Transitional Federal Government of the Republic of Somalia
|Common languages||Somali · Arabic|
|Historical era||Somali Civil War|
|6 April 2004|
|20 August 2012|
|ISO 3166 code||SO|
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
The Transitional Federal Government (TFG) (Somali : Dowladda Federaalka Kumeelgaarka, Arabic : الحكومة الاتحادية الانتقالية) was the internationally recognized government of the Republic of Somalia until 20 August 2012, when its tenure officially ended and the Federal Government of Somalia was inaugurated. The TFG was established as one of the Transitional Federal Institutions (TFIs) of government as defined in the Transitional Federal Charter (TFC) adopted in November 2004 by the Transitional Federal Parliament (TFP).
Somali is an Afroasiatic language belonging to the Cushitic branch. It is spoken as a mother tongue by Somalis in Greater Somalia and the Somali diaspora. Somali is an official language of Somalia, a national language in Djibouti, and a working language in the Somali Region of Ethiopia. It is used as an adoptive language by a few neighboring ethnic minority groups and individuals. The Somali language is written officially with the Latin alphabet.
Somalia, officially the Federal Republic of Somalia (Somali: Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliya; Arabic: جمهورية الصومال الفيدرالية, translit. Jumhūrīyah aṣ-Ṣūmāl al-Fīdirālīyah, is a country with its territory located in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djibouti and Somaliland to the northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Guardafui Channel and Somali Sea to the east, and Kenya to the southwest. It is separated from Socotra by the Guardafui Channel in the northeast and from the Seychelles by the Somali Sea. Somalia has the longest coastline on Africa's mainland, and its terrain consists mainly of plateaus, plains and highlands. Climatically, hot conditions prevail year-round, with periodic monsoon winds and irregular rainfall.
The Federal Government of Somalia (FGS) is the internationally recognised government of Somalia, and the first attempt to create a central government in Somalia since the collapse of the Somali Democratic Republic. It replaced the Transitional Federal Government of Somalia on 20 August 2012 with the adoption of the Constitution of Somalia.
The TFG officially comprised the executive branch of government, with the TFP serving as the legislative branch. The government was headed by the President of Somalia, to whom the cabinet reported through the Prime Minister. However, it was also used as a general term to refer to all three branches collectively.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with the executive and judicial branches of government.
The President of Somalia is the head of state of Somalia. The President is also commander-in-chief of the Somali Armed Forces. The President represents the Federal Republic of Somalia, and the unity of the Somali nation, as well as ensuring the implementation of the Constitution of Somalia and the organized and harmonious functioning of the organs of state. The office of President of Somalia was established with the proclamation of the Republic of Somalia on 1 July 1960. The first President of Somalia was Aden Abdullah Osman Daar. The current office-holder is the 9th President Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed ‘Farmaajo’, since 16 February 2017.
Backed by the United Nations, the African Union, as well as the United States, the TFG battled Al Shabaab insurgents to assume full control of the southern part of the country. By August 2011, the government and its AMISOM (African Union Mission in Somalia) allies managed to secure control over all of Mogadishu.
The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of 55 member states located on the continent of Africa, with exception of various territories of European possessions located in Africa. The bloc was founded on 26 May 2001 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and launched on 9 July 2002 in South Africa. The intention of the AU is to replace the Organisation of African Unity (OAU), established on 25 May 1963 in Addis Ababa by 32 signatory governments. The most important decisions of the AU are made by the Assembly of the African Union, a semi-annual meeting of the heads of state and government of its member states. The AU's secretariat, the African Union Commission, is based in Addis Ababa.
Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen, more commonly known as al-Shabaab, is a jihadist fundamentalist group based in East Africa. In 2012, it pledged allegiance to the militant Islamist organization Al-Qaeda. In February 2012, some of the group's leaders quarreled with Al-Qaeda over the union, and quickly lost ground. Al-Shabaab's troop strength was estimated at 7,000 to 9,000 militants in 2014. As of 2015, the group has retreated from the major cities, however al-Shabaab still controls large parts of the rural areas.
