Treaty of Lausanne

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Treaty of Lausanne
Treaty of Peace and Exchange of War Prisoners with Turkey Signed at Lausanne


Accord relatif à la restitution réciproque des internés civils et à l'échange des prisonniers de guerre, signé à Lausanne

Contents


Lozan'da Türkiye ile Barış ve Savaş Esirlerinin Değişimi üzerine İmzalanan Antlaşma
Turkey-Greece-Bulgaria on Treaty of Lausanne.png
Borders of Turkey set by the Treaty of Lausanne.
Signed24 July 1923
Location Lausanne, Switzerland
Effective6 August 1924
ConditionFollowing ratification by Turkey and any three of the United Kingdom, France, Italy and Japan, the treaty would come into force for those "high contracting parties" and thereafter for each additional signatory upon deposit of ratification
Parties
Depositary French Republic
Language English and French
Full text
Wikisource-logo.svg Treaty of Lausanne at Wikisource

The Treaty of Lausanne (French : Traité de Lausanne, Turkish : Lozan Antlaşması) is a peace treaty negotiated during the Lausanne Conference of 1922–23 and signed in the Palais de Rumine [1] [2] [3] in Lausanne, Switzerland, on 24 July 1923. [4] The treaty officially resolved the conflict that had initially arisen between the Ottoman Empire and the Allied French Republic, British Empire, Kingdom of Italy, Empire of Japan, Kingdom of Greece, Kingdom of Serbia, and the Kingdom of Romania since the outset of World War I. [5] The original text of the treaty is in English and French. [5] It emerged as a second attempt at peace after the failed and unratified Treaty of Sèvres, which had sought to partition Ottoman territories. The earlier treaty, signed in 1920, was later rejected by the Turkish National Movement which actively opposed its terms. As a result of the Greco-Turkish War, İzmir was reclaimed, and the Armistice of Mudanya was signed in October 1922. [6] [5] This armistice provided for the exchange of Greek-Turkish populations and allowed unrestricted civilian, non-military passage through the Turkish Straits.

Turkey ratified the treaty on 23 August 1923, [7] [8] and all other signatories did so by 16 July 1924. [9] It officially took effect on 6 August 1924, when the instruments of ratification were deposited in Paris. [5]

Additionally, a declaration of amnesty was issued, granting immunity for crimes committed between 1914 and 1922. Historian Hans-Lukas Kieser asserts that "Lausanne tacitly endorsed comprehensive policies of expulsion and extermination of hetero-ethnic and hetero-religious groups". [10]

Background

Borders of Turkey according to the unratified Treaty of Sevres (1920) which was annulled and replaced by the Treaty of Lausanne (1923) in the aftermath of the Turkish War of Independence SevresTreaty.png
Borders of Turkey according to the unratified Treaty of Sèvres (1920) which was annulled and replaced by the Treaty of Lausanne (1923) in the aftermath of the Turkish War of Independence

After the withdrawal of the Greek forces in Asia Minor and the expulsion of the Ottoman Sultan by the Turkish army under the command of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the Ankara-based Kemalist government of the Turkish National Movement rejected the territorial losses imposed by the 1920 Treaty of Sèvres, previously signed by the Ottoman Empire but remaining unratified. Britain had sought to undermine Turkish influence in Mesopotamia and Kirkuk by seeking the creation of a Kurdish state in Eastern Anatolia. Secular Kemalist rhetoric relieved some of the international concerns about the future of Armenians who had survived the 1915 Armenian genocide, and support for Kurdish self determination similarly declined. Under the Treaty of Lausanne, signed in 1923, Eastern Anatolia became part of modern-day Turkey, in exchange for Turkey's relinquishing Ottoman-era claims to the oil-rich Arab lands. [11]

Negotiations were undertaken during the Conference of Lausanne. İsmet İnönü was the chief negotiator for Turkey. Lord Curzon, the British Foreign Secretary of that time, was the chief negotiator for the Allies, while Eleftherios Venizelos negotiated on behalf of Greece. The negotiations took many months. On 20 November 1922, the peace conference was opened; the treaty was signed on 24 July after eight months of arduous negotiation, punctuated by several Turkish withdrawals. The Allied delegation included U.S. Admiral Mark L. Bristol, who served as the United States High Commissioner and supported Turkish efforts. [12]

Stipulations

The treaty was composed of 143 articles with major sections including: [13]

