Trawniki men

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Karl Streibel KL Trawniki.jpg
Inspection of Trawnikimänner (some of them still wearing Soviet Budenovkas) by SS-Hauptsturmführer Karl Streibel (center) at the SS Trawniki training division. As Hiwis, they were tasked with liquidating Nazi-era Jewish ghettos in occupied Poland
ActiveFounded in 1941
Country German-occupied Poland
AllegianceFlag of Germany (1935-1945).svg  Nazi Germany, the SS
Branch 3rd SS Division Logo.svg Totenkopfverbände
Type Paramilitary police reserve
RoleLogistical support for Order Police battalions and the SS during Operation Reinhard; shooting actions, deportations to death camps
SizeOver 5,000 Hiwis

During World War II, Trawniki men ( [travˈniki] ; German : Trawnikimänner) were Central and Eastern European Nazi collaborators, consisting of either volunteers or recruits from prisoner-of-war camps set up by Nazi Germany for Soviet Red Army soldiers captured in the border regions during Operation Barbarossa launched in June 1941. Thousands of these volunteers served in the General Government territory of German-occupied Poland until the end of World War II. Trawnikis belonged to a category of Hiwis (German abbreviation for Hilfswilliger, literally "those willing to help"), Nazi auxiliary forces recruited from native subjects serving in various jobs such as concentration camp guards. [1] [2]


Between September 1941 and September 1942, the German SS and police trained 2,500 Trawniki men known as Hiwi Wachmänner (guards) at the special training camp at Trawniki outside of Lublin; by the end of 1944, 5,082 men were on active duty. [1] Trawnikimänner were organized by Streibel into two SS Sonderdienst battalions. Some 1,000 Hiwis are known to have run away during field operations. [3] :366 Although the majority of Trawniki men or Hiwis came from among the prisoners of war, there were also Volksdeutsche from Eastern Europe among them, [4] [5] valued because of their ability to speak Russian, Ukrainian and other languages of the occupied territories. All the officers at the Trawniki camp were Reichsdeutsche (citizens of the German Reich), and most of the squad commanders were Volksdeutsche (people whose language and culture had German origins but who did not hold German citizenship). [5] The conscripted civilians and former Soviet POWs included Armenians, Azerbaijanis, Belarusians, Estonians, Georgians, Latvians, Lithuanians, Russians, Tatars, and Ukrainians. [6] The Trawnikis took a major part in Operation Reinhard, the Nazi plan to exterminate Jews. They also served at extermination camps and played an important role in the annihilation of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (see the Stroop Report), among others.


In 1941 Himmler instructed SS officer Odilo Globocnik to start recruiting mainly Ukrainian auxiliaries among the Soviet POWs, due to ongoing close relations with the local Ukrainian Hilfsverwaltung. [7] Globocnik had selected Karl Streibel from Operation Reinhard as the key person for this new secret project. [8] Streibel, with the assistance of his officers, visited all POW camps for the Soviets behind the lines of the advancing Wehrmacht, and after individual screening recruited Ukrainian as well as Latvian and Lithuanian volunteers as ordered. [1] [2]

Due to successful adaptation of Soviet army's strategy and tactics against German forces, as well as Nazi policy of Soviet war prisoners' extermination, the influx of POW was dramatically reduced, so Streibel's personnel from the summer of 1942 started to conscript civilians of Ukrainian nationality, generally young males, from Western Ukraine (Galicia, Volhynia, Podolia and Lublin). [9]

Petro Mirchuk, who himself was a political prisoner in the Auschwitz camp, relates in his memoirs that he engaged in conversation with members of an auxiliary guard detachment in the second half of 1943: "To the extent of that I could determine, it was a unit comprised of representatives of various so called "Eastern peoples"-primarily Russians, Belorussians, Caucasians and others, and least of all Ukrainians, although for some reason the unit was officially called 'Ukrainian'" [10]

Also very interesting are the remarks of the French publicist Louis Saurel. In an analogous book about the death camps he writes: "Part of the SS soldiers were not Germans. There were many Romanians, Slovaks, Hungarians, Croats and so on… Interpreters were required to convey explanations between the Germans and the foreign SS troops". In Saurel's account Ukrainians are not mentioned at all, and probably fall under the category of "and so on". [11]

