Trbovlje

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Trbovlje
Town
Trbovlje - ulica Sallaumines, stanovanjski bloki.jpg
SLO-Trbovlje6.JPG Trbovlje, delavske hise.jpg
Left to right, from top: apartment block at Sallaumines Street,
Trbovlje Chimney, Miners' Houses
Trbovlje.png
Coat of arms
Slovenia location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Trbovlje
Location in Slovenia
Coordinates: 46°09′N15°03′E / 46.150°N 15.050°E / 46.150; 15.050 Coordinates: 46°09′N15°03′E / 46.150°N 15.050°E / 46.150; 15.050
Country Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia
Traditional region Styria
Statistical region Central Sava
Municipality Trbovlje
Settled1220s
Incorporated 1850
Government
   Mayor Jasna Gabrič
Area
[1]
  Total10.2 km2 (3.9 sq mi)
Elevation
[2]
307 m (1,007 ft)
Population
 (2020) [1]
  Total13,822
  Rank 9th, Slovenia
  Density1,400/km2 (3,500/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
Postal code
1420
Area code(s) 03 (+386 3 from abroad)
Vehicle registration LJ
Google Maps Trbovlje, Slovenia
Climate Cfb
Website www.trbovlje.si

Trbovlje (pronounced  [təɾˈbɔ̀ːwljɛ] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); [3] German : Trifail [4] ) is Slovenia's ninth largest town, and the seat of the Municipality of Trbovlje. It is located in the valley of a minor left bank tributary of the Sava River in the Central Sava Valley in central-eastern Slovenia.

Contents

Name

Trbovlje was attested in written sources in 1220–30 as Trefeul (and as Trevůl and Trevol in 1265–67, Triuella in 1302, Trifeul in 1325, Triueal in 1330, and Triuel in 1424). The name is a feminine plural noun in standard Slovene, but in the local dialect it is declined as a neuter singular adjective. This indicates that the name is derived from *Trěbovľe selo (literally, 'Trěbo's village'), referring to an early inhabitant of the place. [5] In the past the German name was Trifail. [4]

History

Coal mining began at Beech Mountain (Slovene : Bukova gora, 547 meters or 1,795 feet) south of the town in 1804. [6] The town was connected to the Austrian Southern Railway in 1849, which contributed to its further development. During the 19th century, a cement plant, mechanical separator, sawmill, and power plant were built in Trbovlje. [6] [7]

Poor social conditions in Trbovlje led to several strikes by mine workers, and the town became a center of the leftist movement and communist agitation. [6] On June 1, 1924 there was a clash between workers and members of the Organization of Yugoslav Nationalists that resulted in several fatalities on both sides. [8] In 1934, miners staged a sitdown strike at the mine. [6]

Second World War

During the Second World War, Trbovlje, along with the rest of Lower Styria, was annexed to the Third Reich. [9] The coal mine and other industries of Trbovlje were especially important to the German authorities, and they initially lowered unemployment in the town and increased wages, increasing satisfaction with the new regime. [10] However, the arrest and exile of Slovenes in August 1941 created disaffection. This and other repressive measures resulted in an estimated 90% of the population opposing the Germans by the summer of 1944. [10]

Mass grave

The Abandoned Cemetery Mass Grave (Slovene : Grobišče na opuščenem pokopališču) site, associated with World War II, is located in the former cemetery in the northern part of the town, between the fence and Trboveljščica Creek. It is also known as the Town Park Mass Grave (Grobišče Mestni park), and it contains the remains of about 30 German soldiers. [11] [12]

Culture

The Trbovlje Museum (Slovene : Zasavski Muzej Trbovlje) has a large section dedicated to the history of mining. [13] The Slovenian industrial band Laibach also originated in Trbovlje. [14]

The Trbovlje Student Club organization (Slovene : Klub trboveljskih študentov) holds various events.

Economy

Trbovlje is known for its long coal mining history. Trbovlje is also known for Trbovlje Power Station, which is the location of European Union's tallest chimney at 360 meters.