Mogadishu, locally known as Xamar or Hamar, is the capital and most populous city of Somalia. Located in the coastal Banadir region on the Somali Sea, the city has served as an important port for millennia. As of 2017, it had a population of 2,425,000 residents. Mogadishu is the nearest foreign mainland city to Seychelles, at a distance of 835 mi (1,344 km) over the Somali Sea.
In June 2011, following the Kampala Accord, the mandates of the President, the Parliament Speaker, and Deputies were extended until August 2012.
The legal structure in Somalia is divided along three lines: civil law, religious law, and traditional clan law.
Civil law, or civilian law, is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law. This can be contrasted with common law systems, the intellectual framework of which comes from judge-made decisional law, and gives precedential authority to prior court decisions, on the principle that it is unfair to treat similar facts differently on different occasions.
Religious law refers to ethical and moral codes taught by religious traditions. Examples include Christian canon law, Islamic sharia, Jewish halakha, and Hindu law.
Xeer is the traditional legal system of Somalia, and one of the three systems from which formal Somali law draws its inspiration, the others being civil law and Islamic law. It is believed to pre-date Islam, although it was influenced by Islam and retains many of the faith's conservative elements. Under this system, elders, known as the xeer begti serve as mediator judges and help settle court cases, taking precedent and custom into account. Xeer is polycentric in that different groups within Somali society have different interpretations of xeer.
While Somalia's formal judicial system was largely destroyed after the fall of the Siad Barre regime, it has been rebuilt and is now administered under different regional governments such as the autonomous Puntland and Somaliland macro-regions. In the case of the Transitional Federal Government (TFG), a new judicial structure was formed through various international conferences.
Jaalle Mohamed Siad Barre was a Somali politician who served as the President of the Somali Democratic Republic from 1969 to 1991.
Puntland, officially the Puntland State of Somalia, is a region in northeastern Somalia. Centered on the town of Garoowe in the Nugal province, its leaders declared the territory an autonomous state in 1998 but is internationally recognized as an autonomous region of Somalia.
Somaliland, officially the Republic of Somaliland, is a self-declared state, internationally considered to be an autonomous region of Somalia.
Despite some significant political differences between them, all of these administrations share similar legal structures, much of which are predicated on the judicial systems of previous Somali administrations. These similarities in civil law include:
Alongside the national constitution, the Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic (TFC) lays out the basic way in which the government is to operate.
The Cabinet, formally known as the Council of Ministers, at first comprised 42 offices, but was later slimmed down to 31 portfolios during a period of contention in 2006. In 2010, it was further scaled down to 18 posts. The Council of Ministers is appointed by the Prime Minister.
The current government posts and ministerial positions are as follows:
|Cabinet Position||Office Holder|
|Minister of Foreign Affairs||Abdullahi Haji Hassan Mohamed Nuur|
|Minister of Defence||Hussein Arab Isse|
|Minister of Planning & International Co-operation||Abdullahi Godah Barre|
|Minister of Justice & Religious Issues||Ahmed Hasan Gabobe (Ugas Bille)|
|Minister of Interior Affairs & National Security||Abdisamad Mallin Mahamud Sheikh Hasan|
|Minister of Finance & Treasury||Dr. Abdinaasir Mahamed Abdulle|
|Minister of Women & Family Affairs||Casho Ismaan Aqil|
|Minister of Agriculture & Livestock||Abullahi Haaji Hasan Mahamed Nur|
|Minister of Health||Dr. Abdicasiis Sheikh Yusuf|
|Minister of Information, Posts & Telecommunication||Abdulqaadir Mahamed Ahmed|
|Minister of Employment, Youth & Sports||Mahamed Muhiyadin Sheikh Mursal|
|Minister of Fisheries||Abdiraxmaan Sheikh Ibrahim|
|Minister of Transport & Ports||Adan Abdullaahi Adan|
|Minister of Federal Constitution & Reconciliation||Abdiraxmaan Hosh Jibril|
|Minister of General Affairs, Housing & Reconstruction||Jaylani Nur Iikar|
|Minister of Water,Minerals & Energy||Abdulqaadir Maxamed Dhiaisow|
|Minister of Education & Culture||Prof. Axmed Aydiid Ibrahim|
|Minister of Trade & Industry||Abdiwahaab Ugas Huseen Ugas Khalif|
A President is elected by Parliament. The President is head of government, and chooses the Prime Minister, who leads the cabinet. The current President is Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed, who took office on 31 January 2009. The current Prime Minister is Hassan Ali Khayre, who took office on February, 23rd 2017.
