Treaty of Montgomery

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Wales after the Treaty of Montgomery in 1267
Gwynedd, Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's principality
Territories conquered by Llywelyn
Territories of Llywelyn's vassals
Lordships of the Marcher barons
Lordships of the king of England Wales after the Treaty of Montgomery 1267.svg
Wales after the Treaty of Montgomery in 1267
   Gwynedd, Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's principality
  Territories conquered by Llywelyn
  Territories of Llywelyn's vassals
  Lordships of the Marcher barons
  Lordships of the king of England

The Treaty of Montgomery was an Anglo-Cambrian treaty signed on 29 September 1267 in Montgomeryshire by which Llywelyn ap Gruffudd was acknowledged as Prince of Wales by King Henry III of England (r. 1216–1272). It was the only time an English ruler recognised the right of a ruler of Gwynedd over Wales. Llywelyn's grandfather Llywelyn the Great had previously laid claim to be the effective prince of Wales by using the title "Prince of Aberffraw, Lord of Snowdon" in the 1230s, after subduing all the other Welsh dynasties. Likewise Llywelyn's uncle, Dafydd ap Llywelyn, claimed the title of Prince of Wales during his reign from 1240 to 1246. However, Llywelyn's supremacy in the late 1260s forced recognition of his authority in Wales by an English Crown weakened by internal division.

England Country in north-west Europe, part of the United Kingdom

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to the west and Scotland to the north-northwest. The Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.

Wales Country in northwest Europe, part of the United Kingdom

Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel to the south. It had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2 (8,023 sq mi). Wales has over 1,680 miles (2,700 km) of coastline and is largely mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit. The country lies within the north temperate zone and has a changeable, maritime climate.

Montgomeryshire historic county of Wales

Montgomeryshire, also known as Maldwyn is one of thirteen historic counties and a former administrative county of Wales. It is named after its county town, Montgomery, which in turn is named after one of William the Conqueror's main counsellors, Roger de Montgomerie, who was the 1st Earl of Shrewsbury.

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Conditions of the treaty

Many of the conditions of the treaty had been anticipated by the Treaty of Pipton (1265) between Llywelyn and Simon de Montfort. The 1267 treaty ceded Builth to Llywelyn, along with Brecon and Gwerthrynion in mid-Wales. Llywelyn was also granted Whittington Castle in modern-day Shropshire, previously held by his grandfather in the 1220s, and received an assurance that no castle would be built at Hawarden for sixty years by Robert of Mold, thus helping to secure the north-eastern border of Wales. The treaty also allowed for the reinstatement of Llywelyn's brother, Dafydd ap Gruffudd, into Welsh society after his defection to England in the early 1260s.

The Treaty of Pipton was signed on 22 June 1265 during the Second Barons' War and concluded an alliance between Simon de Montfort and the Welsh prince Llywelyn ap Gruffudd.

Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester 13th-century Anglo-Norman nobleman and rebel

Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, sometimes referred to as Simon V de Montfort to distinguish him from his namesake relatives, was a nobleman of French origin and a member of the English peerage, who led the baronial opposition to the rule of King Henry III of England, culminating in the Second Barons' War. Following his initial victories over royal forces, he became de facto ruler of the country, and played a major role in the constitutional development of England.

Brecon market town in the county of Powys, Wales

Brecon, archaically known as Brecknock, is a market town and community in Powys, Wales, with a population in 2001 of 7,901, increasing to 8,250 at the 2011 census. Historically it was the county town of Brecknockshire (Breconshire); although its role as such was eclipsed with the formation of the County of Powys, it remains an important local centre. Brecon is the third-largest town in Powys, after Newtown and Ystradgynlais. It lies north of the Brecon Beacons mountain range, but is just within the Brecon Beacons National Park.

The key text would be seen later by the Lord Edward as

“XIII. For the principality, lands, homages and grants the prince and his successors will be bound to give fealty, homage and service to the king and his heirs, which he or his predecessors have been accustomed and obliged to give the kings of England.”

Implications

Though the treaty required Llywelyn to do homage to the king of England for the land, it was in effect an acknowledgement of the power and authority of the prince. However, after the succession of Edward I as king of England in 1272, relations between England and Wales deteriorated, and Edward declared war on Llywelyn in 1276; the Treaty of Aberconwy of 1277 superseded the stipulations laid down at Montgomery and severely curbed Llywelyn's power. In December 1282, fifteen years after the original treaty, the army of Montgomery marched to Builth Wells from Montgomery Castle, to surprise and kill Llywelyn. After 1295 and the final Welsh War of the thirteenth century, the castle became more of a military backwater and prison than a front line fortress.

Homage (feudal) medieval oath of allegiance

Homage in the Middle Ages was the ceremony in which a feudal tenant or vassal pledged reverence and submission to his feudal lord, receiving in exchange the symbolic title to his new position (investiture). It was a symbolic acknowledgement to the lord that the vassal was, literally, his man (homme). The oath known as "fealty" implied lesser obligations than did "homage". Further, one could swear "fealty" to many different overlords with respect to different land holdings, but "homage" could only be performed to a single liege, as one could not be "his man" to more than one "liege lord". A similar concept is the bay'ah, a type of oath in Islam.

Treaty of Aberconwy

The Treaty of Aberconwy was signed in 1277 by King Edward I of England and Llewelyn the Last of modern-day Wales, who had fought each other on and off for years over control of the Welsh countryside. The treaty granted peace between the two, but also essentially guaranteed that Welsh self-rule would end upon Llewelyn's death and represented the completion of the first stage of the Conquest of Wales by Edward I.

Builth Castle

Builth Castle was a castle built under King Edward I, just outside Builth Wells, Powys, Wales. At one time it was an impressive stone-built castle but all the masonry has been removed over the years and all that remains are the mound on which it stood, the ditches and embankments.

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