|Signed||24 August 1821|
|Location||Córdoba, Veracruz, Mexico|
|Condition||The treaty was rejected by Spain|
|Ratifiers|| Agustín de Iturbide, Regent of the Mexican Empire|
Juan O'Donojú, High Political Head of Spanish government in Mexico
The Treaty of Córdoba established Mexican independence from Spain at the conclusion of the Mexican War of Independence. It was signed on August 24, 1821 in Córdoba, Veracruz, Mexico. The signatories were the head of the Army of the Three Guarantees, Agustín de Iturbide, and, acting on behalf of the Spanish government, Jefe Político Superior Juan O'Donojú. The treaty has 17 articles, which developed the proposals of the Plan of Iguala.The Treaty is the first document in which Spanish (without authorization) and Mexican officials accept the liberty of what will become the First Mexican Empire, but it is not today recognized as the foundational moment, since these ideas are often attributed to the Grito de Dolores (September 16, 1810). The treaty was rejected by the Spanish government. Spain did not recognize Mexico's independence until December 28, 1836 (when they signed the Santa María–Calatrava Treaty).
Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometers (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 129 million people, Mexico is the tenth most populous country and the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states plus Mexico City (CDMX), which is the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the country include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana, and León.
Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain, is a European country located in Southwestern Europe with some pockets of Spanish territory across the Strait of Gibraltar and the Atlantic Ocean. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory also includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are also part of Spanish territory. The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.
The Mexican War of Independence was an armed conflict, lasting over a decade, which had several distinct phases and took place in different regions of the Spanish colony of New Spain. Events in Spain itself had a direct impact on the outbreak of the insurgency in 1810 and in the alliance of insurgent leader Vicente Guerrero and royalist-officer-turned insurgent Agustín de Iturbide in 1821, which brought about independence. Napoleon Bonaparte's invasion of Spain in 1808 touched off a crisis of legitimacy of crown rule, since he had placed his brother Joseph on the Spanish throne after forcing the abdication of the Spanish monarch Charles IV. In many of Spain's overseas possessions the local response was to set up juntas ruling in the name of the Bourbon monarchy. In New Spain, however, peninsular-born Spaniards overthrew the rule of Viceroy José de Iturrigaray (1803–08). In 1810, a few American-born Spaniards in favor of independence began plotting an uprising against Spanish rule. It occurred when the parish priest of the village of Dolores, Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, issued the Cry of Dolores on September 16, 1810. The Hidalgo Revolt touched off the armed insurgency for independence, lasting until 1821. The colonial regime did not expect the size and duration of the insurgency, which spread from the Bajío region north of Mexico City to the Pacific and Gulf Coasts. In 1820 when Spanish liberals overthrew the autocratic rule of Ferdinand VII and arch-conservatives in New Spain saw independence as a way to maintain their position, former royalists and old insurgents formed an alliance under the Plan of Iguala and forged the Army of the Three Guarantees. The momentum of independence saw the collapse of royal government in Mexico and the Treaty of Córdoba ended the conflict.
In the treaty, New Spain is recognized as an independent empire, which is defined as "monarchical, constitutional and moderate." The crown of the Mexican Empire was offered first to Ferdinand VII of Spain. Should he not present himself in Mexico within the time to be determined by the Mexican Cortes (parliament) to take the oath of office, the crown would then be offered in sequence to his brothers, the Infantes Carlos and Francisco, and cousin, Archduke Charlesor another individual of a royal house, whom the Cortes would determine. In the case that none of these accept the crown (as indeed did happen), the treaty then established that Cortes could designate a new king without specifying if the person needed to belong to a European royal house.
An empire is a sovereign state functioning as an aggregate of nations or people that are ruled over by an emperor or another kind of monarch. The territory and population of an empire is commonly of greater extent than the one of a kingdom.
A monarchy is a form of government in which a natural person, the monarch, is head of state until death or abdication. The governing power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic, to restricted, to fully autocratic, combining executive, legislative and judicial power.
A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation or other type of entity, and commonly determine how that entity is to be governed.