The Trawniki-men were assembled at a training facility adjacent to the Trawniki concentration camp built for the Jews deported from the Warsaw Ghetto. The complex (serving dual purpose in 194143) was set up in the industrialized village of Trawniki about 40 kilometres (25 mi) southeast of Lublin with rail lines in all directions in the occupied territory. From there, the Hiwi shooters were deployed to all major killing sites of the Final Solution. It was their primary purpose of training. They took an active role in the extermination of Jews at Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka II, Warsaw (three times), Częstochowa, Lublin, Lvov, Radom, Kraków, Białystok (twice), Majdanek as well as Auschwitz, not to mention Trawniki concentration camp itself, [1] [12] and the remaining subcamps of KL Lublin/Majdanek camp complex including Poniatowa, Budzyn, Kraśnik, Puławy, Lipowa, and also during massacres in Łomazy, Międzyrzec, Łuków, Radzyń, Parczew, Końskowola, Komarówka and all other locations, augmented by the SS and Schupo, as well as the Reserve Police Battalion 101, part of over two dozen Order Police battalions deployed to the occupied territories. The German Order Police performed roundups inside the Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland shooting everyone unable to move or attempting to flee, while the Trawnikis conducted large-scale civilian massacres in the same locations. [13] [14]


Auxiliaries were not allowed to wear German uniforms or insignia, carry German weapons, or use German ranks. This was mostly for political reasons. The racial policies of Nazi Germany regarded Slavs as subhuman and not deserving to be treated as German soldiers. There was also a real fear of mutiny or desertion by foreigners in German uniform. To reinforce the social levels between them, guards were therefore referred to as Wachmannen[ dubious ] ("watchmen") rather than Schützen ("riflemen") and given different uniforms and rank insignia. A practical reason for this policy was that there was a dearth of German equipment to be spared, yet piles of captured war materiel that would otherwise be unused.

The German officers and senior NCOs were issued the obsolete black M32 SS tunic or field-grey M37 tunic with blue facings. This was to mark them out from the men they commanded, but at the same time denoted them as auxiliaries rather than regular troops.

Units were initially organized in Gruppen (Gruppe ["Group"] > "squad") of about 50 men and Züge (Zug ["Procession"] > "platoon") of around 90 to 120 men. These were further assigned to companies and battalions, under German officers and higher-level NCOs. After they abandoned Trawniki in 1944 ahead of the Soviet advance, they were reorganized into combat units. This is when they introduced the Rotten (Rotte ["Chain"] > "File" or "Fire Team") level of organization at a time when the depleted German Army was consolidating into Halbzüge ("half-platoons" or "Sections"). This was perhaps adopted to deter desertion, a big problem towards the end of the war.

Wachmänner Ranks (1942-1945)
DienstgradTranslationEquivalent SS / Heer RankDutiesNotes
Oberzugwachmann"Senior Platoon Guard" SS-Oberscharführer / Feldwebel Senior Platoon SergeantCreated in 1944 [15] Highest NCO rank.
Zugwachmann"Platoon Guard" SS-Scharführer / Unterfeldwebel Platoon SergeantCreated October 19, 1942 [16]
Gruppenwachmann"Squad Guard" SS-Unterscharführer / Unteroffizier Squad Leader or CorporalCreated October 19, 1942.
Rottwachmann"File Guard" SS-Rottenfuhrer / Gefreiter File Leader or Lance CorporalCreated in 1944. Highest enlisted rank.
Oberwachmann"Senior Guard" SS-Oberschütze / Oberschütze Senior PrivateCreated October 19, 1942.
Wachmann"Watchman" or "Guard" SS-Schütze / Schütze PrivateCreated October 19, 1942.

The guards initially wore their Soviet Army uniforms. In the autumn of 1941 they were given the dyed-black Polish Army uniforms worn by the former Selbstschutz forces. In the summer of 1942 they were issued brown Belgian Army uniforms for warm weather wear. The guardsmen tended to wear a mixture of the two. [17] They were usually issued captured enemy weapons but sometimes received German Mauser Kar-98 carbines. Automatic rifles and pistols were issued when on special assignment.

Role of Trawniki men in the Final Solution

At each of the Operation Reinhard extermination camps Trawniki Hiwi men served as the Sonderkommando guard units (between 70 and 120 depending on location) and were selected to act as the gas chambers operators. They came under the jurisdiction of the relevant camp commandant. Almost all of the Trawniki guards were involved in shooting, beating, and terrorizing Jews. [6] The Russian historian Sergei Kudryashov, who made a study of the Trawniki men serving at death camps, claimed that there was little sign of any attraction to National Socialism among them. [6] He claimed that most of the guards volunteered in order to leave the POW camps and/or because of self-interest. [6] On the other hand, the Holocaust historian Christopher R. Browning wrote that Hiwis "were screened on the basis of their anti-Communist and hence almost invariably anti-Semitic sentiments." [13] Despite the generally apathetic views of the Trawniki guards, the vast majority faithfully carried out the SS expectations in the mistreatment of Jews. [6] Most Trawniki men had executed Jews already as part of their job training. [6] Similarly to Christopher Browning's 1992 book Ordinary Men, Kudryashov argued that the Trawniki men were examples of how ordinary people could become willing killers. [6]

Murder operations

Stroop Report Trawniki shooters during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, with Jurgen Stroop (on the right), 1943 at the Umschlagplatz, with Stawki 5/7 in the back. Their military overcoats came from the Allgemeine-SS surplus no longer used by the German SS. Warsaw Ghetto Uprising Umschlagplatz 1943 05.jpg
Stroop Report Trawniki shooters during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, with Jürgen Stroop (on the right), 1943 at the Umschlagplatz, with Stawki 5/7 in the back. Their military overcoats came from the Allgemeine-SS surplus no longer used by the German SS.