Treaty
Parts
Convention on the Turkish Straits
Trade (abolition of capitulations) – Article 28 provided: "Each of the High Contracting Parties hereby accepts, in so far as it is concerned, the complete abolition of the Capitulations in Turkey in every respect." [14]
Agreements
Binding letters

The treaty provided for the independence of the Republic of Turkey but also for the protection of the Greek Orthodox Christian minority in Turkey and the Muslim minority in Greece. However, most of the Christian population of Turkey and the Muslim population of Greece had already been deported under the earlier Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations signed by Greece and Turkey. Only the Greek Orthodox of Constantinople, Imbros and Tenedos (about 270,000 at that time), [15] and the Muslim population of Western Thrace (about 129,120 in 1923) were excluded. [16] Article 14 of the treaty granted the islands of Imbros (Gökçeada) and Tenedos (Bozcaada) "special administrative organisation", a right that was revoked by the Turkish government on 17 February 1926. Turkey also formally accepted the loss of Cyprus (which had been leased to the British Empire following the Congress of Berlin in 1878, but de jure remained an Ottoman territory until World War I). The fate of the province of Mosul was left to be determined through the League of Nations. Turkey also explicitly renounced all claims to the Dodecanese Islands, which Italy had been obliged to return to Turkey according to Article 2 of the Treaty of Ouchy in 1912 following the Italo-Turkish War (1911–1912). [17] [18]

Summary of contents of treaty

Lausanne Treaty I. Treaty of Peace [19]
PartsSections
Preamble
Part IPolitical Clauses
Part IIFinancial Clauses
Part III.Economic clauses
Part IVCommunications and Sanitary Questions
Part V.Miscellaneous Provisions  
Part IV.Convention respecting conditions of Residence and Business and Jurisdiction
Part VCommercial Convention
Part VIConvention concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations
Part VIIAgreement between Greece and Turkey respecting the reciprocal restitution of interned civilians and the exchange of prisoners of war
Part VIIIDeclaration relating to the Amnesty 
Part IXDeclaration relating to Muslim properties in Greece
Part XDeclaration relating to sanitary matters in Turkey;
Part XIDeclaration relating to the administration of justice in Turkey;
Part XIIProtocol relation to certain concessions granted in the Ottoman Empire
Part XIIIProtocol relating to the accession of Belgium and Portugal to contain provisions and instruments signed at Lausanne
Part XIVProtocol relating to the evacuation of the Turkish territory occupied by the British, French and Italian forces
Part XVProtocol relative to the Karagatch territory and the Islands of Imbros and Tenedos 
Part XVIProtocol relative to the Treaty concluded at Sèvres between the principal Allied Powers and Greece on 10 August 1920, concerning the protection of minorities in Greece, and the Treaty concluded on the same day between the same Powers relating to Thrace. 
Part XVIIProtocol relating to signature by the Serb-Croat-Slovene State

Borders

Adakale Island in River Danube was forgotten during the peace talks at the Congress of Berlin in 1878, which allowed it to remain a de jure Ottoman territory and the Ottoman Sultan Abdulhamid II's private possession until the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923 (de facto until Romania unilaterally declared its sovereignty on the island in 1919 and further strengthened this claim with the Treaty of Trianon in 1920.) The island was submerged during the construction of the Iron Gates hydroelectric plant in 1970, which also removed the possibility of a potential legal claim by the descendants of Abdul Hamid II. Ada Kaleh.jpg
Adakale Island in River Danube was forgotten during the peace talks at the Congress of Berlin in 1878, which allowed it to remain a de jure Ottoman territory and the Ottoman Sultan Abdülhamid II's private possession until the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923 ( de facto until Romania unilaterally declared its sovereignty on the island in 1919 and further strengthened this claim with the Treaty of Trianon in 1920.) The island was submerged during the construction of the Iron Gates hydroelectric plant in 1970, which also removed the possibility of a potential legal claim by the descendants of Abdul Hamid II.

The treaty delimited the boundaries of Greece, Bulgaria, and Turkey. Specifically, the treaty provisioned that all the islands, islets and other territories in the Aegean Sea (Eastern Mediterranean in the original text) beyond three miles from the Turkish shores were ceded to Greece, with the exception of Imbros, Tenedos and Rabbit islands (Articles 6 and 12). There is a special notation in both articles, that, unless it is explicitly stated otherwise, the Turkish sovereignty extends three miles from Asia Minor shores. The Greek population of Imbros and Tenedos was not included in the population exchange and would be protected under the stipulations of the protection of the minorities in Turkey (Article 38).

