|Signed||January 13, 1847|
|Location||Campo de Cahuenga, California|
The Treaty of Cahuenga (Spanish : Tratado de Cahuenga), also called the Capitulation of Cahuenga (Capitulación de Cahuenga), was an 1847 agreement that ended the Conquest of California, resulting in a ceasefire between Californios and Americans. The treaty was signed at the Campo de Cahuenga on 13 January 1847, ending the fighting of the Mexican-American War within Alta California (modern-day California). The treaty was drafted in both English and Spanish by José Antonio Carrillo and signed by John C. Frémont, representing the American forces, and Andrés Pico, representing the Mexican forces.
The treaty called for the Californios to give up their artillery, and provided that all prisoners from both sides be immediately freed. Those Californios who promised not to again take up arms during the war, and to obey the laws and regulations of the United States, were allowed to peaceably return to their homes and ranchos. They were to be allowed the same rights and privileges as were allowed to citizens of the United States, and were not to be compelled to take an oath of allegiance until a treaty of peace was signed between the United States and Mexico, and were given the privilege of leaving the country if they wished to do so.
Under the later Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848, Mexico formally ceded Alta California and other territories to the United States, and the disputed border of Texas was fixed at the Rio Grande. Pico, like nearly all the Californios, became an American citizen with full legal and voting rights. Pico later became a State Assemblyman and then a State Senator representing Los Angeles in the California State Legislature.
On December 27, 1846, Frémont and the California Battalion, in their march south to Los Angeles, reached a deserted Santa Barbara and raised the American flag.He occupied a hotel close to the adobe of Bernarda Ruiz de Rodriguez, a wealthy educated woman of influence and Santa Barbara town matriarch, who had four sons on the Mexican side. She asked for and was granted ten minutes of Frémont's time, which stretched to two hours; she advised him that a generous peace would be to his political advantage—one that included Pico's pardon, release of prisoners, equal rights for all Californians and respect of property rights.
Frémont later wrote, "I found that her object was to use her influence to put an end to the war, and to do so upon such just and friendly terms of compromise as would make the peace acceptable and enduring.... She wished me to take into my mind this plan of settlement, to which she would influence her people; meantime, she urged me to hold my hand, so far as possible.... I assured her I would bear her wishes in mind when the occasion came."The next day, Bernarda accompanied Frémont as he continued the march south.
On January 8, 1847, Frémont arrived at San Fernando.On January 10, the combined army of Commodore Robert F. Stockton and Brigadier Stephen W. Kearny re-took Los Angeles with no resistance. Frémont learned of the reoccupation the next day. On January 12, Bernarda went alone to the camp of General Andres Pico and told him of the peace agreement she and Frémont had drafted. Frémont and two of Pico's officers agreed to the terms for a surrender, and Articles of Capitulation were penned by Jose Antonio Carrillo in both English and Spanish. The first seven articles in the treaty were nearly the verbatim suggestions offered by Bernarda Ruiz de Rodriguez.
On January 13, at a rancho at the north end of Cahuenga Pass, with Bernarda Ruiz de Rodriguez present, John Frémont, Andres Pico and six others signed the Articles of Capitulation, which became known as the Treaty of Cahuenga. The treaty, signed by the Mexican military commander of the area and a U.S. army colonel, was made without the formal backing of either the American government in Washington or the Mexican government in Mexico City, and even the ranking U.S. officers in the area (General Kearny and Commodore Stockton) were unaware of it.Still, it was eventually honored by both national governments and was immediately and permanently observed by the local American and Californio populations. Fighting ceased, thus ending the war in California.
On January 14, the California Battalion entered Los Angeles in a rainstorm, and Frémont delivered the treaty to Commodore Robert Stockton.Kearny and Stockton decided to accept the liberal terms offered by Frémont to terminate hostilities although Andres Pico had broken his earlier pledge that he would not fight U.S. forces. The next day, Stockton approved the Treaty of Cahuenga in a message that he sent to the Secretary of the Navy.
In celebration, on or around the date of the original signing, a historical ceremony is conducted at Campo de Cahuenga State Historic Park and site.From time to time, some of the descendants have appeared, along with actors to re-create this historical moment.
Don Pío de Jesús Pico was a Californio politician, ranchero, and entrepreneur, famous for serving as the last Governor of Alta California under Mexican rule. A member of the prominent Pico family of California, he was one of the wealthiest men in California at the time and a hugely influential figure in Californian society. His legacy can be seen in the numerous places named after him, such as the city of Pico Rivera, Pico Boulevard in Los Angeles, Pio Pico State Historic Park, and the numerous schools that bear his name.
Stephen Watts Kearny ; was one of the foremost antebellum frontier officers of the United States Army. He is remembered for his significant contributions in the Mexican–American War, especially the conquest of California. The Kearny code, proclaimed on September 22, 1846, in Santa Fe, established the law and government of the newly acquired territory of New Mexico and was named after him. His nephew was Major General Philip Kearny of American Civil War fame.
Robert Field Stockton was a United States Navy commodore, notable in the capture of California during the Mexican–American War. He was a naval innovator and an early advocate for a propeller-driven, steam-powered navy. Stockton was from a notable political family and also served as a U.S. senator from New Jersey.
