Transitional federal government, Republic of Somalia

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Transitional Federal Government of the Republic of Somalia

2004–2012
Somalia (orthographic projection).svg
CapitalMogadishu
Common languages Somali  · Arabic
Government Provisional government
Historical era Somali Civil War
6 April 2004
20 August 2012
ISO 3166 code SO
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Flag of Somalia.svg Transitional National Government
Federal Government of Somalia Flag of Somalia.svg
Coat of arms of Somalia.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Somalia

The Transitional Federal Government (TFG) (Somali : Dowladda Federaalka Kumeelgaarka, Arabic : الحكومة الاتحادية الانتقالية) was the internationally recognized government of the Republic of Somalia until 20 August 2012, when its tenure officially ended and the Federal Government of Somalia was inaugurated. [1] The TFG was established as one of the Transitional Federal Institutions (TFIs) of government as defined in the Transitional Federal Charter (TFC) adopted in November 2004 by the Transitional Federal Parliament (TFP).

Somali language language of East Cushitic branch of Afro-Asiatic family

Somali is an Afroasiatic language belonging to the Cushitic branch. It is spoken as a mother tongue by Somalis in Greater Somalia and the Somali diaspora. Somali is an official language of Somalia, a national language in Djibouti, and a working language in the Somali Region of Ethiopia. It is used as an adoptive language by a few neighboring ethnic minority groups and individuals. The Somali language is written officially with the Latin alphabet.

Somalia Federal republic in Africa

Somalia, officially the Federal Republic of Somalia (Somali: Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliya; Arabic: جمهورية الصومال الفيدرالية‎, translit. Jumhūrīyah aṣ-Ṣūmāl al-Fīdirālīyah, is a country with its territory located in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djibouti and Somaliland to the northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Guardafui Channel and Somali Sea to the east, and Kenya to the southwest. It is separated from Socotra by the Guardafui Channel in the northeast and from the Seychelles by the Somali Sea. Somalia has the longest coastline on Africa's mainland, and its terrain consists mainly of plateaus, plains and highlands. Climatically, hot conditions prevail year-round, with periodic monsoon winds and irregular rainfall.

Federal Government of Somalia

The Federal Government of Somalia (FGS) is the internationally recognised government of Somalia, and the first attempt to create a central government in Somalia since the collapse of the Somali Democratic Republic. It replaced the Transitional Federal Government of Somalia on 20 August 2012 with the adoption of the Constitution of Somalia.

Contents

The TFG officially comprised the executive branch of government, with the TFP serving as the legislative branch. The government was headed by the President of Somalia, to whom the cabinet reported through the Prime Minister. However, it was also used as a general term to refer to all three branches collectively.

A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with the executive and judicial branches of government.

President of Somalia head of state and head of government of Somalia

The President of Somalia is the head of state of Somalia. The President is also commander-in-chief of the Somali Armed Forces. The President represents the Federal Republic of Somalia, and the unity of the Somali nation, as well as ensuring the implementation of the Constitution of Somalia and the organized and harmonious functioning of the organs of state. The office of President of Somalia was established with the proclamation of the Republic of Somalia on 1 July 1960. The first President of Somalia was Aden Abdullah Osman Daar. The current office-holder is the 9th President Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed ‘Farmaajo’, since 16 February 2017.

Backed by the United Nations, the African Union, as well as the United States, the TFG battled Al Shabaab insurgents to assume full control of the southern part of the country. By August 2011, the government and its AMISOM (African Union Mission in Somalia) allies managed to secure control over all of Mogadishu. [2]

African Union Supranational union

The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of 55 member states located on the continent of Africa, with exception of various territories of European possessions located in Africa. The bloc was founded on 26 May 2001 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and launched on 9 July 2002 in South Africa. The intention of the AU is to replace the Organisation of African Unity (OAU), established on 25 May 1963 in Addis Ababa by 32 signatory governments. The most important decisions of the AU are made by the Assembly of the African Union, a semi-annual meeting of the heads of state and government of its member states. The AU's secretariat, the African Union Commission, is based in Addis Ababa.

