Treaty of Karlowitz

Last updated
Peace of Karlowitz
Treaty of Karlowitz.jpg
The official document of the treaty
Context Great Turkish War of 1683–1697
Draftedfrom 16 November 1698
Signed26 January 1699 (1699-01-26)
LocationKarlowitz, Military Frontier, Habsburg Empire (now Sremski Karlovci, Serbia)
Signatories
Parties
Languages
Ottoman Empire prior to and after the Treaty of Karlowitz Traite-Karlovci.jpg
Ottoman Empire prior to and after the Treaty of Karlowitz

The Treaty of Karlowitz was signed on 26 January 1699 in Sremski Karlovci, in modern-day Serbia, concluding the Great Turkish War of 1683–1697 in which the Ottoman Empire had been defeated at the Battle of Zenta by the Holy League. [1] It marks the end of Ottoman control in much of Central Europe, with their first major territorial losses after centuries of expansion, and established the Habsburg Monarchy as the dominant power in the region. [2]

Sremski Karlovci Town and municipality in Vojvodina, Serbia

Sremski Karlovci is a town and municipality located in the South Bačka District of the autonomous province of Vojvodina, Serbia. It is situated on the bank of the river Danube, 8 kilometres from Novi Sad. According to the 2011 census results, it has a population of 8,750 inhabitants. The town has traditionally been known as the seat of the Serbian Orthodox Church in the Habsburg Monarchy, as well as political and cultural capital of Serbian Vojvodina after the May Assembly and during the Revolution in 1848.

Serbia Republic in Southeastern Europe

Serbia, officially the Republic of Serbia, is a country situated at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe in the southern Pannonian Plain and the central Balkans. It borders Hungary to the north, Romania to the northeast, Bulgaria to the southeast, North Macedonia to the south, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina to the west, and Montenegro to the southwest. The country claims a border with Albania through the disputed territory of Kosovo. Serbia's population numbers approximately seven million, most of whom are Orthodox Christians. Its capital, Belgrade, ranks among the oldest and largest citiеs in southeastern Europe.

Great Turkish War Series of conflicts (1683–1699) between the Ottoman Empire and the Holy League

The Great Turkish War or the War of the Holy League was a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and the Holy League consisting of the Habsburg Monarchy, Poland-Lithuania, Venice and Russia. Intensive fighting began in 1683 and ended with the signing of the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699. The war was a defeat for the Ottoman Empire, which for the first time lost large amounts of territory. It lost lands in Hungary and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, as well as part of the western Balkans. The war was also significant in that it marked the first time Russia was involved in a western European alliance.

Contents

Context and terms

Following a two-month congress between the Ottoman Empire on one side and the Holy League of 1684, a coalition of the Holy Roman Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Republic of Venice and Peter the Great, Tsar of Russia, [3] a treaty was signed on 26 January 1699.

The Holy League of 1684 was an alliance organized by Pope Innocent XI to oppose the Ottoman Empire in the Great Turkish War. The League's initial members were the Papal States, the Holy Roman Empire under Habsburg Emperor Leopold I, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth of John III Sobieski, and the Venetian Republic; the Tsardom of Russia joined the League in 1686. The alliance lasted until the Treaty of Karlowitz brought an end to the war in 1699.

Holy Roman Empire Varying complex of lands that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe

The Holy Roman Empire was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it also came to include the neighboring Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, and numerous other territories.

Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Former European state

The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth – formally, the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and, after 1791, the Commonwealth of Poland – was a dual state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania. It was one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th- to 17th-century Europe. At its largest territorial extent, in the early 17th century, the Commonwealth covered almost 400,000 square miles (1,000,000 km2) and sustained a multi-ethnic population of 11 million.

On the basis of uti possidetis , the treaty confirmed the then-current territorial holdings of each power. [2] The Habsburgs received from the Ottomans the Eğri Eyalet, Varat Eyalet, much of the Budin Eyalet, the northern part of the Temeşvar Eyalet and parts of the Bosnia Eyalet. This corresponded to much of Hungary, Croatia and Slavonia. The Principality of Transylvania remained nominally independent but was subject to the direct rule of Austrian governors. [2] Poland recovered Podolia, including the dismantled fortress at Kamaniçe. [2]

Uti possidetis is a principle in international law that territory and other property remains with its possessor at the end of a conflict, unless otherwise provided for by treaty; if such a treaty does not include conditions regarding the possession of property and territory taken during the war, then the principle of uti possidetis will prevail. Originating in Roman law, the phrase is derived from the Latin expression uti possidetis, ita possideatis, meaning "may you continue to possess such as you do possess". This principle enables a belligerent party to claim territory that it has acquired by war.