The Transitional Federal Parliament elects the President and Prime Minister, and has the authority to pass and veto laws. It is also in charge of governance and administration of Mogadishu. Each of the four major clans hold 61 seats, while an alliance of minority clans hold 31 seats. After an alliance with the Islamic Courts Union and other Islamist groups was formed, the Islamists were awarded 200 seats. Representatives of citizens' groups and representatives of the Somali diaspora hold 75 seats. By law, at least 12% of all representatives must be women. Members of parliament are selected through traditional clan leaders or shura councils.
Under the Transitional Federal Government, a Supreme court based in Mogadishu was established, as well as an Appeals Court. Smaller local courts were also established. A Judicial Service Council directs all judiciary and advises the president. All Sharia courts established by the ICU were discontinued, but Islamic principles are to be used in TFG courts.
Under the Transitional Federal Government, local state governments maintain some power over their affairs and maintain their own police and security forces, but are subject to the authority of the Transitional Federal Government.
The Ministry of Education is officially responsible for education in Somalia, with about 15% of the government's budget being spent on education. However, in practice, the education system is now largely private. In 2006, the autonomous Puntland region in the northeast was the second territory in Somalia after the Somaliland region to introduce free primary schools, with teachers now receiving their salaries from the Puntland administration.As of 2007, primary schools have also seen a 28% increase in enrollment over the preceding three years. In addition, several universities in Somalia, including Mogadishu University, have been ranked among the 100 best universities in Africa despite the harsh environment, which has been hailed as a triumph for grass-roots initiatives.
The Ministry of Health heads the country's healthcare system. The current Minister of Health is Qamar Adan Ali.The autonomous Puntland region has its own local Ministry of Health, which is headed by Dr. Mohamed Bashir Ali Bihi, as does the Somaliland region in northwestern Somalia, with its Ministry of Health led by Osman Bile Ali.
The federal government has two main media outlets: Radio Mogadishu, the state-run radio station; and Somali National Television, the national television channel.
The Transitional Federal Government's Ministry of Defense is officially responsible for the Somali National Army (SNA).
In August 2011, a TFG-Puntland cooperative agreement called for the creation of a Somali Marine Force unit, of which the already established Puntland Maritime Police Force (PMPF) would form a part.
There are also plans for the re-establishment of the Somali Air Force.
In addition, a new police force was re-established to maintain law and order. The first police academy to be built in Somalia for several years opened on 20 December 2005 at Armo, 100 kilometres south of Bosaso.The Somali police also has a criminal investigations department in Mogadishu.
The autonomous Puntland and Somaliland regions within Somalia have their own security forces.
As with previous Somali administrations, the Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic recognizes Mogadishu as the capital of Somalia. The Parliament of Somalia meets in the city, which is also the seat of the nation's Supreme court. In addition, Mogadishu is the location of the presidential palace, Villa Somalia, where the President resides. The Prime Minister also lives in the city. Mogadishu is the largest city in Somalia with a population of over 2 million people.Prior to the civil war, it was known as the "White Pearl of the Indian Ocean".
The Transitional Federal Government (TFG) was the internationally recognized interim national authority in Somalia from April 2004 to August 2012, when it was superseded by the current Somali Federal Government (SFG). It constituted the executive branch of government. Succeeding the Transitional National Government (TNG), the TFG was the second interim administration aiming to restore national institutions to Somalia after the 1991 collapse of the Siad Barre regime and the ensuing civil war.
In 2006, the Islamic Courts Union (ICU), an Islamist organization, assumed control of much of the southern part of the country and promptly imposed Shari'a law. The Transitional Federal Government sought to reestablish its authority, and, with the assistance of Ethiopian troops, African Union peacekeepers and air support by the United States, managed to drive out the rival ICU and solidify its rule.
