Trapezoid (AmE) Trapezium (BrE) | |
---|---|

Type | quadrilateral |

Edges and vertices | 4 |

Area | |

Properties | convex |

Look up ** trapezoid ** in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

In geometry, a **trapezoid** ( /ˈtræpəzɔɪd/ ) in North American English, or **trapezium** ( /trəˈpiːziəm/ ) in British English,^{ [1] }^{ [2] } is a quadrilateral that has at least one pair of parallel sides.

- Etymology and trapezium versus trapezoid
- Inclusive versus exclusive definition
- Special cases
- Condition of existence
- Characterizations
- Midsegment and height
- Area
- Diagonals
- Other properties
- Applications
- Architecture
- Geometry
- Biology
- Computer engineering
- See also
- References
- Further reading
- External links

The parallel sides are called the *bases* of the trapezoid. The other two sides are called the *legs* (or the *lateral sides*) if they are not parallel; otherwise, the trapezoid is a parallelogram, and there are two pairs of bases. A *scalene trapezoid* is a trapezoid with no sides of equal measure,^{ [3] } in contrast with the special cases below.

A trapezoid is usually considered to be a convex quadrilateral in Euclidean geometry, but there are also crossed cases. If *ABCD* is a convex trapezoid, then *ABDC* is a crossed trapezoid. The metric formulas in this article apply in convex trapezoids.

The ancient Greek mathematician Euclid defined five types of quadrilateral, of which four had two sets of parallel sides (known in English as square, rectangle, rhombus and rhomboid) and the last did not have two sets of parallel sides – a τραπέζια (*trapezia*^{ [5] } literally 'table', itself from τετράς (*tetrás*) 'four' + πέζα (*péza*) 'foot; end, border, edge').^{ [6] }

Two types of *trapezia* were introduced by Proclus (AD 412 to 485) in his commentary on the first book of Euclid's Elements:^{ [4] }^{ [7] }

- one pair of parallel sides – a
*trapezium*(τραπέζιον), divided into isosceles (equal legs) and scalene (unequal) trapezia - no parallel sides –
*trapezoid*(τραπεζοειδή,*trapezoeidé*, literally 'trapezium-like' (εἶδος means 'resembles'), in the same way as*cuboid*means 'cube-like' and*rhomboid*means 'rhombus-like')

All European languages follow Proclus's structure^{ [7] }^{ [8] } as did English until the late 18th century, until an influential mathematical dictionary published by Charles Hutton in 1795 supported without explanation a transposition of the terms. This was reversed in British English in about 1875, but it has been retained in American English to the present.^{ [4] }

The following table compares usages, with the most specific definitions at the top to the most general at the bottom.

There is some disagreement whether parallelograms, which have two pairs of parallel sides, should be regarded as trapezoids.

Some define a trapezoid as a quadrilateral having *only* one pair of parallel sides (the exclusive definition), thereby excluding parallelograms.^{ [11] } Some sources use the term *proper trapezoid* to describe trapezoids under the exclusive definition, analogous to uses of the word *proper* in some other mathematical objects.^{ [12] }

Others^{ [13] }^{[ failed verification ]} define a trapezoid as a quadrilateral with *at least* one pair of parallel sides (the inclusive definition^{ [14] }), making the parallelogram a special type of trapezoid. The latter definition is consistent with its uses in higher mathematics such as calculus. This article uses the inclusive definition and considers parallelograms as special cases of a trapezoid. This is also advocated in the taxonomy of quadrilaterals.

Under the inclusive definition, all parallelograms (including rhombuses, squares and non-square rectangles) are trapezoids. Rectangles have mirror symmetry on mid-edges; rhombuses have mirror symmetry on vertices, while squares have mirror symmetry on both mid-edges and vertices.

A **right trapezoid** (also called *right-angled trapezoid*) has two adjacent right angles.^{ [13] } Right trapezoids are used in the trapezoidal rule for estimating areas under a curve.

An **acute trapezoid** has two adjacent acute angles on its longer *base* edge.

An **obtuse trapezoid** on the other hand has one acute and one obtuse angle on each *base*.

An ** isosceles trapezoid ** is a trapezoid where the base angles have the same measure. As a consequence the two legs are also of equal length and it has reflection symmetry. This is possible for acute trapezoids or right trapezoids (as rectangles).

