The Treaty of Istanbul (Turkish : İstanbul antlaşması) was signed on 22 July 1533 in Constantinople (Istanbul) by the Ottoman Empire and the Archduchy of Austria.
During the Battle of Mohács in 1526 the king of Hungary, Louis II, had died without an heir to throne, but since the Ottoman Empire did not annex Hungary after the war, the Hungarian throne was left vacant for several months. : Erdel, now the west of Romania). Although Szapolyai was backed by most of the Hungarian elite, Ferdinand declared himself the legal king of Hungary, with the support of his older brother, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. The Ottoman Empire, however, backed Szapolyai, and Emperor Suleyman I mounted a threat against Austria in two military campaigns (of 1529 and 1532). Ferdinand saw that it was impossible to establish his rule in Hungary.Two claimants emerged: Ferdinand I, the archduke of Austria; and János Szapolyai, the voivode (governor) of Transylvania (Turkish
Meanwhile, the shah of Safavid Persia, Tahmasp I, became active in the eastern borders of the Ottoman Empire. Suleyman decided to concentrate his activities in the east and to give up his pursuit of hostilities in the westand so the treaty was signed.
The terms of the treaty were as follows:
Peace was violated with the 1537 Battle of Gorjani and the 1538 Battle of Preveza.
Szapolyai had no son, and according to the Treaty of Nagyvárad, signed in 1538, Ferdinand was the heir to the throne. However, after the treaty, Szapolyai's wife gave birth to a son. In 1540, when Szapolyai died of natural causes, Ferdinand reclaimed the throne, and the war was renewed.This time, Suleyman reversed his policy of allowing Hungary to persist as a vassal kingdom and annexed most of Hungary in his two campaigns in 1541 and 1543. Szapolyai's infant son was transferred to Transylvania, his father's former principality.
Suleiman I, commonly known as Suleiman the Magnificent in the West and Suleiman the Lawgiver in his realm, was the tenth and longest-reigning Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 until his death in 1566. Under his administration, the Ottoman caliphate ruled over at least 25 million people.
Ferdinand I was Holy Roman Emperor from 1556, King of Bohemia, Hungary, and Croatia from 1526, and Archduke of Austria from 1521 until his death in 1564. Before his accession, he ruled the Austrian hereditary lands of the Habsburgs in the name of his elder brother, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. Also, he often served as Charles' representative in Germany and developed encouraging relationships with German princes.
John Zápolya, or John Szapolyai, was King of Hungary from 1526 to 1540. His rule was disputed by Archduke Ferdinand I, who also claimed the title King of Hungary. He was Voivode of Transylvania before his coronation, from 1510 to 1526.
Isabella Jagiellon was the oldest child of Polish King Sigismund I the Old, the Grand Duke of Lithuania and his Italian wife Bona Sforza. In 1539, she married John Zápolya, Voivode of Transylvania and King of Hungary, becoming Queen consort of Hungary. At the time Hungary was contested between Archduke Ferdinand of Austria who wanted to add it to the Habsburg domains, local nobles who wanted to keep Hungary independent, and Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent who saw it as a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire. While Isabella's marriage lasted only a year and a half, it did produce a male heir – John Sigismund Zápolya born just two weeks before his father's death in July 1540. She spent the rest of her life embroiled in succession disputes on behalf of her son. Her husband's death sparked renewed hostilities but Sultan Suleiman established her as a regent of the eastern regions of the medieval Kingdom of Hungary on behalf of her infant son. The region developed as a semi-independent buffer state noted for its freedom of religion. Ferdinand, however, never renounced his claims to reunite Hungary and conspired with Bishop George Martinuzzi who forced Isabella to abdicate in 1551. She returned to her native Poland to live with her family. Sultan Suleiman retaliated and threatened to invade Hungary in 1555–56 forcing nobles to invite Isabella back to Transylvania. She returned in October 1556 and ruled as her son's regent until her death in September 1559.
The Eastern Hungarian Kingdom is a modern term coined by historians to designate the realm of John Zápolya and his son John Sigismund Zápolya, who contested the claims of the House of Habsburg to rule the Kingdom of Hungary from 1526 to 1570. The Zápolyas ruled over an eastern part of Hungary, and the Habsburg kings ruled the west. The Habsburgs tried several times to unite all Hungary under their rule, but the Ottoman Empire prevented that by supporting the Eastern Hungarian Kingdom.