On 8 January 2007, as the Battle of Ras Kamboni raged, TFG President Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, a former colonel in the Somali Army decorated for bravery during the Somali-Ethiopian wars of 1964 and 1977 and erstwhile leader of the Somali Salvation Democratic Front, entered Mogadishu for the first time since being elected to office.The government then relocated to Villa Somalia in the capital from its interim location in Baidoa. This marked the first time since the fall of the Siad Barre regime in 1991 that the federal government controlled most of the country.
Following this defeat, the Islamic Courts Union splintered into several different factions. Some of the more radical elements, including Al-Shabaab, regrouped to continue their insurgency against the TFG and oppose the Ethiopian military's presence in Somalia. Throughout 2007 and 2008, Al-Shabaab scored military victories, seizing control of key towns and ports in both central and southern Somalia. At the end of 2008, the group had captured Baidoa but not Mogadishu. By January 2009, Al-Shabaab and other militias had managed to force the Ethiopian troops to retreat, leaving behind an under-equipped African Union peacekeeping force to assist the Transitional Federal Government's troops.
President Yusuf deployed thousands of his own troops from Puntland to Mogadishu to sustain the battle against insurgent elements in the southern part of the country. Financial support for this effort was provided by the autonomous region's government. This left little revenue for Puntland's own security forces and civil service employees.
On 29 December 2008, Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed announced before a united parliament in Baidoa his resignation as President of Somalia. In his speech, which was broadcast on national radio, Yusuf expressed regret at failing to end the country's seventeen-year conflict as his government had mandated to do.He also blamed the international community for its failure to support the government, and said that the speaker of parliament would succeed him in office per the Charter of the Transitional Federal Government.
Between 31 May and 9 June 2008, representatives of Somalia's federal government and the moderate Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia (ARS) group of Islamist rebels participated in peace talks in Djibouti brokered by the former United Nations Special Envoy to Somalia, Ahmedou Ould-Abdallah. The conference ended with a signed agreement calling for the withdrawal of Ethiopian troops in exchange for the cessation of armed confrontation. Parliament was subsequently expanded to 550 seats to accommodate ARS members, which then elected Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed, the former ARS chairman, to office. President Sharif shortly afterwards appointed Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke, the son of slain former President Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke, as the nation's new Prime Minister.
With the help of a small team of African Union troops, the coalition government also began a counteroffensive in February 2009 to retake control of the southern half of the country. To solidify its control of southern Somalia, the TFG formed an alliance with the Islamic Courts Union, other members of the Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia, and Ahlu Sunna Waljama'a, a moderate Sufi militia.Furthermore, Al-Shabaab and Hizbul Islam, the two main Islamist groups in opposition, began to fight amongst themselves in mid-2009.
As a truce, in March 2009, Somalia's coalition government announced that it would re-implement Shari'a as the nation's official judicial system.However, conflict continued in the southern and central parts of the country. Within months, the coalition government had gone from holding about 70% of south-central Somalia's conflict zones, territory which it had inherited from the previous Yusuf administration, to losing control of over 80% of the disputed territory to the Islamist insurgents.
During the coalition government's brief tenure, Somalia topped the Fund For Peace's Failed States Index for three consecutive years. In 2009, Transparency International ranked the nation in last place on its annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), a metric that purports to show the prevalence of corruption in a country's public sector. million that the coalition government had received over this 2009 and 2010 period was unaccounted for. In July 2012, a report by the UN Monitoring Group on Somalia and Eritrea (SEMG) submitted to the UN Security Council alleged that between 2009 and 2010, around 70 percent of funds that had been earmarked for development and reconstruction in Somalia were unaccounted for. President Sharif Sheikh Ahmed rebuked the claims, indicating in particular that a $3 million payment from the Government of Oman had gone toward legitimate government expenses, including loans, security forces and parliament. Ahmed also asserted that the SEMG paper had been "timed to coincide with the end of [the] transition period in order to discredit the TFG," and that the Monitoring Group was the "wrong approach for Somalia's peace and development."A World Bank report also alleged that about $130
On 14 October 2010, diplomat Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed was appointed the new Prime Minister of Somalia after the resignation of Premier Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke.