The major issue of the war reparations, demanded from Greece by Turkey, was abandoned after Greece agreed to cede Karaağaç to Turkey.

Turkey also formally ceded all claims on the Dodecanese Islands (Article 15); Cyprus (Article 20); [21] Egypt and Sudan (Article 17); Syria and Iraq (Article 3); and (along with the Treaty of Ankara) settled the boundaries of the latter two nations. [5]

The territories to the south of Syria and Iraq on the Arabian Peninsula, which still remained under Turkish control when the Armistice of Mudros was signed on 30 October 1918, were not explicitly identified in the text of the treaty. However, the definition of Turkey's southern border in Article 3 also meant that Turkey officially ceded them. These territories included the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen, Asir and parts of Hejaz like the city of Medina. They were held by Turkish forces until 23 January 1919. [22] [23]

By Articles 25 and 26 of the Treaty of Lausanne, Turkey officially ceded Adakale Island in the Danube River to Romania by formally recognizing the related provisions in the Treaty of Trianon of 1920. [5] [20] Due to a diplomatic irregularity at the 1878 Congress of Berlin, the island had technically remained part of the Ottoman Empire.

Turkey also renounced its privileges in Libya which were defined by Article 10 of the Treaty of Ouchy in 1912 (per Article 22 of the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923.) [5]

Agreements

Among many agreements, there was a separate agreement with the United States, the Chester concession. In the United States, the treaty was opposed by several groups, including the Committee Opposed to the Lausanne Treaty (COLT), and on 18 January 1927, the United States Senate refused to ratify the treaty by a vote of 50–34, six votes short of the two-thirds required by the Constitution. [24] Consequently, Turkey annulled the concession. [13]

Besides, Turkey was obliged to instate four European advisors on juridical matters for five years. [25] The advisors were to observe a juridical reform in Turkey. The advisors contract could be renewed if the suggested reforms would not have taken place. [25] Subsequently, Turkey worked on and announced a new Turkish constitution and reformed the Turkish justice system by including the Swiss Civil code, the Italian criminal law and the German Commercial law before completion of the five years in question. [25]

Declaration of Amnesty

Declaration of Amnesty Treaty of Lausanne Declaration of Amnesty.pdf
Declaration of Amnesty

Annex VIII to the treaty, called "Declaration of Amnesty", granted immunity to the perpetrators of any crimes "connected to political events" committed between 1914 and 1922. [26] [27] The treaty thus put an end to the effort to prosecute Ottoman war criminals for crimes such as the Armenian genocide, the Assyrian genocide, the Greek genocide, [28] [29] and codified impunity for these crimes. [30]

Legacy

Turkish delegation after having signed the Treaty of Lausanne. The delegation was led by Ismet Inonu (in the middle). Lausanne 2.jpg
Turkish delegation after having signed the Treaty of Lausanne. The delegation was led by İsmet İnönü (in the middle).

The Treaty of Lausanne led to the international recognition of the sovereignty of the new Republic of Turkey as the successor state of the Ottoman Empire. [5] As result of the Treaty, the Ottoman public debt was divided between Turkey and the countries which emerged from the former Ottoman Empire. [31] The convention on the Straits lasted for thirteen years and was replaced with the Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Straits in 1936. [32] The customs limitations in the treaty were shortly after reworked.

For Greece, the treaty brought to an end the impetus behind the Megali Idea, the notion that modern Greece should encompass those territories in Asia Minor which had been populated with Greek speakers for up to 3000 years and which also formed the core of the Eastern Roman Empire.

Hatay Province remained a part of the French Mandate of Syria according to the Treaty of Lausanne, but in 1938 gained its independence as the Hatay State, which later joined Turkey after a referendum in 1939. Political amnesty was given to opponents of the new Turkish regime but the government reserved the right to make 150 exceptions. [33] The 150 personae non gratae of Turkey (mostly descendants of the Ottoman dynasty) slowly acquired citizenship – the last one in 1974.[ citation needed ]

Lloyd George declared the treaty an "abject, cowardly and infamous surrender". [30] [34]

Historian Norman Naimark states, "The Lausanne Treaty served as a pivotal international precedent for transferring populations against their will throughout the twentieth century." [35]