The idea in this last clause had not been considered in the Plan of Iguala, and was added by Iturbide to leave open the possibility of his taking the crown. At the same time, O'Donojú, as captain general and jefe político superior, had no authority to sign such a treaty, but was interested in preserving Mexico for the Spanish royal family, and probably signed without considering that Iturbide might have designs on the crown.
A Captaincy is a historical administrative division of the former Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires. It was instituted as a method of organization, directly associated with the home-rule administrations of medieval feudal governments in which the monarch delimited territories for colonization that were administered by men of confidence.
On September 27, 1821, the Army of the Three Guarantees entered triumphantly into Mexico City and on the following day, the Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire was widely known. The Spanish Cortes refused to accept the validity of the Plan of Iguala or the Treaty of Córdoba. Spain did not recognize Mexico's independence until December 1836.Therefore, the Mexican Congress elected a Mexican monarch the following year. Iturbide was proclaimed emperor of Mexico on May 18, 1822. The monarchy lasted three years, and after the republican revolution of Casa Mata, the Congress no longer considered the Plan of Iguala or Treaty of Córdoba in effect.
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico, is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America. It is one of the most important cultural and financial centres in the Americas. It is located in the Valley of Mexico, a large valley in the high plateaus in the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 meters (7,350 ft). The city has 16 boroughs.
The Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire is the document by which the Mexican Empire declared independence from the Spanish Empire. This founding document of the Mexican nation was drafted in the National Palace in Mexico City on September 28, 1821, by Juan José Espinosa de los Monteros, secretary of the Provisional Governmental Board.
The Cortes Generales are the bicameral legislative chambers of Spain, consisting of the Congress of Deputies, and the Senate.
The Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819, also known as the Transcontinental Treaty, the Florida Purchase Treaty, or the Florida Treaty, was a treaty between the United States and Spain in 1819 that ceded Florida to the U.S. and defined the boundary between the U.S. and New Spain. It settled a standing border dispute between the two countries and was considered a triumph of American diplomacy. It came in the midst of increasing tensions related to Spain's territorial boundaries in North America against the United States and Great Britain in the aftermath of the American Revolution; it also came during the Latin American wars of independence.
Agustín de Iturbide, in full Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Arámburu, also known as Augustine of Mexico, was a Mexican army general and politician. During the Mexican War of Independence, he built a successful political and military coalition that took control in Mexico City on 27 September 1821, decisively gaining independence for Mexico. After the secession of Mexico was secured, he was proclaimed President of the Regency in 1821. A year later, he was announced as the Constitutional Emperor of Mexico, reigning briefly from 19 May 1822 to 19 March 1823. He is credited as the original designer of the first Mexican flag.
Guadalupe Victoria, born José Miguel Ramón Adaucto Fernández y Félix, was a Mexican general and political leader who fought for independence against the Spanish Empire in the Mexican War of Independence. He was a deputy in the Mexican Chamber of Deputies for Durango and a member of the Supreme Executive Power following the downfall of the First Mexican Empire. After the adoption of the Constitution of 1824, Victoria was elected as the first President of the United Mexican States.
The Plan of Iguala, also known as The Plan of the Three Guarantees or Act of Independence of North America, was a revolutionary proclamation promulgated on 24 February 1821, in the final stage of the Mexican War of Independence from Spain. The Plan stated that Mexico was to become a constitutional monarchy, whose sole official religion would be Roman Catholicism, in which the Peninsulares and Creoles of Mexico would enjoy equal political and social rights. It took its name from the city of Iguala in the modern-day state of Guerrero.
The Mexican Empire was a short-lived monarchy, and the first independent post-colonial imperial state in Mexico. It was the only former colony of the Spanish Empire to establish a monarchy after independence. Together with the Brazilian Empire and the two Haitian Empires, it was one of four European-style empires in the Americas; it lasted two years before transitioning into a federal republic.
Nicolás Bravo Rueda was the 11th President of Mexico and a soldier. He distinguished himself in both roles during the 1846–1848 U.S. invasion of Mexico.
At the end of the Mexican War of Independence, the Army of the Three Guarantees was the name given to the army after the unification of the Spanish troops led by Agustín de Iturbide and the Mexican insurgent troops of Vicente Guerrero, consolidating Mexico's independence from Spain. The decree creating this army appeared in the Plan de Iguala, which stated the three guarantees which it was meant to defend: religion, independence, and unity. Mexico was to be a Catholic empire, independent from Spain, and united against its enemies.