A ** parallelogram ** is (under the inclusive definition) a trapezoid with two pairs of parallel sides. A parallelogram has central 2-fold rotational symmetry (or point reflection symmetry). It is possible for obtuse trapezoids or right trapezoids (rectangles).

A ** tangential trapezoid ** is a trapezoid that has an incircle.

A Saccheri quadrilateral is similar to a trapezoid in the hyperbolic plane, with two adjacent right angles, while it is a rectangle in the Euclidean plane. A Lambert quadrilateral in the hyperbolic plane has 3 right angles.

Four lengths *a*, *c*, *b*, *d* can constitute the consecutive sides of a non-parallelogram trapezoid with *a* and *b* parallel only when^{ [15] }

The quadrilateral is a parallelogram when , but it is an ex-tangential quadrilateral (which is not a trapezoid) when .^{ [16] }^{: p. 35 }

Given a convex quadrilateral, the following properties are equivalent, and each implies that the quadrilateral is a trapezoid:

- It has two adjacent angles that are supplementary, that is, they add up to 180 degrees.
- The angle between a side and a diagonal is equal to the angle between the opposite side and the same diagonal.
- The diagonals cut each other in mutually the same ratio (this ratio is the same as that between the lengths of the parallel sides).
- The diagonals cut the quadrilateral into four triangles of which one opposite pair have equal areas.
^{ [16] }^{: Prop.5 } - The product of the areas of the two triangles formed by one diagonal equals the product of the areas of the two triangles formed by the other diagonal.
^{ [16] }^{: Thm.6 } - The areas
*S*and*T*of some two opposite triangles of the four triangles formed by the diagonals satisfy the equation

- where
*K*is the area of the quadrilateral.^{ [16] }^{: Thm.8 }

- The midpoints of two opposite sides of the trapezoid and the intersection of the diagonals are collinear.
^{ [16] }^{: Thm.15 } - The angles in the quadrilateral
*ABCD*satisfy^{ [16] }^{: p. 25 } - The cosines of two adjacent angles sum to 0, as do the cosines of the other two angles.
^{ [16] }^{: p. 25 } - The cotangents of two adjacent angles sum to 0, as do the cotangents of the other two adjacent angles.
^{ [16] }^{: p. 26 } - One bimedian divides the quadrilateral into two quadrilaterals of equal areas.
^{ [16] }^{: p. 26 } - Twice the length of the bimedian connecting the midpoints of two opposite sides equals the sum of the lengths of the other sides.
^{ [16] }^{: p. 31 }

Additionally, the following properties are equivalent, and each implies that opposite sides *a* and *b* are parallel:

- The consecutive sides
*a*,*c*,*b*,*d*and the diagonals*p*,*q*satisfy the equation^{ [16] }^{: Cor.11 }

- The distance
*v*between the midpoints of the diagonals satisfies the equation^{ [16] }^{: Thm.12 }

The *midsegment* (also called the median or midline) of a trapezoid is the segment that joins the midpoints of the legs. It is parallel to the bases. Its length *m* is equal to the average of the lengths of the bases *a* and *b* of the trapezoid,^{ [13] }

The midsegment of a trapezoid is one of the two bimedians (the other bimedian divides the trapezoid into equal areas).

The *height* (or altitude) is the perpendicular distance between the bases. In the case that the two bases have different lengths (*a* ≠ *b*), the height of a trapezoid *h* can be determined by the length of its four sides using the formula^{ [13] }

where *c* and *d* are the lengths of the legs.

The area *K* of a trapezoid is given by^{ [13] }

where *a* and *b* are the lengths of the parallel sides, *h* is the height (the perpendicular distance between these sides), and *m* is the arithmetic mean of the lengths of the two parallel sides. In 499 AD Aryabhata, a great mathematician-astronomer from the classical age of Indian mathematics and Indian astronomy, used this method in the * Aryabhatiya * (section 2.8). This yields as a special case the well-known formula for the area of a triangle, by considering a triangle as a degenerate trapezoid in which one of the parallel sides has shrunk to a point.