The Trawniki shooters were assigned to the worst of the "on-the-spot dirty work" by Hauptsturmführer Karl Streibel (wrote Browning), [13] so the Germans from the parallel Reserve Police Battalion 101 of the Order Police from Hamburg "would not go crazy" from the horror of hands-on killing for hours or days on end. The Trawnikis used to arrive in squads numbering around 50 at the killing site, and start by sitting down to a sandwich and bottles of vodka from their knapsacks behaving like guests, [13] while the Germans dealt with unruly crowds of thousands of ghetto inhabitants: as in Międzyrzec, Łuków, Radzyń, Parczew, Końskowola, Komarówka and all other locations. [13]

"Trawniki" men during the destruction of the Warsaw Ghetto at Zamenhofa 42 / Kupiecka 18.<. Photo from Jurgen Stroop Report, May 1943 Askaris im Warschauer Getto - 1943.jpg
"Trawniki" men during the destruction of the Warsaw Ghetto at Zamenhofa 42 / Kupiecka 18.<. Photo from Jürgen Stroop Report, May 1943

The Trawniki men shot so fast and so wildly that the German policemen "frequently had to take cover to avoid being hit." [19] Ukrainian Hiwis were perceived as indispensable. In Łomazy, the Germans were "overjoyed" to see them coming after the messy Józefów massacre which permanently traumatized the untrained executioners. The wave of mass killings of Jews from the Międzyrzec Podlaski Ghetto lasting non-stop for several days were conducted by the Trawniki battalion of about 350 to 400 men, same as in Parczew, or the Izbica Ghetto. [20] Some German police officers felt uneasy about killing non-Jewish Poles. Their unit shot 4,600 Jews by September 1942, but disproportionately only 78 ethnic Poles. In contrast, the Hiwis, saw the Christian Poles as equal opportunity offenders. When they got too drunk to show up in Aleksandrów, Major Wilhelm Trapp ordered the release of prisoners rounded up for mass execution. [21]

The SS-Gruppenführer Jürgen Stroop who was in charge of the suppression of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising and the methodical destruction of the Ghetto itself – responsible for the massacre of over 50,000 Polish Jews – later remarked in a prison interview with Kazimierz Moczarski, published in his original Polish edition of the Conversations with an Executioner: [22]

We used the word 'askaris' for the volunteers serving with our auxiliary forces in the SS, recruited from the indigenous populations in the areas acquired in Eastern Europe. They were, in principle, Latvians, Lithuanians, Belarusians and Ukrainians. They were trained at the 'SS-Ausbildungslager-Trawniki' near Lublin. They did not make the best of soldiers, although they were nationalists and anti-Semites. Young people, often without the elementary education, culturally savage, with inclination to cheating. But obedient, physically tough and steadfast against the enemy. Many 'askaris' we used during the 'Grossaktion' (especially in its initial stages) were Latvians. They did not understand Polish and therefore were unable to communicate with the people of Warsaw. This was exactly what we wanted. We also called them "Trawniki men".Myśmy nazywali "askarisami" ochotników do służb pomocniczych w SS, którzy rekrutowali się z ludności autochtonicznej na terenach zdobytych w Europie Wschodniej. Byli to w zasadzie Łotysze, Litwini, Białorusini i Ukraińcy. Przeszkalano ich w SS-Ausbildungs-lager-Trawniki pod Lublinem. Nie najlepsi żołnierze, choć nacjonaliści i antysemici. Młodzi, bez podstawowego najczęściej wykształcenia, o kulturze dzikusów i skłonnościach do kantów. Ale posłuszni, wytrwali fizycznie i twardzi wobec wroga. Wielu "askarisów" użytych w Grossaktion (szczególnie we wstępnych działaniach) to Łotysze. Nie znali języka polskiego, więc trudno im się było porozumiewać z ludnością Warszawy. A o to nam szło. Nazywaliśmy ich również Trawniki-Männer. [22]

Trawniki personnel was also used in the August 1943 suppression of the Białystok Ghetto Uprising, as well as the lesser-known Mizocz Ghetto uprising of October 1942 among similar others. In other locations, the lists compiled by the local Ukrainian Hilfsverwaltung enabled them to quickly and precisely identify their Jewish targets. [7]