Al-Shabaab (militant group) Somalia-based cell of the militant Islamist group al-Qaeda

Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen, more commonly known as al-Shabaab, is a jihadist fundamentalist group based in East Africa. In 2012, it pledged allegiance to the militant Islamist organization Al-Qaeda. In February 2012, some of the group's leaders quarreled with Al-Qaeda over the union, and quickly lost ground. Al-Shabaab's troop strength was estimated at 7,000 to 9,000 militants in 2014. As of 2015, the group has retreated from the major cities, however al-Shabaab still controls large parts of the rural areas.

Mogadishu Capital in Banaadir, Somalia

Mogadishu, locally known as Xamar or Hamar, is the capital and most populous city of Somalia. Located in the coastal Banadir region on the Somali Sea, the city has served as an important port for millennia. As of 2017, it had a population of 2,425,000 residents. Mogadishu is the nearest foreign mainland city to Seychelles, at a distance of 835 mi (1,344 km) over the Somali Sea.

In June 2011, following the Kampala Accord, the mandates of the President, the Parliament Speaker, and Deputies were extended until August 2012. [3]

Structure

The legal structure in Somalia is divided along three lines: civil law, religious law, and traditional clan law.

Civil law, or civilian law, is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law. This can be contrasted with common law systems, the intellectual framework of which comes from judge-made decisional law, and gives precedential authority to prior court decisions, on the principle that it is unfair to treat similar facts differently on different occasions.

Religious law refers to ethical and moral codes taught by religious traditions. Examples include Christian canon law, Islamic sharia, Jewish halakha, and Hindu law.

Xeer is the traditional legal system of Somalia, and one of the three systems from which formal Somali law draws its inspiration, the others being civil law and Islamic law. It is believed to pre-date Islam, although it was influenced by Islam and retains many of the faith's conservative elements. Under this system, elders, known as the xeer begti serve as mediator judges and help settle court cases, taking precedent and custom into account. Xeer is polycentric in that different groups within Somali society have different interpretations of xeer.

Civil law

While Somalia's formal judicial system was largely destroyed after the fall of the Siad Barre regime, it has been rebuilt and is now administered under different regional governments such as the autonomous Puntland and Somaliland macro-regions. In the case of the Transitional Federal Government (TFG), a new judicial structure was formed through various international conferences.

Siad Barre Head of State of Somalia

Jaalle Mohamed Siad Barre was a Somali politician who served as the President of the Somali Democratic Republic from 1969 to 1991.

Puntland region in northeastern Somalia

Puntland, officially the Puntland State of Somalia, is a region in northeastern Somalia. Centered on the town of Garoowe in the Nugal province, its leaders declared the territory an autonomous state in 1998 but is internationally recognized as an autonomous region of Somalia.

Somaliland unrecognised Country in East Africa

Somaliland, officially the Republic of Somaliland, is a self-declared state, internationally considered to be an autonomous region of Somalia.

Despite some significant political differences between them, all of these administrations share similar legal structures, much of which are predicated on the judicial systems of previous Somali administrations. These similarities in civil law include: [4]

Constitution

Alongside the national constitution, the Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic (TFC) lays out the basic way in which the government is to operate.

Council of Ministers

The Cabinet, formally known as the Council of Ministers, at first comprised 42 offices, but was later slimmed down to 31 portfolios during a period of contention in 2006. In 2010, it was further scaled down to 18 posts. The Council of Ministers is appointed by the Prime Minister.

The current government posts and ministerial positions are as follows:

Cabinet PositionOffice Holder
Minister of Foreign Affairs Abdullahi Haji Hassan Mohamed Nuur
Minister of Defence Hussein Arab Isse
Minister of Planning & International Co-operation Abdullahi Godah Barre
Minister of Justice & Religious Issues Ahmed Hasan Gabobe (Ugas Bille)
Minister of Interior Affairs & National Security Abdisamad Mallin Mahamud Sheikh Hasan
Minister of Finance & Treasury Dr. Abdinaasir Mahamed Abdulle
Minister of Women & Family Affairs Casho Ismaan Aqil
Minister of Agriculture & Livestock Abullahi Haaji Hasan Mahamed Nur
Minister of Health Dr. Abdicasiis Sheikh Yusuf
Minister of Information, Posts & Telecommunication Abdulqaadir Mahamed Ahmed
Minister of Employment, Youth & Sports Mahamed Muhiyadin Sheikh Mursal
Minister of Fisheries Abdiraxmaan Sheikh Ibrahim
Minister of Transport & Ports Adan Abdullaahi Adan
Minister of Federal Constitution & Reconciliation Abdiraxmaan Hosh Jibril
Minister of General Affairs, Housing & Reconstruction Jaylani Nur Iikar
Minister of Water,Minerals & Energy Abdulqaadir Maxamed Dhiaisow
Minister of Education & Culture Prof. Axmed Aydiid Ibrahim
Minister of Trade & Industry Abdiwahaab Ugas Huseen Ugas Khalif