Californio is a term used to designate a Hispanic Californian, especially those descended from Spanish and Mexican settlers. California's Spanish-speaking community has resided there since 1683 and is made up of varying Spanish, Mexican, Mestizo, and Indigenous Californian origins. Alongside the Tejanos of Texas and Neomexicanos of New Mexico and Colorado, Californios are part of the larger Chicano/Mexican-American/Hispano community of the United States, which has inhabited the American Southwest and the West Coast since the 16th century.
The Battle of San Pasqual, also spelled San Pascual, was a military encounter that occurred during the Mexican–American War in what is now the San Pasqual Valley community of the city of San Diego, California. The series of military skirmishes ended with both sides claiming victory, and the victor of the battle is still debated. On December 6 and December 7, 1846, General Stephen W. Kearny's US Army of the West, along with a small detachment of the California Battalion led by a Marine Lieutenant, engaged a small contingent of Californios and their Presidial Lancers Los Galgos, led by Major Andrés Pico. After U.S. reinforcements arrived, Kearny's troops were able to reach San Diego.
The Battle of Río San Gabriel, fought on 8 January 1847, was a decisive action of the California campaign of the Mexican–American War and occurred at a ford of the San Gabriel River, at what are today parts of the cities of Whittier, Pico Rivera and Montebello, about ten miles south-east of downtown Los Angeles.
The Battle of La Mesa was the final battle of the California Campaign during the Mexican–American War, occurring on January 9, 1847, in present-day Vernon, California, the day after the Battle of Rio San Gabriel. The battle was a victory for the United States Army under Commodore Robert F. Stockton and General Stephen Watts Kearny.
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The Campo de Cahuenga, near the historic Cahuenga Pass in present-day Studio City, California, was an adobe ranch house on the Rancho Cahuenga where the Treaty of Cahuenga was signed between Lieutenant Colonel John C. Frémont and General Andrés Pico in 1847, ending hostilities in California between Mexico and the United States. The subsequent Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo of 1848, ceding California, parts of Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Arizona to the United States, formally ended the Mexican–American War. From 1858 to 1861 the Campo de Cahuenga became a Butterfield Stage Station.
The Battle of the Natividad took place on November 16, 1846, in the Salinas Valley, in present-day Monterey County, California, United States, during the California Campaign of the Mexican–American War, between United States organized California militia and loyalist Mexican militia.
Major Archibald H. Gillespie was an officer in the United States Marine Corps during the Mexican–American War.
General José María Flores was an officer in the Mexican Army and was a member of la otra banda. He was appointed Governor and Comandante Generalpro tem of Alta California from 1846 to 1847, and defended California against the Americans during the Mexican–American War.
The Siege of Los Angeles was a military response by armed Mexican civilians to the occupation, which had begun August 13, 1846, by the United States Marines of the Pueblo de Los Ángeles during the Mexican–American War. It is also known as the Battle of Los Angeles.
Captain José Antonio Ezequiel Carrillo (1796–1862) was a Californio politician, ranchero, and signer of the Californian Constitution in 1849. He served three terms as Alcalde of Los Angeles (mayor).
The California Battalion was formed during the Mexican–American War (1846–1848) in present-day California, United States. It was led by U.S. Army Brevet Lieutenant Colonel John C. Fremont and composed of his cartographers, scouts and hunters and the California Volunteer Militia formed after the Bear Flag Revolt. The battalion's formation was officially authorized by Commodore Robert F. Stockton, commanding officer of the U.S. Navy Pacific Squadron.
Bartolo is a former settlement in Los Angeles County, California. It lay at an elevation of 223 feet. Bartolo still appeared on maps as of 1926. Its original name came from Rancho Paso de Bartolo, the lands of the Mexican governor of California, Pio Pico, which in turn was named for the San Gabriel River ford called Paso de Bartolo Viejo, near Beverly Road and the San Gabriel River. It was a station on the Union Pacific Railroad at the junction of its branch line to Whittier and its main line. Today, the area is part of the cities of Whittier and Pico Rivera, which is named for Pio Pico.
The Conquest of California, also known as the Conquest of Alta California or the California Campaign, was an important military campaign of the Mexican–American War carried out by the United States in Alta California, then a part of Mexico. The conquest lasted from 1846 into 1847, until military leaders from both the Californios and Americans signed the Treaty of Cahuenga, which ended the conflict in California.
Bernarda Ruiz De Rodriguez was a native Californio who may have had a hand in brokering the Treaty of Cahuenga between American Lieutenant-Colonel John C. Frémont and Mexican General Andrés Pico on January 13, 1847 at Campo de Cahuenga in what is now Universal City, Los Angeles, California.
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The Sycamore Tree is a historic tree used for many years as a special meeting place. The tree is located just off California State Route 126 in the middle of Hall Road, 4 Miles East of Santa Paula, California in Ventura County. Address is in the 3800 block of Sycamore Road, Fillmore, California, just north of the Santa Clara River. The site became California Historical Landmark number 756 on February 22, 1960. The tree has been used in the past as a polling place, Padres resting place on the El Camino Real, outdoor chapel and post office. In December 1846 General John C. Frémont passed the tree on his trip to sign a treaty with General Andrés Pico to secure California's annexation to the United States, called the Treaty of Cahuenga. The Treaty was signed on January 13, 1847, at Campo de Cahuenga in what is now Universal City, California.
[Frémont] took it upon himself to sign it on behalf of the United States. Never mind that he was subordinate to both Stockton and Kearny and that they were both within communicating distance.
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