End and post-war

The Trawniki training camp was dismantled in July 1944 because of the approaching frontline. [1] The last 1,000 Hiwis forming the SS Battalion Streibel led by Karl Streibel himself, [23] were transported west to continue their deeds at the still functioning death camps. [1] The Jews of the adjacent Trawniki labor camp were massacred in November 1943 during Aktion Erntefest . Their exhumed bodies were incinerated in Sonderaktion 1005 by Sonderkommandos from Milejów who in turn were executed on site upon the completion of their task by the end of 1943. The Soviets entered the completely empty training facility on July 23, 1944. [1] After the war, the Soviet authorities arrested and prosecuted hundreds, possibly as many as one thousand Hiwis who returned home to USSR. [1] The more conservative number of trials given by Kudryashov is over 140 between 1944 and 1987. [24] Those brought to trial in the Soviet Union were tried before both civilian courts and military tribunals. Almost all of those tried in the Soviet Union were convicted and some were executed. [1] Most were sentenced to a Gulag, and released under the Khrushchev amnesty of 1955. [25]

The number of Hiwis tried in the West was very small by comparison. Six defendants were acquitted on all charges and set free by a West German court in Hamburg in 1976 including commandant Streibel. [23] [26] The main difference between them and the Trawnikis apprehended in the Soviet Union was that the former claimed lack of awareness and left no live witnesses who could testify against them, [27] while the latter were charged with treason and therefore were doomed from the start. In the U.S. some 16 former Hiwi guards were denaturalized. [1]

Known Trawnikis having served at death camps

The notoriety of crimes committed by Trawnikis at the extermination camps of Belzec [Be], Sobibor [So], and Treblinka [Tr] during Operation Reinhard have led to many specific names being publicized in postwar literature and by museums of the Holocaust, based on Jewish and Polish survivor-testimonies, memoirs, and archives. The long list of at least 234 names of camp guards written out phonetically can be attributed to more than a dozen sources in which they appear. [28] They often feature arbitrary spellings in English and Polish translation (or transliteration from Cyrillic) based on memory alone, by which the perpetrators could not be legally identified. The following are the most notable of them, confirmed by the courts, and arranged in alphabetical order. [28] [29]

Picture of Trawniki guards at Sobibor, taken in 1943. Demjanjuk has been "inconclusively identified" as the guard in the middle front left. Group of auxiliary guards at the Nazi death camp Sobibor in 1943.jpg
Picture of Trawniki guards at Sobibor, taken in 1943. Demjanjuk has been "inconclusively identified" as the guard in the middle front left.
  1. John Demjanjuk, a Ukrainian who joined the Trawniki men and served as a guard at Sobibor. Demnjanjuk immigrated to the United States, but was deported to Israel to stand trial as "Ivan the Terrible" in 1986. Demjanjuk was found guilty and sentenced to death, but his conviction was overturned by the Israeli Supreme Court after new evidence cast doubt on the identity of Demjanjuk as "Ivan the Terrible". In 2009, Demjanjuk was deported to Germany where he was convicted in 2011 for having been a guard at Sobibor. [31]
  2. Fedor Federenko (Fedorenko) [Tr], the Soviet POW recruited from Stalag 319 at Chełm, guard at the Jewish ghetto in Lublin, sent to Warsaw and to Treblinka death camp in September 1942. After the war Federenko settled in the US; he was extradited to the Soviet Union in December 1984. He was found guilty of treason, sentenced to death, and executed in 1987. [29]
  3. Josias Kumpf, a Yugoslav Volksdeutsche who took part in the murderous Aktion Erntefest at Trawniki, stripped of his US citizenship in 2005 and deported to Austria in March 2009. Escaped responsibility due to statute of limitations in that country. [32]
  4. Samuel Kunz [Be], former Soviet POW trained at Trawniki, charged in Bonn, Germany in July 2010 with being a Belzec camp guard. [33] Kunz died in November 2010 before his trial. [34]
  5. Wasyl Lytwyn born 1921; ordered to be deported from the United States in December 1995; repatriated to Ukraine.
  6. Ivan Mandycz born 1920; came to US in 1955; ordered deported 2005; Not deported because of age; died 2017
  7. Ivan Ivanovych Marchenko [Tr] in the Red Army since 1941, brought to Trawniki from POW camp in Chełm, a guard at the Jewish ghetto in Lublin and in Treblinka together with Nikolay Shalayev who was tasked with forcing Jews into the gas chambers; the "motorists" cranking up the gas engine when asked to "turn on the water", called by the Jews "Ivan the Terrible" (Ivan Grozny), Marchenko exhibited special savagery during the killing process; photographed with Ivan Tkachuk at Treblinka. In 1943 he was transferred to Trieste, and in 1944 fled to Yugoslavia. Fate unknown, never tried. [4]
  8. Jakiw Palij, (August 16, 1923- January 10, 2019) a Hiwi guard who was deported in the U.S. in 1949 and claimed to have worked on his father's farm, was stripped of his United States citizenship for having "made material misrepresentations in his application for a visa to immigrate to the United States". [35] [36] [37] Deported from United States on 21 August 2018 at the age of 95. [38] He later died on January 10, 2019, at the age of 95. [35]
  9. Nikolay Shalayev, a Hilfswilliger guard serving at Treblinka extermination camp. He was one of two Ukrainian guards (along with Ivan Marchenko) in charge of the motor that produced the exhaust fumes which were fed through pipes into the gas chambers during the killing process. Tried by the Soviets after the war for treason and sentenced to death. [39]
  10. Jakob Reimer a.k.a. Jack Reimer, a Hiwi guard at Trawniki in 1944. Denaturalized in 2002; died in 2005 before he could be deported from the United States to Germany. [40] [41]
  11. Vladas Zajančkauskas, a Hiwi shooter deployed to participate in the annihilation of the Warsaw Ghetto; had his U.S. citizenship revoked in 2005 at the age of 95. [42] Died 2013.


