Treaty of Kyakhta (1915)

Last updated
Mongolia in 1915 Mongolia 1915.jpg
Mongolia in 1915

The Treaty of Kyakhta (Chinese :中俄蒙協約) was a tri-party treaty signed on 25 May 1915 between Russia, Mongolia, and China.

Russia and China recognized Outer Mongolia's autonomy (as part of Chinese territory); Mongolia recognized China's suzerainty; Mongolia could not conclude international treaties with foreign countries regarding political and territorial questions.

The Mongolian representative, Prime Minister Tögs-Ochiryn Namnansüren, was determined to stretch autonomy into de facto independence, and to deny the Chinese anything more than vague, ineffectual suzerain powers. The Chinese sought to minimize, if not to end, Mongolian autonomy. Mongolians viewed the treaty as a disaster because it denied the recognition of a truly independent, all-Mongolian state. Nevertheless, Outer Mongolia remained effectively outside Chinese control [1] and, according to explanation by baron B.E. Nolde, the Director of Law Section of the Russian Foreign Ministry, had all necessary attributes of the state in the international law of that time. [2]

Deputies of China, Russia and Outer Mongolia signing the Treaty of Kyakhta. Zhong E Meng Xie Yue Qian Ding Xian Chang .jpg
Deputies of China, Russia and Outer Mongolia signing the Treaty of Kyakhta.

The treaty severely curtailed the independent status of Mongolia declared in 1911, but eventually became moot after the October Revolution of 1917, and the declaration of the Mongolian People's Republic in 1921.

See also

Related Research Articles

Treaty of friendship and alliance between the Government of Mongolia and Tibet

A Treaty of friendship and alliance between the Government of Mongolia and Tibet was signed on 11 January 1913, at Urga. However, there have been doubts about the authority of the Tibetan signatories to conclude such a treaty, and therefore about whether it constitutes a valid contract.

Mongolian Peoples Republic 1921–1992 sovereign socialist state in East Asia

The Mongolian People's Republic was a unitary sovereign socialist state which existed between 1921 and 1992, coterminous with the present-day country of Mongolia in East Asia. It was ruled by the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party and maintained close links with the Soviet Union throughout its history. Geographically, it was bordered by China to its south and the Soviet Union to its north. Until 1944, it also bordered the Tuvan People's Republic, a Soviet satellite state recognized only by Mongolia and the Soviet Union.

Damdin Sükhbaatar

Damdin Sükhbaatar was a founding member of the Mongolian People's Party and leader of the Mongolian partisan army that took Khüree during the Outer Mongolian Revolution of 1921. For his part in the Outer Mongolian revolution of 1921, he was enshrined as the "Father of Mongolia's Revolution".

The Treaty of Kyakhta, along with the Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689), regulated the relations between Imperial Russia and the Qing Empire of China until the mid-19th century. It was signed by Tulišen and Count Sava Lukich Raguzinskii-Vladislavich at the border city of Kyakhta on 23 August 1727.

Kyakhta Town in Buryatia, Russia

Kyakhta is a town and the administrative center of Kyakhtinsky District in the Republic of Buryatia, Russia, located on the Kyakhta River near the Mongolia–Russia border. The town stands directly opposite the Mongolian border town of Altanbulag. Population: 20,041 (2010 Census); 18,391 (2002 Census); 18,307 (1989 Census). From 1727 it was the border crossing for the Kyakhta trade between Russia and China.

Balingiin Tserendorj

Balingiin Tserendorj titles Khicheengui Said (Хичээнгүй Сайд, Diligent/Earnest Minister); Khicheengui Gün, was a prominent Mongolian political figure of the early 20th century who served as the first Prime Minister of the People's Republic of Mongolia from 1924 until his death in 1928. Between 1913 and 1924 he held several high-ranking positions within a succession of Mongolian governments including; the Bogd Khaanate (1911–1924), the Chinese occupation (1919-1921), and the puppet regime under Roman Ungern von Sternberg (1921).

Pan-Mongolism Irredentist political view

Pan-Mongolism is an irredentist idea that advocates cultural and political solidarity of Mongols. The proposed territory, called "Greater Mongolia", usually includes the independent state of Mongolia, the Chinese regions of Inner Mongolia and Dzungaria, and the Russian republic of Buryatia. Sometimes Tuva, the Altai Republic and parts of Zabaykalsky Krai and Irkutsk Oblast are included as well. As of 2006, all areas in Greater Mongolia except Mongolia have non-Mongol majorities.

Mongolia–Taiwan relations Diplomatic relations between Mongolia and Taiwan

The Republic of China did not recognize Mongolia until 1945; neither country exchanged diplomats between 1946 and 1949. At the end of the Chinese Civil War in 1949, Mongolia recognized the People's Republic of China. In 2002, Taiwan (ROC) recognized Mongolia as an independent country, and informal relations were established between the two sides.

Occupation of Mongolia

The occupation of Outer Mongolia by the Beiyang government of the Republic of China began in October 1919 and lasted until 18 March 1921, when Chinese troops in Urga were routed by Baron Ungern's White Russian and Mongolian forces. These, in turn, were defeated by the Red Army and its Mongolian allies by June 1921.

