Treaty of Hudaybiyyah

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Treaty of Hudaybiyyah
Hudaibiyyah Peace Agreement
TypePeace Agreement
Draftedc.629 CE
Signedc.629 CE
LocationHudaybiyyah
Effectivec.630 CE
Negotiators Muhammad
Suhayl ibn Amr
Ali ibn Abi Talib
Parties Quraysh
Muslims
Any other tribe can also join as well
Language Arabic
Wikisource-logo.svg Treaty of Hudaibiyyah at Wikisource

The Treaty of Hudaybiyyah (Arabic : صَلَح ٱلْحُدَيْبِيَّة, romanized: Ṣalaḥ Al-Ḥudaybiyyah) was an event that took place during the time of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. It was a pivotal treaty between Muhammad, representing the state of Medina, and the Qurayshi tribe of Mecca in January 628 (corresponding to Dhu al-Qi'dah, AH 6). It helped to decrease tension between the two cities, affirmed peace for a period of 9 years, 9 months and 9 days, and authorised Muhammad's followers to return the following year in a peaceful pilgrimage, later known as The First Pilgrimage. [1] [2] [3]

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Attempted pilgrimage

Muhammad had a premonition that he entered Mecca and did tawaf around the Ka'bah. His companions in Madinah were delighted when he told them about it. They all revered Mecca and the Kaaba and they learned to do tawaf there. In 628, Muhammad and a group of 1,400 Muslims marched peacefully without arms towards Mecca, in an attempt to perform the Umrah (pilgrimage). They were dressed as pilgrims, and brought sacrificial animals, hoping that the Quraish would honour the Arabian custom of allowing pilgrims to enter the city. The Muslims had left Medina in a state of ihram , a premeditated spiritual and physical state which restricted their freedom of action and prohibited fighting. This, along with the paucity of arms carried, indicated that the pilgrimage was always intended to be peaceful. [4]

Muhammad and his followers camped outside of Mecca, and Muhammad met with Meccan emissaries who wished to prevent the pilgrims' entry into Mecca. After negotiations, the two parties decided to resolve the matter through diplomacy rather than warfare, and a treaty was drawn up. [5]

Conditional Points of the Treaty

Having a long discussion Both Parties agreed with some conditional points, they are like-

  1. The  Messenger  of Allah  will have  to  return to  Medina  instead of  having entranced Mecca that year. The Muslim shall perform their pilgrimage on upcoming year and  they  would stay  in  peace at  Mecca  for three  days  with no  arms  except sheathed swords.
  2. There  will  be a  truce  between both  parties  for ten  years,  whereby during  this period all the people may enjoy safety and harmony.
  3. Whoever wish to enter into a covenant with the Prophet will be allowed to do so, and whoever wish to enter into a covenant with the Quraysh will be allowed to do so. Whoever enter into anyone of the parties, will be considered as a part of that party.   Likewise,  any   sort   of  exaggeration   on   them  will   be   considered  as exaggeration against that party.
  4.  Whoever come  to  Muhammad  from  Mecca fleeing  away  without having permission from his/her guardians, will be sent back to the Quraysh, but whoever come to the Quraysh from the Muslims will not be sent back to the Muslims. And the Writer of the treaty was Ali Ibn Abu Taleb. [6]

Umar's opposition

After the treaty was signed, most of the pilgrims objected to Muhammad giving in on most points to the Quraysh, use the name of Allah and call himself the Messenger of God. That led to Umar questioning about Muhammad's resolve. [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] after that he used to regret that he used to talk to the Prophet in the manner that he had never use to talk before. [11] This has even been recorded in Sahih Muslim. [14] [ original research? ]

Significance

The Treaty of Hudaybiyyah was very important in Islam. After the signing of the treaty, the Quraysh of Mecca no longer considered Muhammad to be a rebel or a fugitive from Mecca. They also recognised the Islamic state in Medina by signing the treaty. The treaty also allowed the Muslims who were still in Mecca to practise Islam publicly. Further, as there was no longer a constant struggle between the Muslims and the polytheists, many people saw Islam in a new light, which led to many more people accepting Islam. In addition, the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah paved the way for many other tribes to make treaties with the Muslims. The treaty also serves as an example that Islam was not merely spread with the sword, as Muhammad had an army that could have attacked Mecca, but Muhammad chose to make a treaty instead of attacking. [15]

A verse of the Quran was revealed about the treaty, which means, "Verily we have granted thee a manifest victory" (Quran 48:1).

See also

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References

  1. Tafsir
  2. Armstrong, Karen (2007). Muhammad: A Prophet for Our Time . New York: HarperCollins. pp. 175–181. ISBN   978-0-06-115577-2.
  3. Armstrong, Karen (2002). Islam: A Short History . New York: Modern Library. p. 23. ISBN   978-0-8129-6618-3.
  4. Andrae; Menzel (1960) p. 156; See also: Watt (1964) p. 183. On p. 182 Watt gives the date of setting out as "13 March". This is according to the fixed calendar, which did not come into use for another four years. See Expedition of Dhat al-Riqa#Discrepancy in dates.
  5. Mutahhari, Murtadha (2020). "The Event Of Hudaybiyyah". Al-Islam. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  6. Al Mamun, Abdullah. "THE ROLE OF THE TREATY OF HUDAYBIAH IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS". Malaysian Journal Of Islamic Studies (MJIS). 3 (2): 136.
  7. Razwy, Sayed Ali Asgher. A Restatement of the History of Islam & Muslims. pp. 183–186.
  8. Glubb, Sir John. The Great Arab Conquests.
  9. Bodley, R.V.C. The Messenger - the Life of Mohammed .
  10. al-Samawi, Muhammad al-Tijani. Then I was Guided.
  11. 1 2 "The Treaty of Hudaybiyah". Questions on Islam. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
  12. Ibn Hisham. ibid, Volume 3. p. 331.
  13. ibn Hanbal, Ahmad. ibid, Volume 4. p. 330.
  14. Muslim. Sahih, Volume 3. p. 1412.
  15. "Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)". islamqa.info. Retrieved 28 November 2018.