Juan de O'Donojú y O'Ryan (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈxwan de oˌðonoˈxu ʝ ˌoˈraʝan] was a Spanish military officer and "Jefe Político Superior" of New Spain from July 21, 1821 to September 28, 1821 during the Mexican War of Independence. He was the last Spanish ruler of New Spain.
Vicente Riva Palacio y Guerrero was a liberal politician, novelist, journalist, intellectual, and military leader.
The Spanish attempts to reconquer Mexico were an effort by the Spanish government to regain possession of its former colony of Mexico, resulting in episodes of war comprised in clashes between the newly born Mexican nation and Spain. The designation mainly covers two periods: the first attempts occurred from 1821 to 1825 and involved the defense of Mexico's territorial waters, while the second period had two stages, including the Mexican expansion plan to take the Spanish-held island of Cuba between 1826 and 1828, and the 1829 expedition of Spanish General Isidro Barradas, which landed on Mexican soil with the object of reconquering Mexican territory. Although the Spanish never regained control of the country they did damage the fledgling Mexican economy.
The Battle of Zitácuaro was a battle of the War of Mexican Independence that occurred on 2 January 1812 in the area around Zitácuaro, Michoacán. The battle was fought between the royalist forces loyal to the Spanish crown and the Mexican rebels fighting for independence from the Spanish Empire. The Mexican insurgents were commanded by General Ignacio López Rayón and the Spanish by Félix María Calleja. The battle resulted in a victory for the Spanish Royalists even in the face of overwhelming odds.
The Battle of Tecualoya was a military action of the Mexican War of Independence fought between 17–20 January 1812 in the canyons of Tecualoya, Mexico. The battle was fought between the royalist forces loyal to the Spanish crown and the Mexican rebels fighting for independence from the Spanish Empire. The Mexican insurgents were commanded by General Hermenegildo Galeana and the Spanish by Rosendo Porlier y Asteguieta. The battle resulted in a victory for Spanish loyalists.
The Battle of Tenancingo was a military action of the Mexican War of Independence fought on 22 January 1812 on the outskirts of Tenancingo de Degollado, Mexico. The battle was fought between the royalist forces loyal to the Spanish crown and the Mexican rebels fighting for independence from the Spanish Empire. The Mexican insurgents were commanded by General José María Morelos y Pavón and the Spanish by Rosendo Porlier y Asteguieta. The battle resulted in a victory for the Mexican rebels.
The Siege of Acapulco was a battle of the War of Mexican Independence that occurred on 12 April 1813 at Acapulco de Juárez. The battle was fought between the royalist forces loyal to the Spanish crown, commanded by Pedro Antonio Vélez, and the Mexican rebels fighting for independence from the Spanish Empire, commanded by José María Morelos. The battle resulted in a victory for the Mexican rebels.
José Gabriel de Armijo (1774–1830) was a Spanish and Mexican military commander of caudillo origin known for his role in the Mexican War of Independence.
The Battle of Azcapotzalco,, was fought on August 19, 1821, in the town of Azcapotzalco, near Mexico City. It was to be the last major and decisive military action of the Mexican War of Independence. The insurgents, commanded by the colonels Anastasio Bustamante and Luis Quintanar, defeated the Spanish forces commanded by Manuel de la Concha.
The Plan of Veracruz was an agreement proclaimed by Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna at the port of Mexico on December 2, 1822, it was ratified on December 6.
The Zitacuaro Council, also known under a variety of names such as the Supreme National American Meeting or Supreme Governmental Board of America, was a council established by insurgent leaders Ignacio López Rayón and José María Morelos, along with minor members José María Liceaga and José Sixto Verduzco, which would serve as a prototypical government independent of the Spanish crown.
The Regency of the Mexican Empire was a period of transition in the history of the Mexican monarchy in the absence of the Emperor of Mexico and presided by a president of the same during the First Mexican Empire (1821-1823) and the Second Mexican Empire (1863-1867). The regency is the government of a State during the minor age, absence or incapacity of its legitimate prince.
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