Simla Convention Treaty concerning the status of Tibet

The Simla Convention, or the Convention Between Great Britain, China, and Tibet, [in] Simla, was an ambiguous treaty concerning the status of Tibet negotiated by representatives of the Republic of China, Tibet and Great Britain in Simla in 1913 and 1914.

Dambyn Chagdarjav Mongolian revolutionary

Dambyn Chagdarjav was a Mongolian revolutionary and one of the “first seven” founders of the Mongolian People's Party (MPP) in 1920. He was named prime minister of Mongolia’s provisional government at the first MPP Congress in March 1921 but was subsequently replaced by Dogsomyn Bodoo after just a month in office. In the spring of 1922 a power struggle led to his being accused of conspiring to overthrow the revolutionary government. He was arrested and executed along with prime minister Bodoo on August 31, 1922.

Tögs-Ochiryn Namnansüren

Tögs-Ochiryn Namnansüren, full title: Sain Noyon Khan Namnansüren, was a powerful hereditary prince and prominent early 20th-century Mongolian independence leader. He served as the first prime minister of Autonomous Mongolia in the government of the Bogd Khan from 1912 until 1915, when the office of prime minister was abolished. He was then appointed minister of the army.

Mongolian Revolution of 1921

The Mongolian Revolution of 1921 was a military and political event by which Mongolian revolutionaries, with the assistance of the Soviet Red Army, expelled Russian White Guards from the country, and founded the Mongolian People's Republic in 1924. Although nominally independent, the Mongolian People's Republic was a satellite state of the Soviet Union until a third Mongolian revolution in January 1990. The revolution also ended the Chinese Beiyang government's occupation of Mongolia, which had begun in 1919. The official Mongolian name of the revolution is "People's Revolution of 1921" or simply "People's Revolution".

The Mongolian Revolution of 1911 occurred when the region of Outer Mongolia declared its independence from the Manchu-led Qing China during the Xinhai Revolution. A combination of factors including economic hardship and failure to resist Western imperialism led many in China to be unhappy with the Qing government. When a new program to settle Mongolia with ethnic Han and assimilate the natives was unveiled, it was met with resistance that resulted in a relatively bloodless separation from the Qing Empire. Many Barga and Inner Mongolian chieftains assisted in the revolution and became the revolution leaders.

Bogd Khanate of Mongolia Khanate ruled by bogd khan on Outer Mongolia from 1911 to 1921 or 1924

The Bogd Khanate of Mongolia was the government of Mongolia between 1911 and 1919 and again from 1921 to 1924. By the spring of 1911, some prominent Mongolian nobles including Prince Tögs-Ochiryn Namnansüren persuaded the Jebstundamba Khutukhtu to convene a meeting of nobles and ecclesiastical officials to discuss independence from the Manchu-led Qing China. On November 30, 1911 the Mongols established the Temporary Government of Khalkha. On December 29, 1911 the Mongols declared their independence from the collapsing Qing Empire following the Xinhai Revolution. They installed as theocratic sovereign the 8th Bogd Gegeen, highest authority of Tibetan Buddhism in Mongolia, who took the title Bogd Khaan or "Holy Ruler". The Bogd Khaan was last khagan of Mongolia. This ushered in the period of "Theocratic Mongolia", also known as the Bogd Khanate.

Bayantömöriin Khaisan

Bayantömöriin Khaisan, also spelled Khayishan, was one of leading figures of the Outer Mongolian revolution of 1911 for Mongolian independence from China.

Mongolia–Russia border

The Mongolia–Russia border is the international border between Mongolia and the Russian Federation. It runs from west to east between the two tripoints with China for 3,452 km. The boundary is the third longest border between Russia and another country, behind the Kazakhstan-Russia border and the China-Russia border.

Manlaibaatar Damdinsüren

Manlaibaatar Damdinsüren, born Jamsrangiin Damdinsüren, was a military commander, Pan-Mongolist and diplomat who led Mongolia's struggle for independence in 1911.

Mijiddorjiin Khanddorj

Mijiddorjiin Khanddorj, also known by his title Chin Van, or Chin Wang Khanddorj, was an aristocrat and prominent early 20th-century Mongolian independence leader. He served as the first minister of foreign affairs of Autonomous Mongolia in the government of the Bogd Khan from 1911 to 1913 and founded the nation's diplomatic service. He died, allegedly poisoned, in 1915.

China–Mongolia border

The China–Mongolia border is the international border between China and Mongolia. It runs from west to east between the two tripoints with Russia for 4,630 km (2,880 mi), with most of the boundary area lying in the Gobi Desert.

References

  1. Batsaikhan, O. The Last King of Mongolia, Bogdo Jebtsundamba Khutuktu. Ulaanbaatar: Admon, 2008, p.290-293 - ISBN   978-99929-0-464-0
  2. Kuzmin, S.L. Сentenary of the Kyakhta Agreement of 1915 between Russia, Mongolia and China. – Asia and Africa Today (Moscow), 2015, no 4, p. 60-63