Eğri Eyalet Ottoman province

Eğri Eyalet or Pashaluk of Eğri was an administrative territorial entity of the Ottoman Empire formed in 1596 with its capital at Eğri. It included parts of present-day Hungary, Slovakia and Serbia.

Varat Eyalet Ottoman province

Varat Eyalet was an administrative territorial entity of the Ottoman Empire formed in 1660. Varat Eyalet bordered Ottoman Budin Eyalet in the west, Temeşvar Eyalet in the southwest, Egir Eyalet in the northwest, vassal Ottoman Principality of Transylvania in the southeast, and Habsburg Royal Hungary in the north.

Venice obtained most of Dalmatia along with the Morea (the Peloponnese peninsula of southern Greece), though the Morea was restored to the Turks within 20 years by the Treaty of Passarowitz. [2] There was no agreement about the Holy Sepulchre, although it was discussed in Karlowitz. [4]

Dalmatia Historical region of Croatia

Dalmatia is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper, Slavonia, and Istria.

Morea

The Morea was the name of the Peloponnese peninsula in southern Greece during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. The name was used for the Byzantine province known as the Despotate of the Morea, by the Ottoman Empire for the Morea Eyalet, and by the Republic of Venice for the short-lived Kingdom of the Morea.

Peloponnese Traditional region of Greece

The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus is a peninsula and geographic region in southern Greece. It is connected to the central part of the country by the Isthmus of Corinth land bridge which separates the Gulf of Corinth from the Saronic Gulf. During the late Middle Ages and the Ottoman era, the peninsula was known as the Morea, a name still in colloquial use in its demotic form.

The Ottomans retained Belgrade, the Banat of Temesvár (modern Timișoara), as well as suzerainty over Wallachia and Moldavia. Negotiations with Muscovy for a further year under a truce agreed at Karlowitz culminated in the Treaty of Constantinople of 1700, whereby the Sultan ceded the Azov region to Peter the Great. [2] (Muscovy had to return these territories eleven years later following the failed Pruth River Campaign and the Treaty of the Pruth in 1711.)

Belgrade City in Serbia

Belgrade is the capital and largest city of Serbia. It is located at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers and the crossroads of the Pannonian Plain and the Balkan Peninsula. The urban area of Belgrade has a population of 1.23 million, while within administrative limits of the City of Belgrade live nearly 1.7 million people, a quarter of total population of Serbia.

Banat of Temeswar

The Banat of Temeswar or Banat of Temes was a Habsburg province that existed between 1718 and 1778. It was located in the present day region of Banat, which was named after this province. The province was abolished in 1778 and incorporated into the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary.

Timișoara City and County Seat in Timiș, Romania

Timișoara is the capital city of Timiș County, the 3rd largest city in Romania and the main social, economic and cultural centre in western Romania.

Commissions were set up to devise the new borders between the Austrians and the Turks, with some parts disputed until 1703. [2] Largely through the efforts of the Habsburg commissioner Luigi Ferdinando Marsigli, the Croatian and Bihać borders were agreed by mid-1700 and that at Temesvár by early 1701, leading to a border demarcated by physical landmarks for the first time. [2]

Bihać City in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bihać is a city and the administrative center of Una-Sana Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is situated on the banks of river Una in northwestern Bosnia and Herzegovina, in the Bosanska Krajina region. As of 2013, it has a population of 56,261 inhabitants.

The acquisition of some 60,000 square miles (160,000 km2) of Hungarian territories at Karlowitz and of the Banat of Temesvár 18 years later by the Treaty of Passarowitz, enlarged Austrian State of the Habsburgs to its largest extent cementing Austria as a dominant regional power. [2] It increased in size by the acquisition of Polish territories in 1772 and 1795, Dalmatia in 1815 and Bosnia-Herzegovina in 1878.[ citation needed ]

Maps and images

Notes

  1. Nolan 2008, p. 27.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Ágoston, Gábor (2010). "Treaty of Karlowitz". Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. Infobase Publishing. pp. 309–10. ISBN   978-0816-06259-1.
  3. Robert Bideleux, Ian Jeffries, A History of Eastern Europe: Crisis and Change, Routledge, New York, 1998, p. 86. ISBN   0-415-16111-8
  4. János Nepomuk Jozsef Mailáth (gróf) (1848). Geschichte der europäischen Staaten (Geschichte des östreichischen Kaiserstaates, Band 4) [History of the European States (History of the Austrian Empire, volume 4)]. Hamburg: F. Perthes. pp. 262–63.

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