Treaty of Bucharest (1812)

Last updated
Southeast Europe after the treaty, Bassarabia shown in light green Southeast Europe 1812 map en.PNG
Southeast Europe after the treaty, Bassarabia shown in light green

The Treaty of Bucharest between the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire, was signed on 28 May 1812, in Manuc's Inn in Bucharest, and ratified on 5 July 1812, at the end of the Russo-Turkish War of 1806–12. [1]

Ottoman Empire Former empire in Asia, Europe and Africa

The Ottoman Empire, also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.

Russian Empire Former country, 1721–1917

The Russian Empire, also known as Imperial Russia or simply Russia, was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

Manucs Inn hotel and bar in Bucharest

Manuc's Inn was, until it was recently shut for restoration and refurbishment, the oldest operating hotel building in Bucharest, Romania; it also housed a popular restaurant, several bars, a coffee-house, and several stores and an extensive bar. Its massive, multiply balconied courtyard hosted many performances and fairs and was a popular place for Romanian television crews to shoot folkloric performances. The hotel and restaurant were closed down in 2007 for refurbishment; shops and a bar known both as Cafeaneaua Bucurestilor de Altadata and as Festival 39 remained open. The hotel and restaurant are expected to reopen under new management once the restoration and refurbishment are completed. However, there appear to be disagreements between the city government and the owners about the legality of certain modernizations being undertaken.

Under its terms, the eastern half of the Principality of Moldavia, between Prut and Dniester Rivers, with an area of 45,630 km2 (17,617.8 sq mi) (Bessarabia), was ceded by the Ottoman Empire (to which Moldavia was a vassal) to Russia. Also, Russia obtained trading rights on the Danube.

Moldavia principality in Southeast Europe between 1330–1859 (nowadays historical and geographical region in Romania, Moldova, and Ukraine)

Moldavia is a historical region and former principality in Central and Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester River. An initially independent and later autonomous state, it existed from the 14th century to 1859, when it united with Wallachia as the basis of the modern Romanian state; at various times, Moldavia included the regions of Bessarabia, all of Bukovina and Hertza. The region of Pokuttya was also part of it for a period of time.

Prut river in eastern Europe

The Prut is a 953 km (592 mi) long river in Eastern Europe. In part of its course it forms Romania's border with Moldova and Ukraine.

Dniester River in Eastern Europe

The Dniester River is a river in Eastern Europe. It runs first through Ukraine and then through Moldova, finally discharging into the Black Sea on Ukrainian territory again.

A truce was signed (Article 8 of the Treaty) with the rebelling Serbs and autonomy given to Serbia. [2]

First Serbian Uprising

The First Serbian Uprising was an uprising of Serbs in the Sanjak of Smederevo against the Ottoman Empire from 14 February 1804 to 7 October 1813. Initially a local revolt against renegade janissaries who had seized power through a coup, it evolved into a war for independence after more than three centuries of Ottoman rule and short-lasting Austrian occupations.

Revolutionary Serbia

Revolutionary Serbia or Karađorđe's Serbia refers to the state established by Serbian revolutionaries in Ottoman Serbia after successful military operations against the Ottoman Empire and establishment of government in 1805. The Sublime Porte first officially recognized the state as autonomous in January 1807, however, the Serbian revolutionaries rejected the treaty and continued fighting the Ottomans until 1813. Although the first uprising was crushed, it was followed by the Second Serbian Uprising in 1815, which resulted in the creation of the Principality of Serbia, as it gained semi-independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1817.

The treaty, signed by the Russian commander Mikhail Kutuzov, was ratified by Alexander I of Russia 13 days before Napoleon's invasion of Russia.

Mikhail Kutuzov Field Marshal of the Russian Empire

Prince Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov was a Field Marshal of the Russian Empire. He served as one of the finest military officers and diplomats of Russia under the reign of three Romanov Tsars: Catherine II, Paul I and Alexander I. His military career was closely associated with the rising period of Russia from the end of the 18th century to the beginning of the 19th century. Kutuzov is considered to have been one of the best Russian generals.