Per the Transitional Federal Government's (TFG) Charter,Prime Minister Mohamed named a new Cabinet on 12 November 2010, which has been lauded by the international community. The allotted ministerial positions were reduced from 39 to 18. Only two Ministers from the previous Cabinet were reappointed: Hussein Abdi Halane, the former Minister of Finance and a well-regarded figure in the international community, was put in charge of a consolidated Ministry of Finance and Treasury; and Dr. Mohamud Abdi Ibrahim remained the minister of Commerce and Industry. Ahlu Sunna Waljama'a, a moderate Sufi group and an important military ally of the TFG, was also accorded the key Interior and Labour ministries. The remaining ministerial positions were largely assigned to technocrats new to the Somali political arena.
In its first 50 days in office, Prime Minister Mohamed's new administration completed its first monthly payment of stipends to government soldiers, and initiated the implementation of a full biometric register for the security forces within a window of four months. Additional members of the Independent Constitutional Commission were also appointed to engage Somali constitutional lawyers, religious scholars and experts in Somali culture over the nation's upcoming new constitution, a key part of the government's Transitional Federal Tasks. In addition, high level federal delegations were dispatched to defuse clan-related tensions in several regions. According to the prime minister of Somalia, to improve transparency, Cabinet ministers fully disclosed their assets and signed a code of ethics.
An Anti-Corruption Commission with the power to carry out formal investigations and to review government decisions and protocols was also established so as to more closely monitor all activities by public officials. Furthermore, unnecessary trips abroad by members of government were prohibited, and all travel by ministers now require the Premier's consent.A budget outlining 2011's federal expenditures was also put before and approved by members of parliament, with the payment of civil service employees prioritized. In addition, a full audit of government property and vehicles is being put into place. On the war front, the new government and its AMISOM allies also managed to secure control of Mogadishu by August 2011. According to the African Union and Prime Minister Mohamed, with increasing troop strength the pace of territorial gains is expected to greatly accelerate.
On 19 June 2011, Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed resigned from his position as Prime Minister of Somalia as part of the controversial Kampala Accord's conditions. The agreement would also see the mandates of the President, the Parliament Speaker and Deputies extended until August 2012, after which point new elections are to be organized, including a parliamentary vote-based presidential election.Abdiweli Mohamed Ali, Mohamed's former Minister of Planning and International Cooperation, was later named permanent Prime Minister.
In February 2012, Somali government officials met in the northeastern town of Garowe to discuss post-transition arrangements. After extensive deliberations attended by regional actors and international observers, the conference ended in a signed agreement between TFG President Sharif Sheikh Ahmed, Prime Minister Abdiweli Mohamed Ali, Speaker of Parliament Sharif Adan Sharif Hassan, Puntland President Abdirahman Mohamed Farole, Galmudug President Mohamed Ahmed Alim and Ahlu Sunnah Wal Jama'a representative Khalif Abdulkadir Noor stipulating that: a) a new 225 member bicameral parliament would be formed, consisting of an upper house seating 54 Senators as well as a lower house; b) 30% of the National Constituent Assembly (NCA) is earmarked for women; c) the President is to be appointed via a constitutional election; and d) the Prime Minister is selected by the President and he/she then names his/her Cabinet.On 23 June 2012, the Somali federal and regional leaders met again and approved a draft constitution after several days of deliberation. The National Constituent Assembly overwhelmingly passed the new constitution on 1 August, with 96% voting for it, 2% against it, and 2% abstaining.
The Transitional Federal Government is internationally recognized as the official government of Somalia. It occupies Somalia's seat in the United Nations, the African Union, and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC). The Permanent Representative of Somalia to the United Nations is Elmi Ahmed Duale. The Deputy Permanent Representative is Idd Beddel Mohamed. Somalia is one of the founding members of the OIC. The TFG also has ambassadors in other countries.