Historian Ronald Grigor Suny states that the treaty "essentially confirmed the effectiveness of deportations or even murderous ethnic cleansing as a potential solution to population problems". [36]

Historian Hans-Lukas Kieser states, "Lausanne tacitly endorsed comprehensive policies of expulsion and extermination of hetero-ethnic and hetero-religious groups, with fatal attraction for German revisionists and many other nationalists". [10]

Conspiracy theories

The Treaty of Lausanne has given rise to a number of conspiracy theories in Turkey. It has been claimed that the treaty was signed to be effective for a century and there are "secret articles" in the treaty regarding Turkey's mining of natural resources. One conspiracy theory that had following in the 2010s held that the treaty would expire in 2023 and Turkey would be allowed to mine boron and petroleum. [37]

See also

Further reading

Notes and references

  1. https://vidy-archives.lausanne.ch/uploads/r/archives-de-la-ville-de-lausanne/e/3/3/e337dc8394f8b9d486a585c9cb97e3e62527a392d1d6bf51d8fc346fd4f13edd/AVL_ADM_B1_224_10_2_89_9.pdf (consulté le 22.07.23)
  2. "Palais de Rumine". www.lonelyplanet.com. Archived from the original on 14 September 2018. Retrieved 6 September 2018.
  3. "Palais de Rumine & Musée cantonal des Beaux-Arts". MySwitzerland.com. Retrieved 6 September 2018.
  4. Xypolia, Ilia (2021). "Imperial Bending of Rules: The British Empire, the Treaty of Lausanne, and Cypriot Immigration to Turkey". Diplomacy & Statecraft. 32 (4): 674–691. doi:10.1080/09592296.2021.1996711. hdl: 2164/18252 . S2CID   246234931. Archived from the original on 14 January 2023. Retrieved 19 April 2022.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Treaty of Peace with Turkey signed at Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, 24 July 1923, archived from the original on 12 January 2013, retrieved 28 November 2012{{citation}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  6. "Armistice of Mudanya". Archived from the original on 2 February 2021. Retrieved 17 November 2021.
  7. Martin Lawrence (1924). Treaties of Peace, 1919–1923. Vol. I. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. p. lxxvii.
  8. "League of Nations, Official Journal". 4. October 1924: 1292.{{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  9. Hansard, House of Commons Archived 18 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine , 16 July 1924.
  10. 1 2 Kieser, Hans-Lukas (2010). "Germany and the Armenian Genocide of 1915–17". In Friedman, Jonathan C. (ed.). The Routledge History of the Holocaust. Taylor & Francis. doi:10.4324/9780203837443.ch3. ISBN   978-1-136-87060-6. Archived from the original on 13 December 2020. Retrieved 4 January 2021.
  11. Darren L. Logan (2009). "Thoughts on Iraqi Kurdistan: Present Realities, Future Hope". Iran & the Caucasus. 13 (1): 161–186. doi:10.1163/160984909X12476379008205. JSTOR   25597401.
  12. Morgenthau, Henry, Ambassador Morgenthau's Story, (Detroit: Wayne State University, 2003), 303.
  13. 1 2 Mango, Andrew (2002). Ataturk: The Biography of the Founder of Modern Turkey . Overlook Press. p.  388. ISBN   1-58567-334-X.
  14. In addition to Turkey, the British Empire, France, Italy, Japan, Greece, Romania and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia were parties to the Treaty.
  15. The Greek minority of Turkey Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine Hellenic Resources Network
  16. Öksüz, Hikmet (2004), The Reasons for Immigration from Western Thrace to Turkey (1923–1950) (PDF), Turkish Review of Balkan Studies, p. 255
  17. "Treaty of Lausanne, October, 1912". Archived from the original on 25 October 2021. Retrieved 18 November 2008.
  18. James Barros, The Corfu Incident of 1923: Mussolini and The League of Nations, Princeton University Press, 1965 (reprinted 2015), ISBN   1400874610, p. 69
  19. "Treaty Summary". Archived from the original on 26 February 2021. Retrieved 28 February 2019.
  20. 1 2 "Adakale Island in River Danube". Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 21 September 2010.
  21. Xypolia, Ilia (2011). "Cypriot Muslims among Ottomans, Turks and British" (PDF). Bogazici Journal. 25 (2): 109–120. doi: 10.21773/boun.25.2.6 . Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 June 2018. Retrieved 10 November 2012.
  22. "Arabia (Yemen–Hejaz) Front Side". www.osmanli700.gen.tr. Archived from the original on 7 August 2020. Retrieved 6 September 2018.
  23. "ARABİSTAN CEPHESİ – Osmanlı Web Sitesi – FORSNET". www.osmanli700.gen.tr. Archived from the original on 6 September 2018. Retrieved 6 September 2018.
  24. Trask, Roger R. (1971). "Rejection of the Lausanne Treaty and Resumption of Diplomatic Relations, 1923–1927". The United States Response to Turkish Nationalism and Reform, 1914-1939. University of Minnesota Press. pp. 37–64. ISBN   978-1-4529-3717-5. Project MUSE   chapter 1252066.