Alexander I of Russia Emperor of Russia

Alexander I reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1801 and 1825. He was the eldest son of Paul I and Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg. Alexander was the first Russian King of "Congress" Poland, reigning from 1815 to 1825, as well as the first Russian Grand Duke of Finland, reigning from 1809 to 1825.

In Transcaucasia, the Ottomans renounced their claims to most of western Georgia [ citation needed ], but retained control of Akhalkalaki, Poti, and Anapa previously captured by the Russo-Georgian troops in the course of the war [3]

Transcaucasia geopolitical region located on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia

Transcaucasia, or the South Caucasus, is a geographical region in the vicinity of the southern Caucasus Mountains on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia. Transcaucasia roughly corresponds to modern Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. Total area of these countries is about 186,100 square kilometres. Transcaucasia and Ciscaucasia together comprise the larger Caucasus geographical region that divides Eurasia.

Georgia (country) Country in the Caucasus region

Georgia is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north by Russia, to the south by Turkey and Armenia, and to the southeast by Azerbaijan. The capital and largest city is Tbilisi. Georgia covers a territory of 69,700 square kilometres (26,911 sq mi), and its 2017 population is about 3.718 million. Georgia is a unitary semi-presidential republic, with the government elected through a representative democracy.

Related Research Articles

Treaty of Passarowitz peace treaty

The Treaty of Passarowitz or Treaty of Požarevac was the peace treaty signed in Požarevac, a town in the Ottoman Empire, on 21 July 1718 between the Ottoman Empire on one side and Austria of the Habsburg Monarchy and the Republic of Venice on the other.

The Treaty of Niš was a peace treaty signed on 3 October 1739 in Niš, by the Ottoman Empire and Russian Empire, to end the Russo-Turkish War of 1735-1739. The Russians gave up their claim to Crimea and Moldavia but were allowed to build a port at Azov, though without fortifications and without the right to have a fleet in the Black Sea. The war was the result of a Russian effort to gain Azov and Crimea as a first step towards dominating the Black Sea. The Habsburg Monarchy entered the war in 1737 on the Russian side, but was forced to make peace with Ottomans at the separate Treaty of Belgrade, surrendering Northern Serbia, Northern Bosnia and Oltenia, and allowing the Ottomans to resist the Russian push toward Constantinople. In return, the Sultan acknowledged the Habsburg Emperor as the official protector of all Ottoman Christian subjects, a position also claimed by Russia. The Austrian peace treaty compelled Russia to accept peace at Niš, ending the war with a partial Russian victory.

Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca

The Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji Turkish: Küçük Kaynarca Antlaşması Russian: Кючук-Кайнарджийский мир) was a peace treaty signed on 21 July 1774, in Küçük Kaynarca between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire. Following the recent Ottoman defeat at the Battle of Kozludzha, the document ended the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–74 and marked a defeat of the Ottomans in their struggle against Russia. The Russians were represented by Field-Marshal Count Pyotr Rumyantsev while the Ottoman side was represented by Musul Zade Mehmed Pasha. The treaty was a most humiliating blow to the once-mighty Ottoman realm. It would also stand to foreshadow several future conflicts between the Ottomans and Russia. It would be only one of many attempts by Russia to gain control of Ottoman territory.

Treaty of San Stefano peace treaty

The 1878 Preliminary Treaty of San Stefano was a treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire signed at San Stefano, then a village west of Constantinople, on 3 March [O.S. 19 February] 1878 by Count Nicholas Pavlovich Ignatiev and Aleksandr Nelidov on behalf of the Russian Empire and Foreign Minister Safvet Pasha and Ambassador to Germany Sadullah Bey on behalf of the Ottoman Empire. The treaty ended the Russo-Turkish War, 1877–78.

Russo-Turkish War (1806–1812)

The Russo-Turkish War (1806–1812) between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire was one of the Russo-Turkish Wars.