The Transitional Federal Government currently maintains embassies in 34 countries.Ethiopia maintains an embassy in Mogadishu, and consulates in Hargeisa in Somaliland and in Garowe in Puntland. Djibouti re-opened its embassy in Mogadishu in December 2010. The following year, India also re-opened its embassy in the capital after a twenty-year absence, as did Turkey. Italy maintains a special diplomatic delegation and a Technical Mission to Mogadishu, and is scheduled to re-open its embassy in the city. In 2011, the United Kingdom likewise announced plans to re-open its embassy in Mogadishu, with Iran following suit in 2012.
For travel, Somali citizens can obtain a Somali passport from government-designated locations or from Somali embassies abroad.
The politics of Somalia takes place in a framework of federal parliamentary representative democratic republic. According to the Constitution of Somalia, the President of Somalia is head of state, and Prime Minister as head of government who is appointed by the President with the parliament's approval.
Popular elections are to be held in 2020 for the first time since 1969. UNSOM has been mandated to support the preparations universal elections.
The Islamic Courts Union was a group of Sharia courts that united themselves to form a rival administration to the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) of Somalia, with Sharif Sheikh Ahmed as their head. They were also known as the Joint Islamic Courts, Union of Islamic Courts (UIC), Supreme Islamic Courts Council (SICC) or the Supreme Council of Islamic Courts (SCIC).
Sharif Sheikh Ahmed was the 7th President of Somalia from 31 January 2009 to 20 August 2012 and successfully brought the Federal Government of Somalia through transitional status following the collapse of the previous governing administration in 1991. Under Sheikh Sharif's leadership, the Transitional Federal Government succeeded in driving out Al-Shabaab from the capital city and its surroundings, establishing security, peace and reconciliation through the difficult transitional period. The administration of Sharif, who was Somalia’s 7th President, is also credited with developing the country’s Constitution and setting up key institutions such as the police, military and judiciary.
Augustine Philip Mahiga is a Tanzanian diplomat who has been Minister of Foreign Affairs of Tanzania since 2015. He previously served as the Permanent Representative of Tanzania to the United Nations from 2003 to 2010 and as the UN Special Representative and Head of the United Nations Political Office for Somalia from 2010 to 2013.
The Somali Civil War was an armed conflict involving largely Ethiopian and Somali Transitional Federal Government (TFG) forces and Somali troops from Puntland versus the Somali Islamist umbrella group, the Islamic Court Union (ICU), and other affiliated militias for control of the country. There is a clear connection between War in Somalia (2009–) and the War of 2006. The war officially began shortly before July 20, 2006 when U.S. backed Ethiopian troops invaded Somalia to prop up the TFG in Baidoa. The TFG in Somalia invited Ethiopians to intervene, which became an "unpopular decision". Subsequently, the leader of the ICU, Sheik Hassan Dahir Aweys, declared "Somalia is in a state of war, and all Somalis should take part in this struggle against Ethiopia". On December 24, Ethiopia stated it would actively combat the ICU.
Sharif Hassan Sheikh Adan is a Somali politician. He is a former Finance Minister of Somalia, and the last Speaker of the Transitional Federal Parliament (TFP). He hails from the Adan Mirifle (Siyeed) Ashraaf sub-clan of the Rahaweyn major clan.
The transitional federal government (TFG) was the government of Somalia between 2004 and 2012. Established 2004 in Djabuti through various international conferences, it was an attempt to restore national institutions to the country after the 1991 collapse of the Siad Barre government and the ensuing Somali Civil War.
After two decades of violence and civil war and after the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) of Somalia captured Mogadishu and Kismayo, the TFG attempted to disarm the militias of the country in late 2006. According to the UN/World Bank's Joint Needs Assessment (JNA) coordination secretariat, "the total estimated number of militias [militia members] to be demobilized is 53,000." In 2005, they estimated that "there are 11-15,000 militia people controlling Mogadishu ."
Adan Mohamed Nuur Madobe, popularly known as Aden Madobe, is a Somali politician. He previously served as the First Deputy Chairman of the Rahanweyn Resistance Army, before later joining the newly formed Transitional Federal Government (TFG) of Somalia as Justice Minister and Speaker of the Transitional Federal Parliament. From 29 December 2008 to 31 January 2009, Madobe briefly served as acting president of Somalia. In January 2014, he was appointed Minister of Industry and Commerce.
