Treaty of Canton

Last updated
Treaty of Canton
TypeBilateral
SignedMarch 20, 1847 (1847-03-20)
EffectiveOctober 28, 1847 (1847-10-28)
PartiesChina and Sweden-Norway
LanguagesSwedish and Chinese

The Treaty of Canton (Chinese :中瑞廣州條約, Swedish : Fördraget i Kanton) was the first treaty made between Sweden-Norway and the Chinese Empire. [1] The treaty was negotiated in March 1847 by Carl Fredrik Liljevalch and Qiying, the Viceroy of Liangguang, [2] and was one of the unequal treaties between Western powers and China that followed the First Opium War.

Contents

The treaty was actually never ratified by Chinese representatives, which cast a shadow over the legality of the outcome, but nevertheless went into effect, lasting the following 60 years. [3]

Provisions

Its terms, similar to the 1844 Treaty of Wanghia between the United States and China, provided that Sweden-Norway would have the same privileges in China as other treaty powers, so-called most-favored-nation status. [4] Like the United States and British Empire before it, commercial access was granted to the five treaty ports of Canton (Kwangchow), Amoy, Fuzhou, Ningbo and Shanghai. This was in stark contrast to previous Western relations with China, when only Canton was open for foreign trade.
Like other Western countries, extraterritorial rights was given to Sweden-Norway; jurisdiction over citizens of Sweden and Norway in the treaty ports was transferred from China to Sweden-Norway. The treaty furthermore allowed Sweden-Norway to send consuls to China, and to have its commerce being subjected to fixed tariffs only. The provisions of the treaty remained in force until the twentieth century, with a new treaty being negotiated in 1908 by Gustav Oscar Wallenberg, three years after the dissolution of Sweden-Norway. [5]

See also

Notes

  1. Liljevalch, Carl Fredrik. (1848). Chinas handel: industri och Statsforfattning, p. 22. , p. 22, at Google Books
  2. Hofbert, Herman et al. (1906). "Liljewalch, Carl Fredrik" Svenskt biografiskt handlexikon, Vol. II, p. 55; retrieved 2011-07-15
  3. Cassel, Pär. Traktaten som aldrig var och fördraget som nästan inte blev - De svensk-norsk–kinesiska förbindelserna 1847–1909*
  4. Tai, En-Sai. (1918). Treaty ports in China (a study in diplomacy), p. 161. , p. 161, at Google Books
  5. "Treaty of Amity, Commerce and Navigation, between Sweden and China, Signed at Peking, July 2, 1908, with the Additional Article Signed at Peking May 24, 1909". The American Journal of International Law. 4 (4): 337–346. 1910. doi:10.2307/2212084. JSTOR   2212084.

Related Research Articles

The Governor of Stockholm was the head of the Office of the Governor of Stockholm, and as such he was the highest Swedish State official overseeing the affairs in the City of Stockholm between 1634 and 1967. The Governor was the equivalent in Stockholm of a county governor elsewhere in Sweden.

Magnus Brahe (1564–1633) Swedish nobleman (1564–1633)

Count Magnus Brahe (1564–1633) was a Swedish noble. Being both Lord High Constable and Lord High Steward of Sweden, he was a notable figure in the 17th century Sweden.

Carl Fredrik Liljevalch Sr. Swedish businessman, entrepreneur and diplomat

Carl Fredrik Liljevalch was a Swedish businessman, entrepreneur and diplomat. Liljevalch was long active in the Swedish forest industry and organized the Sweden's two first circumnavigations. Liljevalch is the father of Carl Fredrik Liljevalch Jr., whose estate laid the foundation of Liljevalchs konsthall in Stockholm.

Carl Lewenhaupt

Count Carl Lewenhaupt was a Swedish diplomat and politician, who was Minister for Foreign Affairs from 1889 to 1895.

Nils Johan Ekdahl Swedish theologian, political writer and cultural historian

Nils Johan Ekdahl was a Swedish theologian, political writer and cultural historian.

Peter (Petter) Jacob Hjelm was a Swedish chemist and the first person to isolate the element molybdenum in 1781, four years after its discovery by Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele. Working with Molybdic acid, Hjelm chemically reduced molybdenum oxide with carbon in an oxygen-free atmosphere, resulting in carbon dioxide and a near-pure dark metal powder to which he gave the name 'molybdenum'. His first publication on molybdenum appeared in 1790.

Erik Wilhelm Djurström née Strandberg was a Swedish stage actor. He was the director of the travelling Djurström theater company, which was one of the most well known in the first half of the 19th-century.

Carl Stenborg Swedish opera singer

Carl Stenborg was a Swedish opera singer, composer and theatre director. He belonged to the pioneer generation of the Royal Swedish Opera and was regarded as one of the leading opera singers of the Gustavian era. He was a hovsångare and a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Music.

Adolf W. Edelsvärd Swedish architect

Adolf Wilhelm Edelsvärd was a Swedish architect, engineer and military officer.

Adolf Ludvig Stierneld Swedish baron and politician

Adolf Ludvig Stierneld, was a Swedish baron, politician, courtier and collector of historical documents. Recent historical research has revealed him to be one of Sweden's best and most prolific document forgers. He was born in Stockholm and died in Gripsholm.

Carl Christoffer Gjörwell Sr. Swedish historian

Carl Christoffer Gjörwell , was a Swedish journalist, a prolific editor of some twenty journals and a psalmist whose hymns were published in the Moravian hymnal Sions Nya Sånger and elsewhere. His name is alternatively rendered as Carl Christoffersson Gjörwell, Carl Christopher Gjörwell or Karl Kristofer Gjörwell.

Axel Jungstedt Swedish artist

Axel Jungstedt was a Swedish painter.

Fredrik Blom Swedish architect

Fredrik Blom was a Swedish officer, architect and professor at the Royal Swedish Academy of Arts.

Eric Julius Biörner was born July 22, 1696 in the Swedish parish of Timrå in Medelpad and died in 1750.

Jeanette Möller, née Holmlund, was a Swedish painter.

Count Fabian Reinhold von Fersen was a Swedish count, politician, officer and courtier. He was the son of Axel von Fersen the Elder and Hedvig Catharina De la Gardie and the brother of Count Axel von Fersen the Younger, Hedvig Eleonora von Fersen and Sophie Piper.

Johan Fredrik Martin 18th century Swedish painter and engraver

Johan Fredrik Martin was a Swedish painter and engraver of the eighteenth century. He worked in a variety of media, especially stipple, contour etching and aquatint.

Carl Seuerling Swedish actor

Carl Gottfried Seuerling (1727-1795) was a German born, Swedish stage actor and theater director. He was the director of the Seuerling theater Company in 1768-93 and as such the leader of one of only two professional Swedish language theater companies in Sweden of the era.

Events from the year 1847 in China.

Claes Grill

Claes Grill was a Swedish merchant, factory owner and ship-owner. He was director of the Grill Trading House, one of the leading companies in the East India trade through the Swedish East India Company (SOIC). The trading house also ran a banking business and owned several ironworks in Sweden. Grill also owned several estates, was interested in natural science and had a brief and unsuccessful political career.

References