Pruth River Campaign conflict

The Russo-Ottoman War of 1710–11, also known as the Pruth River Campaign after the main event of the war, erupted as a consequence of the defeat of Sweden by the Russian Empire in the Battle of Poltava and the escape of the wounded Charles XII of Sweden and his large retinue to the Ottoman-held fortress of Bender. Incessant Russian demands for Charles's eviction were met with refusal from Sultan Ahmed III, prompting Peter to attack the Ottoman Empire, which in its turn declared war on Russia on 20 November 1710. Concurrently with these events, the Prince Dimitrie Cantemir of Moldavia and Peter the Great signed the Treaty of Lutsk, by which Moldavia pledged to support Russia in its war against the Ottomans with troops and by allowing the Russian army to cross its territory and place garrisons in Moldavian fortresses. After having gathered near the Moldavian capital Iași, the combined army started on 11 July the march southwards along the Prut River with the intention of crossing the Danube and invade the Balkan peninsula.

Phanariotes

Phanariotes, Phanariots, or Phanariote Greeks were members of prominent Greek families in Phanar, the chief Greek quarter of Constantinople where the Ecumenical Patriarchate is located, who traditionally occupied four important positions in the Ottoman Empire: Grand Dragoman, Grand Dragoman of the Fleet, Hospodar of Moldavia, and Hospodar of Wallachia. Despite their cosmopolitanism and often-Western education, the Phanariotes were aware of their Hellenism; according to Nicholas Mavrocordatos' Philotheou Parerga, "We are a race completely Hellenic".

In diplomatic history, the "Eastern Question" refers to the strategic competition and political considerations of the European Great Powers in light of the political and economic instability in the Ottoman Empire from the late 18th to early 20th centuries. Characterized as the "sick man of Europe", the relative weakening of the empire's military strength in the second half of the eighteenth century threatened to undermine the fragile balance of power system largely shaped by the Concert of Europe. The Eastern Question encompassed myriad interrelated elements: Ottoman military defeats, Ottoman institutional insolvency, the ongoing Ottoman political and economic modernization programme, the rise of ethno-religious nationalism in its provinces, and Great Power rivalries.

Treaty of Bucharest may refer to the following treaties signed in Bucharest:

Treaty of Adrianople (1829) peace treaty

The Treaty of Adrianople concluded the Russo-Turkish War of 1828–29, between Russia and the Ottoman Empire. It was signed on 14 September 1829 in Adrianople by Count Alexey Fyodorovich Orlov of Russia and by Abdülkadir Bey of the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire gave Russia access to the mouths of the Danube and the fortresses of Akhaltsikhe and Akhalkalaki in Georgia. The Sultan recognized Russia's possession of Georgia and of the Khanates of Erivan and Nakhichevan which had been ceded to the tsar by Persia in the Treaty of Turkmenchay a year earlier. The treaty opened the Dardanelles to all commercial vessels, thus liberating commerce for cereals, livestock and wood. However, it took the Treaty of Hünkâr İskelesi (1833) to finally settle the Straits Question between the signatories.

Austro-Turkish War (1716–1718)

The Austro-Turkish War was fought between Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire. The Treaty of Karlowitz (1699) was not an acceptable long-standing agreement for the Ottoman Empire. Twelve years after Karlowitz, the Turks began the long prospect of taking revenge for their defeat at the Battle of Vienna in 1683. First, the Turkish Grand Vizier Baltacı Mehmet's army defeated Peter the Great's Russian Army in the Russo-Turkish War (1710–1711). Thereafter, in the Ottoman–Venetian War (1714–1718), the new Grand Vizier Damat Ali re-conquered Morea from the Venetians in 1715. As a reaction, Austria, as the guarantor of the Treaty of Karlowitz, threatened the Ottoman Empire, but in response the Ottoman Empire declared war against Austria.

