Trdat of Iberia

Last updated
King of Iberia
Predecessor Aspacures III
Successor Pharasmanes IV
Dynasty Chosroid dynasty

Trdat (Georgian :თრდატი, sometimes Latinized as Tiridates), of the Chosroid Dynasty, was the king of Iberia (Kartli, eastern Georgia) from c. 394 to 406.

According to the Georgian chronicles, he was a son of Rev II, son of Mirian III, the first Christian king of Iberia and Salome. Trdat's brother was Sauromaces II of Iberia. He is reported to have succeeded, already in an advanced age, his relative and son-in-law, Varaz-Bakur II, and to have been forced to pay tribute to the Sassanids. The chronicles praise his piety and credit Trdat with the construction of churches at Rustavi and Nekresi. [1] The church founded by Trdat at Nekresi is identified by the archaeologist Nodar Bakhtadze with a ruined basilica uncovered in 1998. [2]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mtskheta</span> City in Mtskheta-Mtianeti, Georgia

Mtskheta is a city in the region of Mtskheta-Mtianeti, Georgia. It is one of the oldest cities in Georgia as well as one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. It is located approximately 20 km (12 mi) north of Tbilisi, at the confluence of the Mtkvari and Aragvi rivers. Currently a small provincial capital, for nearly a millennium until the 5th century AD, Mtskheta was a large fortified city, a significant economical and political centre of the Kingdom of Iberia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Saint Nino</span> Early Christian saint

Saint NinoEqual to the Apostles and the Enlightener of Georgia was a woman who preached Christianity in the territory of Caucasian Iberia, of what is now part of Georgia. It resulted in the Christianization of the royal house of Iberia, with the consequent Christianization of Iberia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ashot I of Iberia</span> Kouropalatēs

Ashot I the Great was a presiding prince of Iberia, first of the Bagratid family to have attained to this office c. 813. From his base in Tao-Klarjeti, he fought to enlarge the Bagratid territories and sought the Byzantine protectorate against the Arab encroachment until being murdered c. 826. Ashot is also known as Ashot I Kouropalates for the Byzantine title of kouropalates that he bore. A patron of Christian culture and a friend of the church, he has been canonized by the Georgian Orthodox Church.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chosroid dynasty</span>

The Chosroid dynasty, also known as the Iberian Mihranids, were a dynasty of the kings and later the presiding princes of the early Georgian state of Iberia from the 4th to the 9th centuries. The family, of Iranian Mihranid origin, accepted Christianity as their official religion c. 337, and maneuvered between the Byzantine Empire and Sassanid Iran to retain a degree of independence. After the abolition of the Iberian kingship by the Sassanids c. 580, the dynasty survived in its two closely related, but sometimes competing princely branches—the elder Chosroid and the younger Guaramid—down to the early ninth century when they were succeeded by the Georgian Bagratids on the throne of Iberia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pharnavazid dynasty</span> Georgian kings of Kartli (Iberia)

The Pharnavazid is the name of the first dynasty of Georgian kings of Kartli (Iberia) preserved by The Georgian Chronicles. Their rule lasted, with intermissions, from the 3rd century BC to the 2nd century AD. The main male line is reported to have become extinct early on and followed by houses related to it in the female line. By the close of the 2nd century AD, the Pharnavazid rule came to an end and the Arsacid dynasty took over the crown of Iberia.

Saurmag II, of the Chosroid Dynasty, was a king of Iberia from 361 to 363 and diarch from 370 to 378. He is ignored by the Georgian historic tradition, but mentioned by the 4th-century historian of the Roman Empire, Ammianus Marcellinus. He was the first son of Rev II to Salome and brother of Trdat of Iberia.

Aspacures III, of the Chosroid Dynasty, was the king of Iberia from c. 380 to 394. He was the son and successor of Mirdat III and was married to the daughter of Trdat, his relative and successor. He is credited by the Georgian chronicles with the construction of the church of Tsilkani. During his reign, the Roman Empire signed the Peace of Acilisene with Sassanid Iran in which it admitted to the loss of Iberia and a greater portion of Armenia. His sons were Pharasmanes and Mihrdat.

P'arsman IV, of the Chosroid Dynasty, was the king of Iberia from 406 to 409.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mihrdat IV of Iberia</span> King of Iberia from c. 409 to 411

Mihrdat IV, of the Chosroid Dynasty, was the king of Iberia from c. 409 to 411.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rev II of Iberia</span>

Rev II was a prince of Iberia of the Chosroid Dynasty who functioned as a co-king to his father Mirian III, the first Christian Georgian ruler and his mother was Nana of Iberia. Professor Cyril Toumanoff suggests the years 345–361 as the period of their joint reign.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nekresi</span> Historic site in Kakheti, Georgia

Nekresi is a historic and archaeological site in eastern Georgian region of Kakheti, between the town of Qvareli and the village of Shilda, at the foothills of the Greater Caucasus mountains. It is home to the still-functioning Nekresi monastery, founded in the 6th century.

Salome was an Armenian princess from the Arsacid dynasty who was married into the Chosroid Dynasty of Iberia. She was a daughter of King Tiridates III of Armenia and Queen Ashkhen. She is known from the early medieval Georgian chronicle Life of Kings. In Georgian tradition, she is referred to as Salome of Ujarma after a castle where she is credited to have erected a cross. She has been canonized by the Armenian and Georgian churches. Local canonisations are recognised throughout the Orthodox Church.