  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Holocaust Encyclopedia. "Trawniki" (permission granted to be reused, in whole or in part, on Wikipedia; OTRS ticket no. 2007071910012533). United States Holocaust Memorial Museum . Retrieved March 12, 2021. Text from USHMM has been released under the GFDL.
  2. 1 2 Browning 1998, p. 52.
  3. David Bankir, ed. (2006). Police Auxiliaries for Operation Reinhard by Peter R. Black (Google Books). Enigma Books. pp. 331–348. ISBN   192963160X . Retrieved July 12, 2014.{{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  4. 1 2 Gregory Procknow (2011). Recruiting and Training Genocidal Soldiers. Francis & Bernard Publishing. p. 35. ISBN   978-0986837401..
  5. 1 2 Yitzhak Arad (1987). Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka: The Operation Reinhard Death Camps. Indiana University Press. p. 21. ISBN   0253342937.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Sergei Kudryashov, "Ordinary Collaborators: The Case of the Travniki Guards" (in) Russia War, Peace and Diplomacy Essays in Honour of John Erickson edited by Mark and Ljubica Erickson, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2004; pages 226-227 & 234-235.
  7. 1 2 Markus Eikel (2013). "The local administration under German occupation in central and eastern Ukraine, 1941–1944" (PDF). The Holocaust in Ukraine: New Sources and Perspectives. Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. 110–122 in PDF. Ukraine differs from other parts of the Nazi-occupied Soviet Union, whereas the local administrators have formed the Hilfsverwaltung in support of extermination policies in 1941 and 1942, and in providing assistance for the deportations to camps in Germany, mainly in 1942 and 1943.
  8. Tadeusz Piotrowski (2006). "Ukrainian Collaboration". Poland's Holocaust: Ethnic Strife, Collaboration with Occupying Forces and Genocide in the Second Republic, 1918-1947. McFarland. p. 217. ISBN   0786429135 . Retrieved 2014-07-12.
  9. "Trawniki".
  10. Petro, Mirchuk (1976). In the German mills of death, 1941-1945 (U nimetsʹkykh mlynakh smerty). New York-London: Vantage Press.
  11. Aster, Howard. Potichnyj, Peter J. (1990). Ukrainian-Jewish relations in historical perspective. Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies, University of Alberta. ISBN   0920862535. OCLC   23249506.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  12. Mgr Stanisław Jabłoński (19272002). "Hitlerowski obóz w Trawnikach". The camp history (in Polish). Trawniki official website. Retrieved July 12, 2014.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  13. 1 2 3 4 5 Browning 1998 , pp. 52, 77, 79, 80, 135
  14. Aktion Reinhard Camps (2004). "Erntefest". Occupation of the East. ARC. Retrieved March 12, 2021.
  15. Black, Peter. Odilo Globocnik, Nazi Eastern Policy, and the Implementation of the Final Solution, Forschungen zum Nationalsozialismus und dessen Nachwirkungen in Österreich Festschrift für Brigitte Bailer, p.117 (footnote 108). Vienna, Dokumentationsarchiv des Österreichischen Widerstandes (2012). The ranks of Rottwachmann and Oberzugwachmann were created in 1944.
  16. Black, Peter. Odilo Globocnik, Nazi Eastern Policy, and the Implementation of the Final Solution, Forschungen zum Nationalsozialismus und dessen Nachwirkungen in Österreich Festschrift für Brigitte Bailer, p.117 (footnote 108). Vienna, Dokumentationsarchiv des Österreichischen Widerstandes (2012). The new auxiliary ranks were first detailed in circular CA 156/KdG Lublin. It was issued on October 19, 1942.
  17. Black, Peter. Odilo Globocnik, Nazi Eastern Policy, and the Implementation of the Final Solution, p.117 (footnote 109).