  25. 1 2 3 Liebisch-Gümüş, Carolin (6 July 2020). p. 257
  26. The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 18., No. 2, Supplement:Official Documents (Apr. 1924), pp. 92–95.
  27. Scharf, Michael (1996). "The Letter of the Law: The Scope of the International Legal Obligation to Prosecute Human Rights Crimes". Law and Contemporary Problems. 59 (4): 41–61. doi:10.2307/1192189. ISSN   0023-9186. JSTOR   1192189. Archived from the original on 19 July 2018. Retrieved 17 December 2020. Initially, the Allied Powers sought the prosecution of those responsible for the massacres. The Treaty of Sevres, which was signed on August 10, 1920, would have required the Turkish Government to hand over those responsible to the Allied Powers for trial. Treaty of Peace between the Allied Powers and Turkey [Treaty of Sevres], art. 230, at 235, Aug. 10, 1920, reprinted in 15 AM. J. INT'L L. 179 (Supp 1921). "The Treaty of Sevres was, however, not ratified and did not come into force. It was replaced by the Treaty of Lausanne, which not only did not contain provisions respecting the punishment of war crimes, but was accompanied by a 'Declaration of Amnesty' of all offenses committed between 1914 and 1922." Treaty of Peace between the Allied Powers and Turkey [Treaty of Lausanne], July 24, 1923, League of Nations Treaty Series 11, reprinted in 18 AM. J. INT'L L. 1 (Supp. 1924). 99.
  28. Lattanzi, Flavia (2018). "The Armenian Massacres as the Murder of a Nation?". The Armenian Massacres of 1915–1916 a Hundred Years Later. Studies in the History of Law and Justice. Vol. 15. Springer International Publishing. pp. 27–104. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-78169-3_3. ISBN   978-3-319-78169-3. Archived from the original on 21 March 2021. Retrieved 27 November 2020.
  29. Marchesi, Antonio (2018). "Metz Yeghern and the Origin of International Norms on the Punishment of Crimes". The Armenian Massacres of 1915–1916 a Hundred Years Later: Open Questions and Tentative Answers in International Law. Springer International Publishing. pp. 143–160. ISBN   978-3-319-78169-3.
  30. 1 2 Dadrian, Vahakn (1998). "The Historical and Legal Interconnections Between the Armenian Genocide and the Jewish Holocaust: From Impunity to Retributive Justice". Yale Journal of International Law. 23 (2). ISSN   0889-7743. Archived from the original on 3 December 2020. Retrieved 24 November 2020. After expunging all references to Armenian massacres (and, indeed, to Armenia itself) from the draft version, they signed the Lausanne Peace Treaty, thus helping to codify impunity by ignoring the Armenian genocide. The international law flowing from this treaty, while a sham in reality, lent an aura of respectability to impunity because the imprimatur of a peace conference was attached to it. A French jurist observed that the treaty was an "assurance" for impunity for the crime of massacre; indeed, it was a "glorification" of the crime in which an entire race, the Armenians, was "systematically exterminated." For his part, David Lloyd George, wartime Prime Minister of Great Britain, found it appropriate to vent his ire when he was out of power: He declared the Western Allies' conduct at the Lausanne Conference to be "abject, cowardly and infamous." A creature of political deal-making, the Lausanne Treaty was a triumph of the principle of impunity over the principle of retributive justice.
  31. Findley, Carter V. (21 September 2010). Turkey, Islam, Nationalism, and Modernity: A History, 1789–2007. Yale University Press. pp. 224–226. ISBN   978-0-300-15260-9.
  32. Liebisch-Gümüş, Carolin (6 July 2020). Verflochtene Nationsbildung: Die Neue Türkei und der Völkerbund (in German). Walter de Gruyter GmbH. p. 256. ISBN   978-3-11-064341-1. Archived from the original on 14 January 2023. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  33. Zürcher Erik Jan. Turkey: a Modern History. 4th ed. London: I.B. Tauris, 2017. p. 163
  34. Jones, Adam (2016). Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction. Taylor & Francis. p. 231. ISBN   978-1-317-53386-3. Archived from the original on 14 January 2023. Retrieved 17 December 2020.
  35. "Ethnic Cleansing | Sciences Po Violence de masse et Résistance – Réseau de recherche". ethnic-cleansing-0.html (in French). 16 April 2019. Archived from the original on 11 May 2021. Retrieved 29 March 2021.
  36. Suny, Ronald Grigor (2015). 'They Can Live in the Desert but Nowhere Else': A History of the Armenian Genocide. Princeton University Press. pp. 367–368. ISBN   978-1-4008-6558-1.
    • Lay summary in: Ronald Grigor Suny (26 May 2015). "Armenian Genocide". 1914–1918-online. International Encyclopedia of the First World War.
  37. Danforth, Nick (2 October 2014). "Notes on a Turkish Conspiracy". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on 9 May 2020. Retrieved 2 January 2023.