The 7th-century Indian mathematician Bhāskara I derived the following formula for the area of a trapezoid with consecutive sides *a*, *c*, *b*, *d*:

where *a* and *b* are parallel and *b* > *a*.^{ [17] } This formula can be factored into a more symmetric version^{ [13] }

When one of the parallel sides has shrunk to a point (say *a* = 0), this formula reduces to Heron's formula for the area of a triangle.

Another equivalent formula for the area, which more closely resembles Heron's formula, is^{ [13] }

where is the semiperimeter of the trapezoid. (This formula is similar to Brahmagupta's formula, but it differs from it, in that a trapezoid might not be cyclic (inscribed in a circle). The formula is also a special case of Bretschneider's formula for a general quadrilateral).

From Bretschneider's formula, it follows that

The line that joins the midpoints of the parallel sides, bisects the area.

The lengths of the diagonals are^{ [13] }

where *a* is the short base, *b* is the long base, and *c* and *d* are the trapezoid legs.

If the trapezoid is divided into four triangles by its diagonals *AC* and *BD* (as shown on the right), intersecting at *O*, then the area of *AOD* is equal to that of *BOC*, and the product of the areas of *AOD* and *BOC* is equal to that of *AOB* and *COD*. The ratio of the areas of each pair of adjacent triangles is the same as that between the lengths of the parallel sides.^{ [13] }

Let the trapezoid have vertices *A*, *B*, *C*, and *D* in sequence and have parallel sides *AB* and *DC*. Let *E* be the intersection of the diagonals, and let *F* be on side *DA* and *G* be on side *BC* such that *FEG* is parallel to *AB* and *CD*. Then *FG* is the harmonic mean of *AB* and *DC*:^{ [18] }

The line that goes through both the intersection point of the extended nonparallel sides and the intersection point of the diagonals, bisects each base.^{ [19] }

The center of area (center of mass for a uniform lamina) lies along the line segment joining the midpoints of the parallel sides, at a perpendicular distance *x* from the longer side *b* given by^{ [20] }

The center of area divides this segment in the ratio (when taken from the short to the long side)^{ [21] }^{: p. 862 }

If the angle bisectors to angles *A* and *B* intersect at *P*, and the angle bisectors to angles *C* and *D* intersect at *Q*, then^{ [19] }

In architecture the word is used to refer to symmetrical doors, windows, and buildings built wider at the base, tapering toward the top, in Egyptian style. If these have straight sides and sharp angular corners, their shapes are usually isosceles trapezoids. This was the standard style for the doors and windows of the Inca.^{ [22] }

The crossed ladders problem is the problem of finding the distance between the parallel sides of a right trapezoid, given the diagonal lengths and the distance from the perpendicular leg to the diagonal intersection.

In morphology, taxonomy and other descriptive disciplines in which a term for such shapes is necessary, terms such as *trapezoidal* or *trapeziform* commonly are useful in descriptions of particular organs or forms.^{ [23] }

In computer engineering, specifically digital logic and computer architecture, trapezoids are typically utilized to symbolize multiplexors. Multiplexors are logic elements that select between multiple elements and produce a single output based on a select signal. Typical designs will employ trapezoids without specifically stating they are multiplexors as they are universally equivalent.

- Frustum, a solid having trapezoidal faces
- Polite number, also known as a trapezoidal number
- Wedge, a polyhedron defined by two triangles and three trapezoid faces.

**Area** is the measure of a region's size on a surface. The area of a plane region or *plane area* refers to the area of a shape or planar lamina, while *surface area* refers to the area of an open surface or the boundary of a three-dimensional object. Area can be understood as the amount of material with a given thickness that would be necessary to fashion a model of the shape, or the amount of paint necessary to cover the surface with a single coat. It is the two-dimensional analogue of the length of a curve or the volume of a solid . Two different regions may have the same area ; by synecdoche, "area" sometimes is used to refer to the region, as in a "polygonal area".

In geometry a **quadrilateral** is a four-sided polygon, having four edges (sides) and four corners (vertices). The word is derived from the Latin words *quadri*, a variant of four, and *latus*, meaning "side". It is also called a **tetragon**, derived from Greek "tetra" meaning "four" and "gon" meaning "corner" or "angle", in analogy to other polygons. Since "gon" means "angle", it is analogously called a **quadrangle**, or 4-angle. A quadrilateral with vertices , , and is sometimes denoted as .