  18. Gordon Williamson (2012). German Security and Police Soldier 1939-45. Osprey Publishing. p. 44. ISBN   978-1782000075.
  19. Browning 1998, p. 95.
  20. Browning 1998, p. 93.
  21. Browning 1998, p. 77.
  22. 1 2 Andrzej Szczypiorski (1977), Moczarski Kazimierz, Rozmowy z katem text with Notes and Biography by Andrzej Krzysztof Kunert (PDF 1.86 MB, available from Page 103. Retrieved August 28, 2014.(in Polish)
  23. 1 2 Ralph Hartmann (2010). "Der Alibiprozeß". Den Aufsatz kommentieren. Ossietzky 9/2010. Archived from the original on December 2, 2013. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
  24. Леонид Терушкин (2013). "Conference in Warsaw on the 70th anniversary of the Sobibor uprising" [70 лет восстанию в Собиборе, международная научная конференция в Варшаве]. Кудряшов С. "Травники. История одного предательства." «Родина». 2007. № 12. p. 7/20 in DOC format. Archived from the original on 2016-09-09. Retrieved 2018-01-19.
  25. Holocaust Encyclopedia. "Trawniki" (ibidem). USHMM . Retrieved July 12, 2014.
  26. USHMM (May 11, 2012). "Trawniki: Chronology". Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, DC. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
  27. Georg Bönisch, Jan Friedmann and Cordula Meyer (July 10, 2009). "A Very Ordinary Henchman". Germany > The Holocaust. Spiegel International. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
  28. 1 2 S.J. (2007). "Trawniki Staff Page. Alphabetical Listing". Aktion Reinhard. H.E.A.R.T. Retrieved 8 August 2013. Source: Yitzhak Arad, Thomas (Toivi) Blatt, Alexander Donat, Rudolf Reder, Tom Teicholz, Samuel Willenberg, Richard Glazar; museums and private collections.
  29. 1 2 Edward Kopówka, Paweł Rytel-Andrianik (2011). Treblinka. Załoga obozu [Treblinka concentration camp staff](PDF file, direct download 15.1 MB). Drohiczyńskie Towarzystwo Naukowe. Kuria Diecezjalna w Drohiczynie. p. 87. ISBN   978-83-7257-496-1 . Retrieved July 12, 2014. Archiwum Państwowe w Siedlcach (APS), Akta Gminy Prostyń (AGP), t. 104, "Budowa i odbudowa, 1946–1947".{{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)[ permanent dead link ]
  30. "Sobibor perpetrator collection - Collections Search - United States Holocaust Memorial Museum".
  31. Matussek, Karin (12 May 2011). "Demjanjuk convicted of helping Nazis to murder Jews during the Holocaust". Bloomberg. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
  32. US Department of Justice. Press release; case of Josias Kumpf [ permanent dead link ] (PDF), 16 June 2008.
  33. BBC (July 29, 2010) German Nazi suspect Samuel Kunz.
  34. BBC (November 22, 2010) German Nazi suspect Samuel Kunz dies ahead of trial.
  35. 1 2 Schwartz, Matthew (January 11, 2019). "Last Known WWII Nazi Living In U.S., Deported To Germany Last Year, Is Dead at 95". NPR .
  36. Kilgannon, Corey (November 1, 2003). "Accused Nazi Guard Speaks Out, Denying He Had Role in Atrocities". New York Times. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
  37. Report on Palij (in Ukrainian) "Яків Палій." Україна Молода, June 17, 2004. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
  38. "Demjanjuk Trial Resumes With Testimony on KGB Forgeries". Los Angeles Times. 1987-10-26. Retrieved 2019-11-12.
  39. Aktion Reinhard Camps (May 6, 2005). "Volunteer Auxiliaries". ARC. (see: Nikolay Shalayev). Retrieved March 12, 2021.
  40. Benjamin Weiser (September 6, 2002). "Judge Revokes Citizenship of Man Linked to Nazi War Crimes". The New York Times. Also in: Barry, Dan (September 17, 2005). "A Face Seen and Unseen on the Subway". The New York Times.
  41. Axis history Forum
  42. Circuit Judge (July 13, 2010). "Vladas Zajanckauskas". Petitioner. United States Court of Appeals, First Circuit. Retrieved July 12, 2014.