The Surameli were a noble family in the medieval Kingdom of Georgia, with notable members from the 12th century to the 14th. At the height of their influence and prestige in the 13th century, the Surameli were hereditary eristavi ("duke") of Kartli and msakhurt-ukhutsesi of Georgia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Christianization of Iberia</span> Spread of Christianity in Caucasian Iberia

The Christianization of Iberia refers to the spread of Christianity in the early 4th century by the sermon of Saint Nino in an ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli, known as Iberia in classical antiquity, which resulted in declaring it as a state religion by then-pagan King Mirian III of Iberia. Per Sozomen, this led the king's "large and warlike barbarian nation to confess Christ and renounce the religion of their fathers", as the polytheistic Georgians had long-established anthropomorphic idols, known as the "Gods of Kartli". The king would become the main sponsor, architect, initiator and an organizing power of all building processes. Per Socrates of Constantinople, the "Iberians first embraced the Christian faith" alongside the Abyssinians, but the exact date of an event is still debated. Georgian monarchs, alongside the Armenians, were among the first anywhere in the world to convert to a Christian faith. Prior to the escalation of Armeno-Georgian ecclesiastical rivalry and the christological controversies their Caucasian Christianity was extraordinarily inclusive, pluralistic and flexible that only saw the rigid ecclesiological hierarchies established much later, particularly as "national" churches crystallized from the 6th century. Despite the tremendous diversity of the region, the christianization process was a pan-regional and a cross-cultural phenomenon in the Caucasus, Eurasia's most energetic and cosmopolitan zones throughout the late antiquity, hard enough to place Georgians and Armenians unequivocally within any one major civilization. The Jews of Mtskheta, the royal capital of Kartli, that did play a significant role in the Christianization of the kingdom, would give a strong impetus to deepen the ties between the Georgian monarchy and the Holy Land leading to an increasing presence of Georgians in Palestine, as the activities of Peter the Iberian and other pilgrims confirm, including the oldest attested Georgian Bir el Qutt inscriptions found in the Judaean Desert alongside the pilgrim graffiti of Nazareth and Sinai.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chabukauri basilica</span>

Chabukauri basilica is an early Christian church—now in a ruinous state—in the eastern Georgian region of Kakheti, in the territory of the historical settlement of Nekresi, about 1.5 km northwest of the Nekresi monastic complex. It is a large three-aisle basilica, dated to the 4th to 5th century, making it one of the earliest Christian church buildings in Georgia. It was unearthed in 1998. The basilica is inscribed on the list of the Immovable Cultural Monuments of National Significance of Georgia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dolochopi basilica</span>

Dolochopi basilica is an early Christian church—now in a ruinous state—in the eastern Georgian region of Kakheti, in the territory of the historical settlement of Nekresi. It is a large 5th-century triple basilica, built over an earlier ruined church, which is carbondated to AD 387, making it one of the earliest known Christian sites in Georgia. It was unearthed in 2012. The basilica is inscribed on the list of the Immovable Cultural Monuments of National Significance of Georgia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Three-church basilica</span>

Three-church basilica is a special type of basilica, developed and widespread in Georgian Christian church architecture of the Early Middle Ages. In this type of basilica, the central nave is completely separated from the aisles with solid walls. This creates three seemingly independent churches. The reason for this structural solution is unknown, but it could be liturgical. Some of the earliest churches in Georgia followed this design before the standardization of church building and the liturgy took place in the 7th century.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nekresi fire temple</span>

The Nekresi fire temple is an archaeological complex in the eastern Georgian region of Kakheti, part of the wider Nekresi site. The excavated building, preserved only fragmentarily at a foundation level, is identified as a Zoroastrian fire temple, sun temple, or a Manichean shrine. Constructed in the 2nd or 3rd century, the complex was destroyed in the 5th. The site is inscribed on the list of the Immovable Cultural Monuments of National Significance of Georgia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nekresi monastery</span> Georgian Orthodox monastery in Qvareli Municipality, Georgia

The Nekresi monastery is a Georgian Orthodox monastery in the eastern Georgian region of Kakheti, founded in the 6th century. Perched on one of the easternmost spurs of the Greater Caucasus crest, the monastery is part of the larger historic site of Nekresi, once a flourishing town of the Late Antiquity. In medieval Georgian literary tradition, beginnings of monasticism at Nekresi is associated with the 6th-century monk Abibos, known for Christian proselytizing and combating Zoroastrianism. The monastery was closed down shortly after the Imperial Russian takeover of the Georgian church in 1811. After a hiatus of nearly two centuries, the monastery became functional again in 2000.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Style of the Georgian sovereign</span> Formal mode of address to a Georgian monarch

The style of the Georgian sovereign refers to the formal mode of address to a Georgian monarch (mepe) that evolved and changed many times since the establishment of the ancient Kingdom of Iberia, its transformation to the unified Kingdom of Georgia and its successive monarchies after the disintegration of the realm.


  1. Rapp, Stephen H. (2003), Studies In Medieval Georgian Historiography: Early Texts And Eurasian Contexts, p. 314. Peeters Bvba ISBN   90-429-1318-5.
  2. Bakhtadze, Nodar (2014). "Archeological Research upon one of the Earliest Georgian Christian Basilica". Temporis Signa: Archeologia della tarda antichità e del medioevo. 9: 65–73.
Preceded by King of Iberia
Succeeded by