The 2009–present phase of the Somali Civil War is concentrated in southern Somalia. It began in early February 2009 with the conflict between the forces of the Federal Government of Somalia, assisted by African Union peacekeeping troops, and various militant terrorist groups and factions. The violence has displaced thousands of people in the southern part of the country. The conflict has also seen fighting between the Sufi Ahlu Sunna Waljama'a and Al-Shabaab.
Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke, popularly known as Omar Sharmarke, is a Somali diplomat and politician. From 2009 to 2010, he was the Prime Minister of Somalia. He subsequently briefly served as Somalia's Ambassador to the United States in 2014. In December 2014, Sharmarke was reappointed Prime Minister of Somalia. His term ended on 1 March 2017 and was replaced by Hassan Ali Khayre.
Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed, also known as Farmajo, is a Somali politician and diplomat who is the 9th and current President of Somalia. He was previously a Prime Minister of Somalia from November 2010 until June 2011 and is the founder and Chairman of the Tayo Political Party. He became the President of Somalia after winning in the 2017 Somali presidential election with 194 votes out of a total of 328 by members of the Somali Parliament after defeating former president Hassan Sheikh Mohamud.
General Abdisamad Ali Shire is a Somali politician. From 8 January 2009 to 8 January 2014, he served as Vice President of Puntland.
Abdiweli Mohamed Ali Gaas, also known as Abdiweli Gaas, is a Somali American economist, professor and politician. He served as the Prime Minister of Somalia from June 2011 to October 2012, and briefly afterwards as an MP in the newly formed Federal Parliament. During his time as Premier, Ali is credited with having devised the formal "Roadmap for the End of Transition", a political process that provided clear benchmarks leading toward the establishment of permanent democratic institutions in the country. On 8 January 2014, he was elected the 5th President of Puntland.
Indirect presidential elections were held in Somalia on 10 September 2012. The newly appointed Federal Parliament elected Hassan Sheikh Mohamud as the first President of Somalia since the dissolution of the Transitional Federal Government (TFG). The election had previously been scheduled for 20 August, the same day that the mandate of the TFG expired, but was rescheduled for a later date.
Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed, also known as Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed Mohammad, is a Somali economist and politician. He previously worked in the Somali military government as a Livestock Marketing Specialist and later on in mainly leadership positions with a number of international organizations, including the World Bank, USAID, African Union/IBAR, the European Union, the Bank of Canada, COMESA, and the Islamic Development Bank in Jeddah.
Duale Adan Mohamed is a Somali politician. He served as the Minister of Culture and Higher Education of Somalia under Prime Minister Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed. Duale Adan Mohamed succeeded Maryam Qaasim when her post as Minister for Human Development and Public Services ended on 17 January 2014. The Ministry was split to allow the creation of 6 cabinet positions one of which was the Ministry of Culture and Higher Education. The other 5 cabinet positions are Ministry of Health, Ministry of Youth and Sports, Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, Ministry of Women and Human Rights, Ministry of Education. On 12 January 2015, Prime Minister Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke announced his new cabinet which merged the Ministry of Culture and Higher Education with the Ministry of Education. Instead this meant that the new Minister of Education would take on some additional roles. Duale Adan Mohamed was instead appointed the Minister of Youth and Sports. However, he only served 2 weeks when on 17 January 2015, Prime Minister Sharmarke dissolved his newly nominated cabinet due to vehement opposition by legislators, who rejected the reappointment of certain former ministers. On 27 January 2015, Sharmarke appointed a new, smaller 20 minister cabinet of which Duale Adan Mohamed was replaced by Mohamed Omar Arte.
The Kampala Accord was an agreement made in Kampala, Uganda in line with the Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic to bring and end to the transitional phase of the Transitional Federal Government on 20 August 2011. It was signed on 9th June 2011 by HE Sharif Sheikh Ahmed, President of the Transitional Federal Government, Hon Sharif Hassan Sheikh Aden, Speaker of the Transitional Federal Parliament, H.E. Yoweri Kaguta Museveni, President of the Replublic of Uganda and Dr Augustine Mahiga, Special Representative of the Secretary General of the United Nations.