Executive branch

A President is elected by Parliament. The President is head of government, and chooses the Prime Minister, who leads the cabinet. The current President is Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed, who took office on 31 January 2009. The current Prime Minister is Hassan Ali Khayre, who took office on February, 23rd 2017.

Parliament

The Transitional Federal Parliament elects the President and Prime Minister, and has the authority to pass and veto laws. It is also in charge of governance and administration of Mogadishu. Each of the four major clans hold 61 seats, while an alliance of minority clans hold 31 seats. After an alliance with the Islamic Courts Union and other Islamist groups was formed, the Islamists were awarded 200 seats. Representatives of citizens' groups and representatives of the Somali diaspora hold 75 seats. By law, at least 12% of all representatives must be women. Members of parliament are selected through traditional clan leaders or shura councils.

Judiciary

Under the Transitional Federal Government, a Supreme court based in Mogadishu was established, as well as an Appeals Court. Smaller local courts were also established. A Judicial Service Council directs all judiciary and advises the president. All Sharia courts established by the ICU were discontinued, but Islamic principles are to be used in TFG courts.

State governments

Under the Transitional Federal Government, local state governments maintain some power over their affairs and maintain their own police and security forces, but are subject to the authority of the Transitional Federal Government.

Education

The Ministry of Education is officially responsible for education in Somalia, with about 15% of the government's budget being spent on education. However, in practice, the education system is now largely private. In 2006, the autonomous Puntland region in the northeast was the second territory in Somalia after the Somaliland region to introduce free primary schools, with teachers now receiving their salaries from the Puntland administration. [5] As of 2007, primary schools have also seen a 28% increase in enrollment over the preceding three years. [6] In addition, several universities in Somalia, including Mogadishu University, have been ranked among the 100 best universities in Africa despite the harsh environment, which has been hailed as a triumph for grass-roots initiatives. [7]

Healthcare

The Ministry of Health heads the country's healthcare system. The current Minister of Health is Qamar Adan Ali. [8] The autonomous Puntland region has its own local Ministry of Health, which is headed by Dr. Mohamed Bashir Ali Bihi, [9] as does the Somaliland region in northwestern Somalia, with its Ministry of Health led by Osman Bile Ali. [10]

Media

The federal government has two main media outlets: Radio Mogadishu, the state-run radio station; and Somali National Television, the national television channel.

Military and police

The Transitional Federal Government's Ministry of Defense is officially responsible for the Somali National Army (SNA).

In August 2011, a TFG-Puntland cooperative agreement called for the creation of a Somali Marine Force unit, of which the already established Puntland Maritime Police Force (PMPF) would form a part. [11]

There are also plans for the re-establishment of the Somali Air Force.

In addition, a new police force was re-established to maintain law and order. The first police academy to be built in Somalia for several years opened on 20 December 2005 at Armo, 100 kilometres south of Bosaso. [12] The Somali police also has a criminal investigations department in Mogadishu.

The autonomous Puntland and Somaliland regions within Somalia have their own security forces.

Capital

As with previous Somali administrations, the Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic recognizes Mogadishu as the capital of Somalia. The Parliament of Somalia meets in the city, which is also the seat of the nation's Supreme court. In addition, Mogadishu is the location of the presidential palace, Villa Somalia, where the President resides. The Prime Minister also lives in the city. Mogadishu is the largest city in Somalia with a population of over 2 million people. [13] Prior to the civil war, it was known as the "White Pearl of the Indian Ocean". [14]

History

Establishment

Former President of Somalia Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, one of the founders of the Transitional Federal Government. Somalian10ef5-1.jpg
Former President of Somalia Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, one of the founders of the Transitional Federal Government.