In Euclidean plane geometry, a **rectangle** is a quadrilateral with four right angles. It can also be defined as: an equiangular quadrilateral, since equiangular means that all of its angles are equal ; or a parallelogram containing a right angle. A rectangle with four sides of equal length is a *square*. The term "oblong" is used to refer to a non-square rectangle. A rectangle with vertices *ABCD* would be denoted as *ABCD*.

In Euclidean geometry, a **parallelogram** is a simple (non-self-intersecting) quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides. The opposite or facing sides of a parallelogram are of equal length and the opposite angles of a parallelogram are of equal measure. The congruence of opposite sides and opposite angles is a direct consequence of the Euclidean parallel postulate and neither condition can be proven without appealing to the Euclidean parallel postulate or one of its equivalent formulations.

In geometry, **bisection** is the division of something into two equal or congruent parts. Usually it involves a bisecting line, also called a *bisector*. The most often considered types of bisectors are the *segment bisector*, a line that passes through the midpoint of a given segment, and the *angle bisector*, a line that passes through the apex of an angle . In three-dimensional space, bisection is usually done by a bisecting plane, also called the *bisector*.

In plane Euclidean geometry, a **rhombus** is a quadrilateral whose four sides all have the same length. Another name is **equilateral quadrilateral**, since equilateral means that all of its sides are equal in length. The rhombus is often called a "**diamond**", after the diamonds suit in playing cards which resembles the projection of an octahedral diamond, or a lozenge, though the former sometimes refers specifically to a rhombus with a 60° angle, and the latter sometimes refers specifically to a rhombus with a 45° angle.

In Euclidean geometry, a **cyclic quadrilateral** or **inscribed quadrilateral** is a quadrilateral whose vertices all lie on a single circle. This circle is called the *circumcircle* or *circumscribed circle*, and the vertices are said to be *concyclic*. The center of the circle and its radius are called the *circumcenter* and the *circumradius* respectively. Other names for these quadrilaterals are **concyclic quadrilateral** and **chordal quadrilateral**, the latter since the sides of the quadrilateral are chords of the circumcircle. Usually the quadrilateral is assumed to be convex, but there are also crossed cyclic quadrilaterals. The formulas and properties given below are valid in the convex case.

In geometry, **Thales's theorem** states that if A, B, and C are distinct points on a circle where the line AC is a diameter, the angle ∠ *ABC* is a right angle. Thales's theorem is a special case of the inscribed angle theorem and is mentioned and proved as part of the 31st proposition in the third book of Euclid's *Elements*. It is generally attributed to Thales of Miletus, but it is sometimes attributed to Pythagoras.

In Euclidean geometry, an **isosceles trapezoid** is a convex quadrilateral with a line of symmetry bisecting one pair of opposite sides. It is a special case of a trapezoid. Alternatively, it can be defined as a trapezoid in which both legs and both base angles are of equal measure, or as a trapezoid whose diagonals have equal length. Note that a non-rectangular parallelogram is not an isosceles trapezoid because of the second condition, or because it has no line of symmetry. In any isosceles trapezoid, two opposite sides are parallel, and the two other sides are of equal length, and the diagonals have equal length. The base angles of an isosceles trapezoid are equal in measure.

In Euclidean geometry, a **square** is a regular quadrilateral, which means that it has four sides of equal length and four equal angles. It can also be defined as a rectangle with two equal-length adjacent sides. It is the only regular polygon whose internal angle, central angle, and external angle are all equal (90°), and whose diagonals are all equal in length. A square with vertices *ABCD* would be denoted *ABCD*.

In geometry, an **antiparallelogram** is a type of self-crossing quadrilateral. Like a parallelogram, an antiparallelogram has two opposite pairs of equal-length sides, but these pairs of sides are not in general parallel. Instead, each pair of sides is antiparallel with respect to the other, with sides in the longer pair crossing each other as in a scissors mechanism. Whereas a parallelogram's opposite angles are equal and oriented the same way, an antiparallelogram's are equal but oppositely oriented. Antiparallelograms are also called **contraparallelograms** or **crossed parallelograms**.

