.
The Politics of Chad take place in a framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President of Chad is both head of state and head of government. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament. Chad is one of the most corrupt countries in the world.
Idriss Déby Itno was a Chadian politician and military officer, and head of the ruling Patriotic Salvation Movement, who was the president of Chad from 1990 until his death at the hands of militant forces when commanding troops on the front in 2021.
Moussa Faki Mahamat is a Chadian politician and diplomat who has been the elected Chairperson of the African Union Commission since 14 March 2017. Previously he was Prime Minister of Chad from 24 June 2003 to 4 February 2005 and Minister of Foreign Affairs from April 2008 to January 2017. Faki, a member of the ruling Patriotic Salvation Movement (MPS), belongs to the Zaghawa ethnic group, the same group as President Idriss Déby.
The People's Movement for Democracy in Chad is a political party in Chad.
Nouradine Delwa Kassiré Koumakoye is a Chadian politician and the head of the National Rally for Development and Progress (VIVA-RNDP) political party. After serving as a minister in the government during the 1980s and early 1990s; he was Prime Minister of Chad from November 6, 1993 to April 8, 1995 and again from February 26, 2007 to April 16, 2008. In 2008, he became President of the Economic, Social and Cultural Council.
The United Front for Democratic Change was a Chadian rebel alliance, made up of eight individual rebel groups, all with the goals of overthrowing the government of Chadian president Idriss Déby. It is now part of the Union of Forces for Democracy and Development. UFDC was founded between 26–28 December 2005 in Modeina in eastern Chad. FUC's "president" is Mahamat Nour Abdelkerim, the former leader of the Rally for Democracy and Liberty rebel group, "first vice president" Hassan Salleh Algadam, "second vice president" Abakar Tollimi, and "secretary-general" Abdelwahit About. On 18 December the RDL and another allied rebel group, Platform for Change, Unity and Democracy, attacked the city of Adré. The attack was repulsed by the Chadian military, and the Chadian government accused the Sudanese government of supporting the rebels, which Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir denies. Chad declared a "state of belligerance" with Sudan on 23 December 2005, resulting in the Chad-Sudan Conflict. The result was the Tripoli Agreement.
Abdelwahid Aboud Mackaye is a Chadian insurgent leader involved in the war to topple the Chadian President Idriss Déby. Originally a fighter in the Democratic Revolutionary Council (CDR) militia during the first Chadian Civil War, under Déby he became a civil servant before defecting to the rebels in 2003. After having been for a time first in the FUC and later in the UFDD, he has founded in 2007 the UFDD-Fundamental, which has participated in February 2008 to the unsuccessful attack on N'Djamena.
The Government of Chad had been ruled and controlled by Idriss Déby and his Patriotic Salvation Movement since December 2, 1990, and officially since February 28, 1991. An amendment to the Constitution of Chad, passed in 2005, allowed Déby to run for his next term which would be his third. He ran for it and won, although the election was criticized harshly.. The Chadian Government would be dissolved following Deby's death on April 20, 2021.
Lol Mahamat Choua was a Chadian politician who served as his country's head of state for four months in 1979. He was the President of the Rally for Democracy and Progress (RDP) political party.
Brahim Ahmed Koulamallah is a Chadian politician. He was the candidate of the Renewed African Socialist Movement in the May 2006 presidential election, taking fifth place with 5.31% of the vote. In the government named on August 15, 2006, he was appointed Minister of Tourism Development. He was replaced in this post by Ahmat Barkai Animi in the government announced on April 23, 2008.
General Mahamat Nouri is a Chadian insurgent leader who currently commands the Union of Forces for Democracy and Development (UFDD). A Muslim from northern Chad, he began his career as a FROLINAT rebel, and when the group's Second Army split in 1976 he sided with his kinsman Hissène Habré. As Habré's associate he obtained in 1978 the first of the many ministerial positions in his career, becoming Interior Minister in a coalition government. When Habré reached the presidency in 1982, Nouri was by his side and played an important role in the regime.
Youssouf Saleh Abbas is a Chadian political figure who was Prime Minister of Chad from April 2008 to March 2010. He was previously a diplomatic adviser and special representative of President Idriss Déby.
Mahamat ibn Idriss Déby Itno, also known as Mahamat Kaka, is the Chairman of the Transitional Military Council of Chad acting as the de facto interim President of Chad. He is the son of the late Chadian President Idriss Déby. He gained power as the acting President of Chad on 20 April 2021 when his father, Idriss Déby died in action while commanding troops in the Northern Chad offensive. He previously served as the second in-command of the military for the Chadian Intervention in Northern Mali (FATIM).
Mahamat Abdoul Kadre Oumar, better known as Baba Laddé is a Chadian Fulani rebel opposing the Chadian regime of Idriss Déby. He is sometimes referred to as Abdel Kader Baba Laddé.
The Front for Change and Concord in Chad, or FACT, is a political and military organisation created by SG Mahamat Mahdi Ali in March 2016 in Tanua, in the north of Chad, with the goal of overthrowing the government of Chad. It is a splinter group of the Union of Forces for Democracy and Development (UFDD). Ali declared his preparation for military operations against President Idriss Déby. The group was responsible for the death of Déby in April 2021, when he was killed while commanding troops on the frontline fighting the militants.
The Military Command Council for the Salvation of the Republic is a Chadian militant rebel group that seeks to overthrow the government of Chad. Founded in 2016, it currently operates in the border regions of northern Chad, southern Libya, eastern Niger, and western Sudan. The CCMSR has become involved in the Second Libyan Civil War, and took control of the Kouri Bougoudi area in northern Chad in 2018.
Hinda Déby Itno is a former Chadian First Lady who served from 2005 until the death of her husband, President Idriss Déby, in April 2021.
Presidential elections were held in Chad on 11 April 2021. Incumbent Idriss Déby, who served five consecutive terms since seizing power in the 1990 coup d'état, was running for a sixth. Déby was described as an authoritarian by several international media sources, and as "strongly entrenched". During previous elections, he forbade the citizens of Chad from making posts online, and while Chad's total ban on social media use was lifted in 2019, restrictions continue to exist.
A military offensive in Northern Chad, initiated by the Chadian rebel group Front for Change and Concord in Chad (FACT), took place from 11 April to 9 May 2021. It began in the Tibesti Region in the north of the country following the 2021 Chadian presidential election.
The 2021 protests in Chad are ongoing protests in Chad against the dictatorial regime of Mahamat Déby and Idriss Deby, and the results of the presidential election.