The Transitional Federal Government (TFG) was the internationally recognized interim national authority in Somalia from April 2004 to August 2012, when it was superseded by the current Somali Federal Government (SFG). It constituted the executive branch of government. Succeeding the Transitional National Government (TNG), the TFG was the second interim administration aiming to restore national institutions to Somalia after the 1991 collapse of the Siad Barre regime and the ensuing civil war. [15]

In 2006, the Islamic Courts Union (ICU), an Islamist organization, assumed control of much of the southern part of the country and promptly imposed Shari'a law. The Transitional Federal Government sought to reestablish its authority, and, with the assistance of Ethiopian troops, African Union peacekeepers and air support by the United States, managed to drive out the rival ICU and solidify its rule. [16]

On 8 January 2007, as the Battle of Ras Kamboni raged, TFG President Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, a former colonel in the Somali Army decorated for bravery during the Somali-Ethiopian wars of 1964 and 1977 and erstwhile leader of the Somali Salvation Democratic Front, entered Mogadishu for the first time since being elected to office. [17] The government then relocated to Villa Somalia in the capital from its interim location in Baidoa. This marked the first time since the fall of the Siad Barre regime in 1991 that the federal government controlled most of the country. [18]

Following this defeat, the Islamic Courts Union splintered into several different factions. Some of the more radical elements, including Al-Shabaab, regrouped to continue their insurgency against the TFG and oppose the Ethiopian military's presence in Somalia. Throughout 2007 and 2008, Al-Shabaab scored military victories, seizing control of key towns and ports in both central and southern Somalia. At the end of 2008, the group had captured Baidoa but not Mogadishu. By January 2009, Al-Shabaab and other militias had managed to force the Ethiopian troops to retreat, leaving behind an under-equipped African Union peacekeeping force to assist the Transitional Federal Government's troops. [19]

President Yusuf deployed thousands of his own troops from Puntland to Mogadishu to sustain the battle against insurgent elements in the southern part of the country. Financial support for this effort was provided by the autonomous region's government. This left little revenue for Puntland's own security forces and civil service employees. [20] [21]

On 29 December 2008, Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed announced before a united parliament in Baidoa his resignation as President of Somalia. In his speech, which was broadcast on national radio, Yusuf expressed regret at failing to end the country's seventeen-year conflict as his government had mandated to do. [22] He also blamed the international community for its failure to support the government, and said that the speaker of parliament would succeed him in office per the Charter of the Transitional Federal Government. [23]

Coalition government

Embassy of Somalia in Paris, France. Somalian embassy in Paris.jpg
Embassy of Somalia in Paris, France.

Between 31 May and 9 June 2008, representatives of Somalia's federal government and the moderate Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia (ARS) group of Islamist rebels participated in peace talks in Djibouti brokered by the former United Nations Special Envoy to Somalia, Ahmedou Ould-Abdallah. The conference ended with a signed agreement calling for the withdrawal of Ethiopian troops in exchange for the cessation of armed confrontation. Parliament was subsequently expanded to 550 seats to accommodate ARS members, which then elected Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed, the former ARS chairman, to office. President Sharif shortly afterwards appointed Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke, the son of slain former President Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke, as the nation's new Prime Minister. [24]

With the help of a small team of African Union troops, the coalition government also began a counteroffensive in February 2009 to retake control of the southern half of the country. To solidify its control of southern Somalia, the TFG formed an alliance with the Islamic Courts Union, other members of the Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia, and Ahlu Sunna Waljama'a, a moderate Sufi militia. [25] Furthermore, Al-Shabaab and Hizbul Islam, the two main Islamist groups in opposition, began to fight amongst themselves in mid-2009. [26]

As a truce, in March 2009, Somalia's coalition government announced that it would re-implement Shari'a as the nation's official judicial system. [27] However, conflict continued in the southern and central parts of the country. Within months, the coalition government had gone from holding about 70% of south-central Somalia's conflict zones, territory which it had inherited from the previous Yusuf administration, to losing control of over 80% of the disputed territory to the Islamist insurgents. [18]