In Euclidean geometry, a **tangential quadrilateral** or **circumscribed quadrilateral** is a convex quadrilateral whose sides all can be tangent to a single circle within the quadrilateral. This circle is called the incircle of the quadrilateral or its inscribed circle, its center is the *incenter* and its radius is called the *inradius*. Since these quadrilaterals can be drawn surrounding or circumscribing their incircles, they have also been called *circumscribable quadrilaterals*, *circumscribing quadrilaterals*, and *circumscriptible quadrilaterals*. Tangential quadrilaterals are a special case of tangential polygons.

In Euclidean geometry, **Varignon's theorem** holds that the midpoints of the sides of an arbitrary quadrilateral form a parallelogram, called the **Varignon parallelogram**. It is named after Pierre Varignon, whose proof was published posthumously in 1731.

In Euclidean geometry, a **bicentric quadrilateral** is a convex quadrilateral that has both an incircle and a circumcircle. The radii and centers of these circles are called *inradius* and *circumradius*, and *incenter* and *circumcenter* respectively. From the definition it follows that bicentric quadrilaterals have all the properties of both tangential quadrilaterals and cyclic quadrilaterals. Other names for these quadrilaterals are **chord-tangent quadrilateral** and **inscribed and circumscribed quadrilateral**. It has also rarely been called a *double circle quadrilateral* and *double scribed quadrilateral*.

In mathematics, the **Pythagorean theorem** or **Pythagoras' theorem** is a fundamental relation in Euclidean geometry between the three sides of a right triangle. It states that the area of the square whose side is the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the areas of the squares on the other two sides.

In Euclidean geometry, an **orthodiagonal quadrilateral** is a quadrilateral in which the diagonals cross at right angles. In other words, it is a four-sided figure in which the line segments between non-adjacent vertices are orthogonal (perpendicular) to each other.

In Euclidean geometry, an **ex-tangential quadrilateral** is a convex quadrilateral where the *extensions* of all four sides are tangent to a circle outside the quadrilateral. It has also been called an **exscriptible quadrilateral**. The circle is called its *excircle*, its radius the *exradius* and its center the *excenter*. The excenter lies at the intersection of six angle bisectors. These are the internal angle bisectors at two opposite vertex angles, the external angle bisectors at the other two vertex angles, and the external angle bisectors at the angles formed where the extensions of opposite sides intersect. The ex-tangential quadrilateral is closely related to the tangential quadrilateral.

In Euclidean geometry, a **tangential trapezoid**, also called a **circumscribed trapezoid**, is a trapezoid whose four sides are all tangent to a circle within the trapezoid: the incircle or *inscribed circle*. It is the special case of a tangential quadrilateral in which at least one pair of opposite sides are parallel. As for other trapezoids, the parallel sides are called the bases and the other two sides the *legs*. The legs can be equal, but they don't have to be.

In Euclidean geometry, an **equidiagonal quadrilateral** is a convex quadrilateral whose two diagonals have equal length. Equidiagonal quadrilaterals were important in ancient Indian mathematics, where quadrilaterals were classified first according to whether they were equidiagonal and then into more specialized types.

In Euclidean geometry, a **right kite** is a kite that can be inscribed in a circle. That is, it is a kite with a circumcircle. Thus the right kite is a convex quadrilateral and has two opposite right angles. If there are exactly two right angles, each must be between sides of different lengths. All right kites are bicentric quadrilaterals, since all kites have an incircle. One of the diagonals divides the right kite into two right triangles and is also a diameter of the circumcircle.

- ↑ http://www.mathopenref.com/trapezoid.html Mathopenref definition
- ↑ A. D. Gardiner & C. J. Bradley,
*Plane Euclidean Geometry: Theory and Problems*, UKMT, 2005, p. 34. - ↑ "Types of Quadrilaterals".
*Basic-mathematics.com*. - 1 2 3 James A. H. Murray (1926).
*A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles: Founded Mainly on the Materials Collected by the Philological Society*. Vol. X. Clarendon Press at Oxford. p. 286 (Trapezium).With Euclid (c 300 B.C.) τραπέζιον included all quadrilateral figures except the square, rectangle, rhombus, and rhomboid; into the varieties of trapezia he did not enter. But Proclus, who wrote Commentaries on the First Book of Euclid's Elements A.D. 450, retained the name τραπέζιον only for quadrilaterals having two sides parallel, subdividing these into the τραπέζιον ἰσοσκελὲς, isosceles trapezium, having the two non-parallel sides (and the angles at their bases) equal, and σκαληνὸν τραπέζιον, scalene trapezium, in which these sides and angles are unequal. For quadrilaterals having no sides parallel, Proclus introduced the name τραπέζοειδὲς TRAPEZOID. This nomenclature is retained in all the continental languages, and was universal in England till late in the 18th century, when the application of the terms was transposed, so that the figure which Proclus and modern geometers of other nations call specifically a trapezium (F. trapèze, Ger. trapez, Du. trapezium, It. trapezio) became with most English writers a trapezoid, and the trapezoid of Proclus and other nations a trapezium. This changed sense of trapezoid is given in Hutton's Mathematical Dictionary, 1795, as 'sometimes' used -- he does not say by whom; but he himself unfortunately adopted and used it, and his Dictionary was doubtless the chief agent in its diffusion. Some geometers however continued to use the terms in their original senses, and since c 1875 this is the prevalent use.

