The Treaty of Montreuil provided for the betrothal of Edward of Caernarvon, later King Edward II of England, and Isabella of France, the daughter of Philip IV of France. It was drafted on 19 June, ratified by Edward I on 4 July, and amplified by the Treaty of Chartres on 3 August 1299. Under its terms, should Edward I default on the treaties, he would forfeit Gascony; if Philip defaulted, he would pay a fine of £100,000.
Isabella of France, sometimes described as the She-Wolf of France, was Queen of England as the wife of Edward II, and regent of England from 1326 until 1330. She was the youngest surviving child and only surviving daughter of Philip IV of France and Joan I of Navarre. Queen Isabella was notable at the time for her beauty, diplomatic skills, and intelligence.
Philip IV, called Philip the Fair, was King of France from 1285 until his death. By virtue of his marriage with Joan I of Navarre, he was also King of Navarre as Philip I from 1284 to 1305, as well as Count of Champagne. Although Philip was known as handsome, hence the epithet le Bel, his rigid and inflexible personality gained him other nicknames, such as the Iron King. His fierce opponent Bernard Saisset, bishop of Pamiers, said of him: "he is neither man nor beast. He is a statue."
It was said by contemporaries that the alliance brought "great unhappiness to both parties".
The Treaty was negotiated on Edward I's behalf by the Earl of Lincoln, the Earl of Warwick and Amadeus, Count of Savoy. Edward I also privately instructed the Count to enquire about Marguerite of France, whom Edward married soon afterwards.
The final betrothal of Edward of Caernarvon (by then Prince of Wales) and Isabella formed part of the Treaty of Paris (1303) that concluded peace negotiations between England and France.
The Treaty of Paris was signed on 20 May 1303 between Philip IV of France and Edward I of England. Based on the terms of the treaty, Gascony was restored to England from France, thus setting the stage for the Hundred Years' War (1337-1453). Moreover, it was confirmed that Philip's daughter would marry Edward's son, as already agreed in the Treaty of Montreuil (1299).
Edward II and Isabella of France (the "She-Wolf of France"), who was then aged 12, married at Boulogne-sur-Mer on 25 January 1308.
Boulogne-sur-Mer, often called Boulogne, is a coastal city in Northern France. It is a sub-prefecture of the department of Pas-de-Calais. Boulogne lies on the Côte d'Opale, a touristic stretch of French coast on the English Channel between Calais and Normandy, and the most visited location in the region after Lille conurbation. Boulogne is its department's second-largest city after Calais, and the 60th-largest in France. It is also the country's largest fishing port, specialising in herring.
Philip II, known as Philip Augustus, was King of France from 1180 to 1223, the seventh from the House of Capet. His predecessors had been known as kings of the Franks, but from 1190 onward, Philip became the first French monarch to style himself "King of France". The son of King Louis VII and his third wife, Adela of Champagne, he was originally nicknamed Dieudonné (God-given) because he was a first son and born late in his father's life. Philip was given the epithet "Augustus" by the chronicler Rigord for having extended the crown lands of France so remarkably.
The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries.
Isabella of Angoulême was queen consort of England as the second wife of King John from 1200 until John's death in 1216. She was also suo jure Countess of Angoulême from 1202 until 1246.
The House of Valois was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty. They succeeded the House of Capet to the French throne, and were the royal house of France from 1328 to 1589. Junior members of the family founded cadet branches in Orléans, Anjou, Burgundy, and Alençon.
Philip III, called the Bold, was King of France from 1270 to 1285, the tenth from the House of Capet.
Charles IV, called the Fair in France and the Bald in Navarre, was the fifteenth and last king of the direct line of the House of Capet, King of France and King of Navarre from 1322 to his death. Charles was the third son of Philip IV; like his father, he was known as "the fair" or "the handsome".
Charles the Bold, baptised Charles Martin, was Duke of Burgundy from 1467 to 1477. He was the last Duke of Burgundy from the House of Valois.
Joan I of Navarre was queen regnant of Navarre and ruling countess of Champagne from 1274 until 1305; she was also queen consort of France by marriage to Philip IV of France. She was the daughter of king Henry I of Navarre and Blanche of Artois.
Peter I of Bourbon was the second Duke of Bourbon, from 1342 to his death.
Charles of Valois, the third son of Philip III of France and Isabella of Aragon, was a member of the House of Capet and founder of the House of Valois, whose rule over France would start in 1328.
When the crown of Scotland became vacant in September 1290 on the death of the child monarch Margaret, the Maid of Norway, a total of fourteen claimants to the throne came forward. Those with the most credible claims were John Balliol, Robert Bruce, John Hastings and Floris V, Count of Holland.
Enguerrand VII de Coucy,, also known as Ingelram de Coucy, was a medieval French nobleman, and the last Lord of Coucy. He became son-in-law of King Edward III of England following his marriage to the king's daughter, Isabella of England, and the couple was subsequently granted by the king several English estates, among them the title Earl of Bedford. Coucy fought in the Battle of Nicopolis (1396) as part of a failed crusade against the Ottoman Empire, and was taken prisoner. Having contracted the bubonic plague, he died in captivity at Bursa, Ottoman Empire.
Margaret of France was Queen of England as the second wife of King Edward I. She was a daughter of Philip III of France and Maria of Brabant.
Joan of Valois was the second eldest daughter of the French prince Charles of Valois and his first wife, Margaret, Countess of Anjou. As the sister of King Philip VI of France and the mother-in-law of Edward III, she was ideally placed to act as mediator between them.
Mary of Guelders was the queen consort of Scotland by marriage to King James II of Scotland. She served as regent of Scotland from 1460 to 1463.
This is a timeline of the Hundred Years' War between England and France from 1337 to 1453 as well as some of the events leading up to the war.
Elizabeth of Rhuddlan was the eighth and youngest daughter of King Edward I and Queen Eleanor of Castile. Of all of her siblings, she was closest to her younger brother King Edward II, as they were only two years apart in age.
Isabella of England was the eldest daughter of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, and the wife of Enguerrand de Coucy, Earl of Bedford, by whom she had two daughters. She was made a Lady of the Garter in 1376.
Blanche of France, a member of the House of Capet, was Duchess of Austria and Styria as consort to the Habsburg duke Rudolph III, eldest son of King Albert I of Germany.