Parishes and churches

Two Roman Catholic parishes have their seat in Trbovlje: the Parish of Trbovlje–St. Martin and the Parish of Trbovlje–St. Mary. Both belong to the Diocese of Celje. [15] [16]

The Parish Church of St Martin was originally a Romanesque church, of which part of the nave survives. The sanctuary is Gothic and in the 18th century a Baroque belfry and chapel were added. In the 19th century the nave was extended. [17] A second church of the Parish of Trbovlje–St. Martin in the western end of town is dedicated to Saint Nicholas and was built in the 18th century. [18]

The Parish of Trbovlje–St Mary in the southern part of the town was established in 2000. Its parish church is dedicated to the Virgin Mary, Mother of the Church. It was built from 1998 to 2000 according to plans by the architect Jože Marinko. Stained glasses, paintings, and the Stations of the Cross were created by the academy-trained painter Lojze Čemažar. The church was blessed in August 2000 and consecrated in October 2007. [19]

A significant portion of Trbovlje's populace today describe themselves as atheists, in third place behind Catholic and "no response." [20]

Twin places

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References

  1. 1 2 "Trbovlje, Trbovlje". Statistical Office of Slovenia. 2013.
  2. "Height above sea level of seats of municipalities" (in Slovenian and English). Statistical Office of Slovenia. 2002. Archived from the original on 2012-11-25.
  3. "Slovenski pravopis 2001: Trbovlje".
  4. 1 2 Leksikon občin kraljestev in dežel zastopanih v državnem zboru, vol. 4: Štajersko. 1904. Vienna: C. Kr. Dvorna in Državna Tiskarna, p. 58.
  5. Snoj, Marko. 2009. Etimološki slovar slovenskih zemljepisnih imen. Ljubljana: Modrijan and Založba ZRC, pp. 434–435.
  6. 1 2 3 4 Gorjanc, Boris (1999). "Trbovlje: Zgodovina". Enciklopedija Slovenije. 13. Ljubljana: Mladinska knjiga. p. 318.
  7. Trbovlje. 1998. Veliki splošni leksikon, vol. 8, p. 4448. Ljubljana: DZS.
  8. Perovšek, Jure (1994). "Orjuna". Enciklopedija Slovenije. 8. Ljubljana: Mladinska knjiga. pp. 157–158.
  9. Magocsi, Paul Robert. 1993. Historical Atlas of East Central Europe. Seattle: University of Washington Press, p. 153.
  10. 1 2 Troha, Nevenka (1999). "Trbovlje: Zgodovina". Enciklopedija Slovenije. 13. Ljubljana: Mladinska knjiga. pp. 318–319.
  11. Ferenc, Mitja, & Ksenija Kovačec-Naglič. 2005. Prikrito in očem zakrito: prikrita grobišča 60 let po koncu druge svetovne vojne. Celje: Muzej novejše zgodovine Celje, p. 124.
  12. Ferenc, Mitja (December 2009). "Grobišče na opuščenem pokopališču". Geopedia (in Slovenian). Ljubljana: Služba za vojna grobišča, Ministrstvo za delo, družino in socialne zadeve. Retrieved April 6, 2020.
  13. "Trbovlje Museum website" (in Slovenian).
  14. Laibach industrial band website
  15. Parish of Trbovlje–St. Martin (in Slovene)
  16. Parish of Trbovlje–St. Mary (in Slovene)
  17. Slovenian Ministry of Culture register of national heritage reference number ešd 3455
  18. Slovenian Ministry of Culture register of national heritage reference number ešd 3458
  19. Šneberger, Boštjan (4 November 2007). "Sad sodelovanja" [The Fruit of Cooperation]. Druzina.si (in Slovenian).
  20. "Population by religion, municipalities, Slovenia". 2002.
  21. Rogelj, Ajda (5 April 2013). "Ali ste vedeli ... da so ulico v Trbovljah poimenovali Sallaumines" [Did You Know... That a Street in Trbovlje Has Been Named Sallaumines]. Rodna gruda (in Slovenian). Združenje Slovenska izseljenska matica.