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Treblinka was the second-deadliest extermination camp to be built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II. It was in a forest north-east of Warsaw, 4 km (2.5 mi) south of the village of Treblinka in what is now the Masovian Voivodeship. The camp operated between 23 July 1942 and 19 October 1943 as part of Operation Reinhard, the deadliest phase of the Final Solution. During this time, it is estimated that between 700,000 and 900,000 Jews were murdered in its gas chambers, along with 2,000 Romani people. More Jews were murdered at Treblinka than at any other Nazi extermination camp apart from Auschwitz-Birkenau.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Belzec extermination camp</span> Nazi German death camp in occupied Poland

Belzec was a Nazi German extermination camp in occupied Poland. It was built by the SS for the purpose of implementing the secretive Operation Reinhard, the plan to murder all Polish Jews, a major part of the "Final Solution" which in total entailed the murder of about six million Jews in the Holocaust. The camp operated from 17 March 1942 to the end of June 1943. It was situated about 500 m (1,600 ft) south of the local railroad station of Bełżec, in the new Lublin District of the General Government territory of German-occupied Poland. The burning of exhumed corpses on five open-air grids and bone crushing continued until March 1943.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">John Demjanjuk</span> Ukrainian guard at Nazi death camps (1920–2012)

John Demjanjuk was a Ukrainian-American who served as a Trawniki man and Nazi camp guard at Sobibor extermination camp, Majdanek, and Flossenbürg. Demjanjuk became the center of global media attention in the 1980s, when he was tried and convicted in Israel after being misidentified as "Ivan the Terrible", a notoriously cruel watchman at Treblinka extermination camp. In 1993 the verdict was overturned. Shortly before his death, he was tried and convicted in the Federal Republic of Germany as an accessory to the 28,060 murders that occurred during his service at Sobibor.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Operation Reinhard</span> Code name for the creation of German extermination camps in Poland in World War II

Operation Reinhard or Operation Reinhardt was the codename of the secret German plan in World War II to exterminate Polish Jews in the General Government district of German-occupied Poland. This deadliest phase of the Holocaust was marked by the introduction of extermination camps. The operation proceeded from March 1942 to November 1943; around 1.47 million Jews were murdered in just 100 days from July to October 1942, a rate approximately 83% higher than the commonly suggested figure for the kill rate in the Rwandan genocide.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Operation Harvest Festival</span> 1943 massacre of Jews during the Holocaust

Operation Harvest Festival was the murder of up to 43,000 Jews at the Majdanek, Poniatowa and Trawniki concentration camps by the SS, the Order Police battalions, and the Ukrainian Sonderdienst on 3–4 November 1943.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hermann Höfle</span> Austrian SS officer & war criminal (1911-1962)

Hermann Julius Höfle, also Hans (or) Hermann Hoefle, was an Austrian-born SS commander and Holocaust perpetrator during the Nazi era. He was deputy to Odilo Globočnik in the Aktion Reinhard program, serving as his main deportation and extermination expert. Arrested in 1961 in connection with these crimes, Höfle died via suicide by hanging in prison before he was tried.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Trawniki</span> Village in Lublin Voivodeship, Poland

Trawniki is a village in Świdnik County, Lublin Voivodeship, in eastern Poland. It is the seat of the present-day gmina called Gmina Trawniki. It lies approximately 24 kilometres (15 mi) south-east of Świdnik and 33 km (21 mi) south-east of the regional capital Lublin, and the river Wieprz flows by it.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Trawniki concentration camp</span> Nazi forced labor and SS training camp near Lublin in Poland

The Trawniki concentration camp was set up by Nazi Germany in the village of Trawniki about 40 kilometres (25 mi) southeast of Lublin during the occupation of Poland in World War II. Throughout its existence the camp served a dual function. It was organized on the grounds of the former Polish sugar refinery of the Central Industrial Region, and subdivided into at least three distinct zones.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Feodor Fedorenko</span> SS guard at a concentration camp and war criminal

Feodor Fedorenko or Fyodor Federenko was a Ukrainian-Soviet Nazi collaborator and war criminal who served at Treblinka extermination camp in German occupied Poland during World War II. As a former Soviet citizen admitted to the United States under a DPA visa (1949), Fedorenko became a naturalized U.S. citizen in 1970. He was discovered in 1977 and denaturalized in 1981. Subsequently, he was deported to the USSR, sentenced to death there for treason and participating in the Holocaust. Fedorenko was executed in 1987.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Richard Thomalla</span> WWII Nazi Germany official

Richard Thomalla was a German war criminal and SS commander of Nazi Germany. A civil engineer by profession, he was head of the SS Central Building Administration at Lublin reservation in occupied Poland. Thomalla was in charge of construction for the Operation Reinhard death camps Bełżec, Sobibor and Treblinka during the Holocaust in Poland.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jakiw Palij</span> Ukrainian war criminal

Jakiw "Jakob" Palij was a Polish-born Ukrainian who served in the SS and as a guard in the Nazi Trawniki concentration camp during World War II. He eventually became an American citizen and lived most of his life in the United States until he was stripped of his citizenship and deported to Germany at the age of 95.