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After World War I, the effort to prosecute Ottoman war criminals was taken up by the Paris Peace Conference (1919) and ultimately included in the Treaty of Sèvres (1920) with the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman government organized a series of courts martial in 1919–1920 to prosecute war criminals, but these failed on account of political pressure. The main effort by the Allied administration that occupied Constantinople fell short of establishing an international tribunal in Malta to try the so-called Malta exiles, Ottoman war criminals held as POWs by the British forces in Malta. In the end, no tribunals were held in Malta.

Impunity is the ability to act with exemption from punishments, losses, or other negative consequences. In the international law of human rights, impunity is failure to bring perpetrators of human rights violations to justice and, as such, itself constitutes a denial of the victims' right to justice and redress. Impunity is especially common in countries which lack the tradition of rule of law, or suffer from pervasive corruption, or contain entrenched systems of patronage, or where the judiciary is weak or members of the security forces are protected by special jurisdictions or immunities. Impunity is sometimes considered a form of denialism of historical crimes.

The Treaty of Athens between the Ottoman Empire and the Kingdom of Greece, signed on 14 November 1913, formally ended hostilities between them after the two Balkan Wars and ceded Macedonia—including the major city of Thessaloniki— most of Epirus, and many Aegean islands to Greece.

The issue of Armenian genocide reparations derives from the Armenian genocide of 1915 committed by the Ottoman Empire. Such reparations might be of financial, estate or territorial nature, and could cover individual or collective claims as well as those by Armenia. The majority of scholars of international law agree that Turkey is the successor state or continuation of the Ottoman Empire. In addition, the Republic of Turkey continued the Ottoman Empire's internationally wrongful acts against Armenians, such as confiscation of Armenian properties and massacres. Former Secretary of the UN Human Rights Committee, Professor Alfred de Zayas, Geneva School of Diplomacy, stated that "[b]ecause of the continuing character of the crime of genocide in factual and legal terms, the remedy of restitution has not been foreclosed by the passage of time".

The Sèvres syndrome refers to a popular belief in Turkey that dangerous internal and external enemies, especially the West, are "conspiring to weaken and carve up the Turkish Republic". The term originates from the Treaty of Sèvres of the 1920s, which partitioned the Ottoman Empire among Armenia, Greece, Britain, France, and Italy, leaving a small unaffected area around Ankara under Turkish rule; however, it was never implemented since it was left unratified by the Ottoman Parliament and due to Turkish victory on all fronts during the subsequent Turkish War of Independence. Turkish historian Taner Akçam describes this attitude as an ongoing perception that "there are forces which continually seek to disperse and destroy us, and it is necessary to defend the state against this danger".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kurdish rebellions during World War I</span> Rebellions against the Ottoman Empire

During World War I, several Kurdish rebellions took place within the Ottoman Empire.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Territorial evolution of Greece</span>

The borders of Greece have changed nine times since the Protocol of London on March 22, 1829 until the accession of the Dodecanese in 1947.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Armenia–Turkey border</span> International border

The Armenia–Turkey border is 311 km in length and runs from the tripoint with Georgia in the north to the tripoint with Azerbaijan in the south. The land border has been closed since 3 April 1993. The border is set to reopen for diplomats and citizens of third countries in 2023.