|Signed||25 June 1728|
|Languages|| Latin |
The Treaty of Kyakhta (or Kiakhta) (Russian : Кяхтинский договор, Kjahtinskij dogovor; Chinese :布連斯奇條約/恰克圖條約; pinyin :Bùliánsīqí / Qiàkètú tiáoyuē, Xiao'erjing: بُلِيًاصِٿِ / ٿِاكْتُ تِيَوْيُؤ; Mongolian : Хиагтын гэрээ, Khiagtyn geree), along with the Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689), regulated the relations between Imperial Russia and the Qing Empire of China until the mid-19th century. It was signed by Tulišen and Count Sava Lukich Raguzinskii-Vladislavich at the border city of Kyakhta on 23 August 1727.
Qing subjects are referred to as those from "Dulimbai gurun" in Manchu in the Treaty.
By the 1640s Russian adventurers had taken control of the forested area north of Mongolia and Manchuria. From 1644 the Manchus made themselves masters of China (Qing dynasty). In 1689 the Treaty of Nerchinsk established the northern border of Manchuria north of the present line. The Russians retained Trans-Baikalia between Lake Baikal and the Argun River north of Mongolia.
At the time of Nerchinsk what is now Mongolia had just been captured by the Oirat Dzungar Khanate. These people were gradually pushed back westward. This raised the question of the Russo-Manchu border in Mongolia and opened the possibility of trade from the Lake Baikal area to Peking. The Manchus wanted an agreement because they were worried about possible Russian support for the Oirats and did not want disobedient subjects fleeing to the Russians. Many of the Cossacks in Siberia were rather close to bandits and could cause trouble if not restrained by the Tsar. The Russians had neither a reason nor the means to push south and were more interested in profitable trade. The Russians had no hope of sending a serious army this far east and the Manchus had no interest in the frozen forests of Siberia.
From the 1710s the Kangxi Emperor began to put pressure on Saint Petersburg for an agreement, largely by interfering with the caravan trade. The Lev Izmailov mission in 1719/22 to Peking produced no results.
Just before his death, Peter the Great decided to deal with the border problem. On 23 October 1725 Sava Vladislavich, a Serb in the Russian service, left Saint Petersburg with 1,500 soldiers and 120 staff including map-makers and priests. Before reaching Peking in November 1726, he picked up Lorenz Lange and Ivan Bucholz and sent out cartographers to survey the border. The negotiators on the Manchu side were Tulishen and Dominique Parrenin. After six months a draft treaty was worked up, but it became clear that neither side had adequate maps. In May Vladslavich and Tulishen went back to Selenginsk near Lake Baikal to get the waiting maps. By 31 August a draft treaty was drawn up ('Treaty of Bura' after a nearby river). Work quickly began setting up border markers starting from Kyakhta on the Selenga River.The 'Abagaitu Letter' listed 63 markers from Kyakhta east to the Argun River. The 'Selenginsk Letter' listed 24 markers west from Kyakhta to the "Shabindobaga River on the northwest slopes of the Altay Mountains" . The 'Treaty of Bura' was sent to Peking to be combined with work already done there. The result was sent back to the frontier and the Treaty of Kyakhta was signed on 25 June 1728. The treaty had three official versions, in Russian, in Latin and in Manchu. No official Chinese version of the treaty exists.
|Latin Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
|Chinese Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
The treaty had eleven articles, the core of which dealt with commercial relations and diplomatic immunities. (This list, probably from Perdue, differs somewhat from the list given by March.)
On 18 October 1768 a Convention was signed modifying Article X of the original treaty making punishments more explicit. This was due to the Qing extermination of the Dzungar Khanate, which caused rebels including Amursana to flee across the border, and other problems which led the Chinese to curtail trade in 1762 and suspend it in 1765.
|Chinese Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
The Kyakhta trade between Qing and Russia was very important to Russia as one of its main sources of income. The Qing was aware of this and occasionally used to suspend the trade to exert pressure on the Russian rulers. In 1784 some Russian Buryats and the Uriankhais of the Qing together robbed the Chinese merchant in the Khövsgöl region. The Russian way of punishing the robbers irritated the Qing side and became a new reason to suspend the trade for 7 years. Over these seven years before the two empires came to mutual agreement many events occurred that expose problems in the relations between them.On 8 February 1792, they signed the "International Protocol" (known as "恰克圖市約" in Chinese) in Kyakhta which confirmed the validity of the Sino-Russian Treaty of Kyakhta.