"Ivan the Terrible" is the nickname given to a notorious guard at the Treblinka extermination camp during the Holocaust. The moniker alluded to Ivan IV, also known as Ivan the Terrible, the infamous tsar of Russia. "Ivan the Terrible" gained international recognition following the 1986 John Demjanjuk case. By 1944, a cruel guard named "Ivan", sharing his distinct duties and extremely violent behavior with a guard named "Nicholas", was mentioned in survivor literature. Ukrainian–American John Demjanjuk was first accused of being Ivan the Terrible at the Treblinka concentration camp. Demjanjuk was found guilty of war crimes and was sentenced to death by hanging. Exculpatory material in the form of conflicting identifications from Soviet archives was subsequently released, identifying Ivan the Terrible as one Ivan Marchenko, leading the Supreme Court of Israel to acquit Demjanjuk in 1993 because of reasonable doubt. Demjanjuk was later extradited to Germany where he was convicted in 2011 of war crimes for having served at Sobibor extermination camp.

Poniatowa concentration camp in the town of Poniatowa in occupied Poland, 36 kilometres (22 mi) west of Lublin, was established by the SS in the latter half of 1941, initially to hold Soviet prisoners of war following Operation Barbarossa. By mid-1942, about 20,000 Soviet POWs had perished there from hunger, disease and executions. The camp was known at that time as the Stalag 359 Poniatowa. Afterwards, the Stammlager was redesigned and expanded as a concentration camp to provide slave labour supporting the German war effort, with workshops run by the SS Ostindustrie (Osti) on the grounds of the prewar Polish telecommunications equipment factory founded in the late 1930s. Poniatowa became part of the Majdanek concentration camp system of subcamps in the early autumn of 1943. The wholesale massacre of its mostly Jewish workforce took place during the Aktion Erntefest, thus concluding the Operation Reinhard in General Government.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Karl Streibel</span>

Karl Streibel was the second and last commander of the Trawniki concentration camp – one of the subcamps of the KL Lublin system of Nazi concentration camps in occupied Poland during World War II.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kalman Taigman</span> Israeli-Polish Holocaust survivor

Kalman Taigman also Teigman Hebrew: קלמן טייגמן was an Israeli citizen who was born and grew up in Warsaw, Poland. One of the former members of the Jewish Sonderkommando who escaped from the Treblinka extermination camp during the prisoner uprising of August 1943, Taigman later testified at the 1961 Eichmann Trial held in Jerusalem.

<i>Sonderdienst</i> Nazi Military unit

Sonderdienst were mostly non-German Nazi paramilitary formations created in the colonial General Government during the occupation of Poland in World War II. They were based on similar SS formations called Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz operating in the Warthegau district of German-annexed western Poland in 1939.

<i>Többens and Schultz</i> Nazi Germany textile company

Többens and Schultz was a Nazi German textile manufacturing conglomerate making German uniforms, socks and garments in the Warsaw Ghetto and elsewhere, during the occupation of Poland in World War II. It was owned and operated by two major war profiteers: Fritz Emil Schultz from Danzig, and a convicted war criminal, Walter C. Többens.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Siedlce Ghetto</span>

The Siedlce Ghetto, was a World War II Jewish ghetto set up by Nazi Germany in the city of Siedlce in occupied Poland, 92 kilometres (57 mi) east of Warsaw. The ghetto was closed from the outside in early October 1941. Some 12,000 Polish Jews were imprisoned there for the purpose of persecution and exploitation. Conditions were appalling; epidemics of typhus and scarlet fever raged. Beginning 22 August 1942 during the most deadly phase of the Holocaust in occupied Poland, around 10,000 Jews were rounded up – men, women and children – gathered at the Umschlagplatz, and deported to Treblinka extermination camp aboard Holocaust trains. Thousands of Jews were brought in from the ghettos in other cities and towns. In total, at least 17,000 Jews were annihilated in the process of ghetto liquidation. Hundreds of Jews were shot on the spot during the house-to-house searches, along with staff and patients of the Jewish hospital.

Georg Wilhelm Johannes Michalsen was a German SS-Sturmbannführer. During the Second World War, he was involved in the systematic deportation and murder of Polish Jews and later served as the SS and Police Leader in Trieste. Decades after the war, he was tried as an accomplice to murder, convicted and sentenced to twelve years in prison.


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