- ↑ "Euclid, Elements, book 1, type Def, number 22".
*www.perseus.tufts.edu*. - ↑ πέζα is said to be the Doric and Arcadic form of πούς 'foot', but recorded only in the sense 'instep [of a human foot]', whence the meaning 'edge, border'. τράπεζα 'table' is Homeric. Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, Henry Stuart Jones,
*A Greek-English Lexicon*, Oxford, Clarendon Press (1940), s.v. πέζα, τράπεζα. - 1 2 Conway, John H.; Burgiel, Heidi; Goodman-Strauss, Chaim (5 April 2016).
*The Symmetries of Things*. CRC Press. p. 286. ISBN 978-1-4398-6489-0. - ↑ For example: French
*trapèze*, Italian*trapezio*, Portuguese*trapézio*, Spanish*trapecio*, German*Trapez*, Ukrainian "трапеція", e.g. "Larousse definition for trapézoïde". - ↑ "chambersharrap.co.uk".
*www.chambersharrap.co.uk*. - ↑ "1913 American definition of trapezium".
*Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary*. Retrieved 2007-12-10. - ↑ "American School definition from "math.com"" . Retrieved 2008-04-14.
- ↑ Michon, Gérard P. "History and Nomenclature" . Retrieved 2023-06-09.
- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Weisstein, Eric W. "Trapezoid".
*MathWorld*. - ↑ Trapezoids, . Retrieved 2012-02-24.
- ↑
*Ask Dr. Math*(2008), "Area of Trapezoid Given Only the Side Lengths". - 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Martin Josefsson, "Characterizations of trapezoids", Forum Geometricorum, 13 (2013) 23-35.
- ↑ T. K. Puttaswamy,
*Mathematical achievements of pre-modern Indian mathematicians*, Elsevier, 2012, p. 156. - ↑
*GoGeometry*, . Retrieved 2012-07-08. - 1 2 Owen Byer, Felix Lazebnik and Deirdre Smeltzer,
*Methods for Euclidean Geometry*, Mathematical Association of America, 2010, p. 55. - ↑
*efunda*, General Trapezoid, . Retrieved 2012-07-09. - ↑ Tom M. Apostol and Mamikon A. Mnatsakanian (December 2004). "Figures Circumscribing Circles" (PDF).
*American Mathematical Monthly*.**111**(10): 853–863. doi:10.2307/4145094. JSTOR 4145094 . Retrieved 2016-04-06. - ↑ "Machu Picchu Lost City of the Incas - Inca Geometry".
*gogeometry.com*. Retrieved 2018-02-13. - ↑ John L. Capinera (11 August 2008).
*Encyclopedia of Entomology*. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 386, 1062, 1247. ISBN 978-1-4020-6242-1.

- D. Fraivert, A. Sigler and M. Stupel :
*Common properties of trapezoids and convex quadrilaterals*

- "Trapezium" at
*Encyclopedia of Mathematics* - Weisstein, Eric W. "Right trapezoid".
*MathWorld*. - Trapezoid definition, Area of a trapezoid, Median of a trapezoid (with interactive animations)
- Trapezoid (North America) at elsy.at: Animated course (construction, circumference, area)
- Trapezoidal Rule on
*Numerical Methods for Stem Undergraduate* - Autar Kaw and E. Eric Kalu,
*Numerical Methods with Applications*, (2008)

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