During the coalition government's brief tenure, Somalia topped the Fund For Peace's Failed States Index for three consecutive years. In 2009, Transparency International ranked the nation in last place on its annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), a metric that purports to show the prevalence of corruption in a country's public sector. [28] A World Bank report also alleged that about $130 million that the coalition government had received over this 2009 and 2010 period was unaccounted for. [29] In July 2012, a report by the UN Monitoring Group on Somalia and Eritrea (SEMG) submitted to the UN Security Council alleged that between 2009 and 2010, around 70 percent of funds that had been earmarked for development and reconstruction in Somalia were unaccounted for. [30] [31] President Sharif Sheikh Ahmed rebuked the claims, indicating in particular that a $3 million payment from the Government of Oman had gone toward legitimate government expenses, including loans, security forces and parliament. Ahmed also asserted that the SEMG paper had been "timed to coincide with the end of [the] transition period in order to discredit the TFG," and that the Monitoring Group was the "wrong approach for Somalia's peace and development." [32]

New government

On 14 October 2010, diplomat Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed was appointed the new Prime Minister of Somalia after the resignation of Premier Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke. [33]

Foreign Minister Mohamed Abdullahi Omaar in a meeting with UNDP Administrator Helen Clark and other diplomats at the UN headquarters. Mohamed Abdullah Omaar.jpg
Foreign Minister Mohamed Abdullahi Omaar in a meeting with UNDP Administrator Helen Clark and other diplomats at the UN headquarters.

Per the Transitional Federal Government's (TFG) Charter, [34] Prime Minister Mohamed named a new Cabinet on 12 November 2010, [35] which has been lauded by the international community. [36] [37] The allotted ministerial positions were reduced from 39 to 18. [35] [38] Only two Ministers from the previous Cabinet were reappointed: Hussein Abdi Halane, the former Minister of Finance and a well-regarded figure in the international community, [39] was put in charge of a consolidated Ministry of Finance and Treasury; and Dr. Mohamud Abdi Ibrahim remained the minister of Commerce and Industry. [39] Ahlu Sunna Waljama'a, a moderate Sufi group and an important military ally of the TFG, was also accorded the key Interior and Labour ministries. [38] [39] The remaining ministerial positions were largely assigned to technocrats new to the Somali political arena. [40]

In its first 50 days in office, Prime Minister Mohamed's new administration completed its first monthly payment of stipends to government soldiers, and initiated the implementation of a full biometric register for the security forces within a window of four months. Additional members of the Independent Constitutional Commission were also appointed to engage Somali constitutional lawyers, religious scholars and experts in Somali culture over the nation's upcoming new constitution, a key part of the government's Transitional Federal Tasks. In addition, high level federal delegations were dispatched to defuse clan-related tensions in several regions. According to the prime minister of Somalia, to improve transparency, Cabinet ministers fully disclosed their assets and signed a code of ethics. [41]

An Anti-Corruption Commission with the power to carry out formal investigations and to review government decisions and protocols was also established so as to more closely monitor all activities by public officials. Furthermore, unnecessary trips abroad by members of government were prohibited, and all travel by ministers now require the Premier's consent. [41] [42] A budget outlining 2011's federal expenditures was also put before and approved by members of parliament, with the payment of civil service employees prioritized. In addition, a full audit of government property and vehicles is being put into place. [41] [43] On the war front, the new government and its AMISOM allies also managed to secure control of Mogadishu by August 2011. [44] According to the African Union and Prime Minister Mohamed, with increasing troop strength the pace of territorial gains is expected to greatly accelerate. [41] [43]

Political map of Somalia (as of 25 May 2012). Somalia map states regions districts.png
Political map of Somalia (as of 25 May 2012).

On 19 June 2011, Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed resigned from his position as Prime Minister of Somalia as part of the controversial Kampala Accord's conditions. The agreement would also see the mandates of the President, the Parliament Speaker and Deputies extended until August 2012, after which point new elections are to be organized, including a parliamentary vote-based presidential election. [3] Abdiweli Mohamed Ali, Mohamed's former Minister of Planning and International Cooperation, was later named permanent Prime Minister. [45]