Treaty of Jassy peace treaty

The Treaty of Jassy, signed at Jassy (Iași) in Moldavia, was a pact between the Russian and Ottoman Empires ending the Russo-Turkish War of 1787–92 and confirming Russia's increasing dominance in the Black Sea.

Long Turkish War border conflict between the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire over Balkan territories

The Long Turkish War or Thirteen Years' War was an indecisive land war between the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire, primarily over the Principalities of Wallachia, Transylvania and Moldavia. It was waged from 1593 to 1606 but in Europe it is sometimes called the Fifteen Years War, reckoning from the 1591–92 Turkish campaign that captured Bihać.

Akkerman Convention

The Akkerman Convention was a treaty signed on October 7, 1826, between the Russian and the Ottoman Empires in the Budjak citadel of Akkerman. It imposed that the hospodars of Moldavia and Wallachia be elected by their respective Divans for seven-year terms, with the approval of both Powers. It also provided for the retreat of Ottoman forces from both Danubian Principalities after their prolonged stay following military actions in 1821, and Tudor Vladimirescu's uprising. The Ottomans also agreed to cede to Wallachia the control over the Danube ports of Giurgiu, Brăila and Turnu. The convention also tackled the Serbian question: in article 5, autonomy for the Principality of Serbia was given, and the return of lands removed in 1813. Serbs were also granted freedom of movement through the Ottoman Empire. Sultan Mahmud II's repudiation of the convention triggered the Russo-Turkish War (1828–1829).

Austro-Turkish War (1788–1791)

Austro-Turkish War, was fought in 1788–91 between the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire, concurrently with the Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792). It is sometimes referred to as the Habsburg–Ottoman War or the Austro-Ottoman War.

Bessarabia Governorate governorate of the Russian Empire

Bessarabia Oblast was an oblast (1812–1871) and later a guberniya in the Russian Empire. It included the eastern part of the Principality of Moldavia along with the neighboring Ottoman-ruled territories annexed by Russia by the Treaty of Bucharest following the Russo-Turkish War, 1806-1812. The Governorate was disbanded in 1917, with the establishment of Sfatul Ţării, a national assembly which proclaimed the Moldavian Democratic Republic in December 1917. The latter united with Romania in April 1918.

Gavril Bănulescu-Bodoni Romanian bishops

Gavril Bănulescu-Bodoni was a Romanian clergyman who served as Metropolitan of Moldavia (1792), Metropolitan of Kherson and Crimea (1793–1799), Metropolitan of Kiev and Halych (1799–1803), Exarch of Moldo-Wallachia (1806–1812), and Archbishop of Chişinău (1812–1821), being the first head of the church in Bessarabia after the Russian annexation.

Romania–Russia relations Diplomatic relations between Romania and Russia

Romania–Russia relations are the foreign relations between Romania and Russia. Romania has an embassy in Moscow and consulates-general in Rostov-on-Don and Saint Petersburg. Russia has an embassy in Bucharest and a consulate-general in Constanţa. Historical relations have oscillated between grudging cooperation, neutrality, open hatred and hostility.

Territorial evolution of the Ottoman Empire

This is the territorial evolution of the Ottoman Empire during a timespan of seven centuries.

The Army of the Danube was a field army of the Russian Empire, created for the Russo-Turkish War of 1806–1812.

References

  1. Robarts, Andrew (2008). "Bucharest, Treaty of". In Ágoston, Gábor; Masters, Bruce. Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. Facts On File. p. 94. ISBN   978-0-8160-6259-1.
  2. Ćirković 2004, pp. 182.
  3. John F. Baddeley, Russian Conquest of the Caucasus,1908, Chapter V

Sources

Sima Ćirković Serbian historian and member of Serbian Academy of Science and Arts

Simeon "Sima" Ćirković was a Serbian historian and member of the Serbian Academy of Science and Arts. He was also a member of the Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegrin Academy of Sciences and Arts, Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts and the Vojvodina Academy of Sciences and Arts. His works focused on medieval Serbian history.