The Ottoman–Habsburg wars were fought from the 16th through the 18th centuries between the Ottoman Empire and the Habsburg Monarchy, which was at times supported by the Holy Roman Empire, Kingdom of Hungary, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, and Habsburg Spain. The wars were dominated by land campaigns in Hungary, including Transylvania and Vojvodina, Croatia and central Serbia.
Habsburg–Ottoman wars in Hungary, from 1526 to 1568, were wars between the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire, waged on the territory of the Kingdom of Hungary and several adjacent lands in Southeastern Europe. The Habsburgs and the Ottomans engaged in a series of military campaigns against one another in Hungary between 1526 and 1568. While overall the Ottomans had the upper hand, the war failed to produce any decisive result. The Ottoman army remained very powerful in the open field but it often lost a significant amount of time besieging the many fortresses of the Hungarian frontier and its communication lines were now dangerously overstretched. At the end of the conflict, Hungary had been split into several different zones of control, between the Ottomans, Habsburgs, and Transylvania, an Ottoman vassal state.
The Battle of Çıldır was fought in 1578 during the Ottoman–Safavid War (1578–1590).
Süleyman Çelebi was an Ottoman prince and a co-ruler of the empire for several years during the Ottoman Interregnum. There is a tradition of western origin, according to which Suleiman the Magnificent was "Suleiman II", but that tradition has been based on an erroneous assumption that Süleyman Çelebi was to be recognised as a legitimate sultan.
İsa Çelebi was an Ottoman prince and a co-ruler of the empire during the Ottoman Interregnum.
Şehzade Ahmet was an Ottoman prince who fought to gain the throne of the Ottoman Empire in 1512–13..
Savcı Bey (1362-1385) was a prince who, with Andronikos, rebelled against both of their fathers, the Ottoman emperor Murat I and the Byzantine emperor John V Palaiologos, respectively, in the 1370s. Savcı was the youngest of Murat's three sons. The name of his mother and birth year are unknown. In Ottoman tradition, all princes were required to serve as provincial (sanjak) governors as a part of their training. Savcı's sanjak was Bursa, the co-capital of the empire.
Capture of Belgrade refers to the recapture of Belgrade by the Ottoman Empire in 1739.
Abaza Siyavuş Pasha was a short term grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire who held the post during one of the most chaotic periods of the empire.
The Treaty of Nagyvárad was a secret peace agreement between Emperor Ferdinand I and John Zápolya, rival claimants to the Kingdom of Hungary, signed in Grosswardein / Várad on February 24, 1538. In the treaty, they divided Hungary between them.
During the Siege of Naģykanizsa in 1601, a small Ottoman force held the fortress of Naģykanizsa in western Hungary against a much larger coalition army of the Habsburg Monarchy, while inflicting heavy losses on its besiegers.
Siege of Érsekújvár refers to capture of Érsekújvár by Ottoman Turks in 1663.
Ishak of Karaman was a bey of the Karamanids, a Turkish principality in Anatolia in the 15th century. He succeeded his father Ibrahim Bey in 1464. His mother was Turkish. He was the legal heir to throne, and his half brothers opposed him. At the time of his father's death, he was a local governor in Silifke. When he tried to march to his capital Konya, he learned that his younger brother Pir Ahmet had put a claim on the throne. This resulted in an interregnum in the beylik. The help of Uzun Hasan, the sultan of Akkoyunlu Turkmens enabled him to ascend to the throne, albeit for a short reign. Because, Pir Ahmet appealed to Ottoman sultan Mehmet II for help. He offered Mehmet some territory which Ishak refused to cede. With Ottoman help, Pir Ahmet defeated Ishak in the battle of Dağpazarı. Ishak had to be concerned with Silifke for an unknown time. The Karamanids principality soon fell to the Ottomans.
The Siege of Constantinople of 1411 occurred during the Ottoman Interregnum, or Ottoman Civil War,, when chaos reigned in the Ottoman Empire following the defeat of Sultan Bayezid I by the Central Asian warlord Timur. Although Mehmed Çelebi was confirmed as sultan by Timur after the Battle of Ankara, his brothers İsa Çelebi, Musa Çelebi, Süleyman Çelebi, and later, Mustafa Çelebi, refused to recognize his authority, each claiming the throne for himself. A civil war was the result. The Interregnum lasted until the Battle of Camurlu on 5 July 1413, when Mehmed Çelebi emerged as victor in the strife, crowned himself sultan Mehmed I, and restored peace to the empire.