The Treaty of Aigun was an 1858 treaty between the Russian Empire, and the empire of the Qing Dynasty, the Manchu rulers of China, that established much of the modern border between the Russian Far East and Manchuria, which is now known as Northeast China. It reversed the Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689) by transferring the land between the Stanovoy Range and the Amur River from China to the Russian Empire. Russia received over 600,000 square kilometres (231,660 sq mi) from Manchuria.
The Treaty of Nerchinsk of 1689 was the first treaty between Russia and China under the Qing dynasty. The Russians gave up the area north of the Amur River as far as the Stanovoy Range and kept the area between the Argun River and Lake Baikal. This border along the Argun River and Stanovoy Range lasted until the Amur Acquisition in 1858 and 1860. It opened markets for Russian goods in China, and gave Russians access to Chinese supplies and luxuries.
Outer Manchuria is a term for a territory in Northeast Asia that is part of Russia and had formerly belonged to the Qing dynasty.Russia annexed this territory by way of the Treaty of Aigun in 1858 and the Treaty of Peking in 1860. The northern part of the area was in dispute between 1643 and 1689.
The Argun or Ergune is a 1,620-kilometre (1,010 mi) long river that forms part of the eastern China–Russia border, together with the Amur. Its upper reaches are known as Hailar River in China. The Argun marks the border between Russia and China for about 944 kilometres (587 mi), until it meets the Amur.
Nerchinsk is a town and the administrative center of Nerchinsky District in Zabaykalsky Krai, Russia, located on the left bank of the Nercha River, 7 kilometers (4.3 mi) above its confluence with the Shilka River, 644 kilometers (400 mi) east of Lake Baikal, about 225 kilometers (140 mi) west of the Chinese border, and 305 kilometers (190 mi) east of Chita, the administrative center of the krai. Population: 14,959 (2010 Census); 15,748 (2002 Census); 16,961 (1989 Census); 6,713 (1897).
Kyakhta is a town and the administrative center of Kyakhtinsky District in the Republic of Buryatia, Russia, located on the Kyakhta River near the Mongolia–Russia border. The town stands directly opposite the Mongolian border town of Altanbulag. Population: 20,041 (2010 Census); 18,391 (2002 Census); 18,307 (1989 Census). From 1727 it was the border crossing for the Kyakhta trade between Russia and China.
Lorenz or Lorents Lange was an official in 18th-century Siberia who dealt with Russo-Chinese trade and diplomacy. His reports were a major influence on Russian policy and an important early source of European knowledge of Siberia, Mongolia and China. He is usually said to have been a cornet in the Swedish cavalry who was taken prisoner at the Battle of Poltava in 1709.
Prior to the 17th century China and Russia were on opposite ends of Siberia, which was populated by independent nomads. By about 1640 Russian settlers had traversed most of Siberia and founded settlements in the Amur River basin. From 1652 to 1689, China's armies drove the Russian settlers out, but after 1689, China and Russia made peace and established trade agreements.
The Lifan Yuan was an agency in the government of the Qing dynasty which supervised the Qing Empire's frontier Inner Asia regions such as its Mongolian dependencies and oversaw the appointments of Ambans in Tibet.
Albazino is a village (selo) in Skovorodinsky District of Amur Oblast, Russia, noted as the site of Albazin (Албазин), the first Russian settlement on the Amur River.
The Sino-Russian border conflicts (1652–1689) were a series of intermittent skirmishes between the Qing dynasty, with assistance from the Joseon dynasty of Korea, and the Tsardom of Russia by the Cossacks in which the latter tried and failed to gain the land north of the Amur River with disputes over the Amur region. The hostilities culminated in the Qing siege of the Cossack fort of Albazin (1686) and resulted in the Treaty of Nerchinsk in 1689 which gave the land to China.