In February 2012, Somali government officials met in the northeastern town of Garowe to discuss post-transition arrangements. After extensive deliberations attended by regional actors and international observers, the conference ended in a signed agreement between TFG President Sharif Sheikh Ahmed, Prime Minister Abdiweli Mohamed Ali, Speaker of Parliament Sharif Adan Sharif Hassan, Puntland President Abdirahman Mohamed Farole, Galmudug President Mohamed Ahmed Alim and Ahlu Sunnah Wal Jama'a representative Khalif Abdulkadir Noor stipulating that: a) a new 225 member bicameral parliament would be formed, consisting of an upper house seating 54 Senators as well as a lower house; b) 30% of the National Constituent Assembly (NCA) is earmarked for women; c) the President is to be appointed via a constitutional election; and d) the Prime Minister is selected by the President and he/she then names his/her Cabinet. [46] [47] On 23 June 2012, the Somali federal and regional leaders met again and approved a draft constitution after several days of deliberation. [48] The National Constituent Assembly overwhelmingly passed the new constitution on 1 August, with 96% voting for it, 2% against it, and 2% abstaining. [49]

International relations

Current diplomatic missions of Somalia Diplomatic missions of Somalia.png
Current diplomatic missions of Somalia

The Transitional Federal Government is internationally recognized as the official government of Somalia. It occupies Somalia's seat in the United Nations, the African Union, and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC). The Permanent Representative of Somalia to the United Nations is Elmi Ahmed Duale. The Deputy Permanent Representative is Idd Beddel Mohamed. Somalia is one of the founding members of the OIC. The TFG also has ambassadors in other countries.

The Transitional Federal Government currently maintains embassies in 34 countries. [50] Ethiopia maintains an embassy in Mogadishu, [51] and consulates in Hargeisa in Somaliland and in Garowe in Puntland. [52] [53] Djibouti re-opened its embassy in Mogadishu in December 2010. [54] The following year, India also re-opened its embassy in the capital after a twenty-year absence, [55] as did Turkey. [56] Italy maintains a special diplomatic delegation and a Technical Mission to Mogadishu, and is scheduled to re-open its embassy in the city. [57] In 2011, the United Kingdom likewise announced plans to re-open its embassy in Mogadishu, [58] with Iran following suit in 2012. [59]

Passports

For travel, Somali citizens can obtain a Somali passport from government-designated locations or from Somali embassies abroad.

See also

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Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed Prime Minister of Somalia

Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed, also known as Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed Mohammad, is a Somali economist and politician. He previously worked in the Somali military government as a Livestock Marketing Specialist and later on in mainly leadership positions with a number of international organizations, including the World Bank, USAID, African Union/IBAR, the European Union, the Bank of Canada, COMESA, and the Islamic Development Bank in Jeddah.

Duale Adan Mohamed is a Somali politician. He served as the Minister of Culture and Higher Education of Somalia under Prime Minister Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed. Duale Adan Mohamed succeeded Maryam Qaasim when her post as Minister for Human Development and Public Services ended on 17 January 2014. The Ministry was split to allow the creation of 6 cabinet positions one of which was the Ministry of Culture and Higher Education. The other 5 cabinet positions are Ministry of Health, Ministry of Youth and Sports, Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, Ministry of Women and Human Rights, Ministry of Education. On 12 January 2015, Prime Minister Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke announced his new cabinet which merged the Ministry of Culture and Higher Education with the Ministry of Education. Instead this meant that the new Minister of Education would take on some additional roles. Duale Adan Mohamed was instead appointed the Minister of Youth and Sports. However, he only served 2 weeks when on 17 January 2015, Prime Minister Sharmarke dissolved his newly nominated cabinet due to vehement opposition by legislators, who rejected the reappointment of certain former ministers. On 27 January 2015, Sharmarke appointed a new, smaller 20 minister cabinet of which Duale Adan Mohamed was replaced by Mohamed Omar Arte.

The Kampala Accord was an agreement made in Kampala, Uganda in line with the Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic to bring and end to the transitional phase of the Transitional Federal Government on 20 August 2011. It was signed on 9th June 2011 by HE Sharif Sheikh Ahmed, President of the Transitional Federal Government, Hon Sharif Hassan Sheikh Aden, Speaker of the Transitional Federal Parliament, H.E. Yoweri Kaguta Museveni, President of the Replublic of Uganda and Dr Augustine Mahiga, Special Representative of the Secretary General of the United Nations.

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