Novoselenginsk is a rural locality in Selenginsky District of the Republic of Buryatia, Russia, located on the Selenge River south of Lake Baikal. Formerly called simply Selenginsk, it was one of the most important towns in Siberia before 1800.
The Amur Annexation was the annexation of the southeast corner of Siberia by the Russian Empire in 1858–1860 through a series of unequal treaties forced upon the Qing dynasty. The two areas involved are the Priamurye between the Amur River and the Stanovoy Range to the north and the Primorye which runs down the coast from the Amur mouth to the Korean border, including the island of Sakhalin. The territory of Outer Manchuria was formerly under the administration of Qing dynasty China.
Jaxa was a 17th century microstate in North Asia with a capital in Albazino existing between 1665 and 1685. It was located on the border of Tsardom of Russia and Qing dynasty China. The language commonly used in the state was Polish.
The Dzungar–Qing Wars (1687–1757) were a decades-long series of conflicts that pitted the Dzungar Khanate against the Qing dynasty of China and their Mongolian vassals. Fighting took place over a wide swath of Inner Asia, from present-day central and eastern Mongolia to Tibet, Qinghai, and Xinjiang regions of present-day China. Qing victories ultimately led to the incorporation of Outer Mongolia, Tibet and Xinjiang into the Qing Empire that was to last until the fall of the dynasty in 1911–1912, and the genocide of much of the Dzungar population in conquered areas.
Tsurukhaitu was a trading post along the Russo-Chinese border north of Peking during the eighteenth century. For background see Kyakhta trade. It was never successful because the Kyakhta route was easier than the long trek east from Lake Baikal. The trade route ran from Irkutsk east to Tsurukhaitu and southeast through Tsitsihar and the Shanhai Pass to Peking, over 650 miles longer than the Kyakhta route. By the Treaty of Kyakhta (1727) all official trade was to be conducted through border posts near the future Kyakhta and Tsurukhaitu. Once the Treaty was completed Sava Vladislavich made elaborate plans for the two new posts, Tsurukhaitu being somewhat smaller. Previously trade in the area was from Nerchinsk to Tsitsihar. The site was chosen in 1728 by Temofei Burtsov, a commissar of the Argun silver mines(sic) and a Chinese officer. Construction did not begin until 1736 because of obstruction by a local official and the distance that lumber had to be carried. The site was poor, firewood was over 25 miles distant and it was frequently flooded by the Argun River. In 1756 to fort was moved downstream to a new site. Unlike Kyakhta, the Manchus never erected a fort on their side of the border. Instead it was visited for about a month in early summer by merchants and border inspectors. In 1733 the official caravan tried to return by Tsurukhaitu rather than Kyakhta. Goods were spoiled due to lack of covered storage at the fort, they had difficulty finding laborers and it took all summer to travel west to Irkutsk. Maximum Russian exports at Tsurukhaitu were 2,845 rubles in 1768. The Kyakhta trade grew from 300,000 rubles in 1727 to 5,000,000 in 1805.
The Kyakhta Trade refers to the trade between Russia and China through the town of Kyakhta on the Mongolian border south of Lake Baikal from 1727. The trade was mostly Siberian furs for Chinese cotton, silk, tobacco and tea.
The Qing dynasty was founded by the Jurchen Aisin Gioro clan in Manchuria in the 17th century and became known by various names. Although it was established by the Manchu people, a Tungusic people ethnically unrelated to the native Han, it was widely known in English as China or the Chinese Empire both during its existence, especially internationally, and after the fall of the dynasty.
The Qing dynasty in Inner Asia was the expansion of the Qing dynasty's realm in Inner Asia in the 17th and the 18th century AD, including both Inner and Outer Mongolia, Manchuria, Tibet, Qinghai and Xinjiang.
The Siege of Albazin was a military conflict between the Tsardom of Russia and the Qing dynasty from 1685 to 1686. It ultimately ended in the surrender of Albazin to the Qing and Russian abandonment of the Amur River area in return for trading privileges in Beijing.