Treaty of Montreuil (1299)

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The Treaty of Montreuil provided for the betrothal of Edward of Caernarvon, later King Edward II of England, and Isabella of France, the daughter of Philip IV of France. It was drafted on 19 June, ratified by Edward I on 4 July, and amplified by the Treaty of Chartres on 3 August 1299. Under its terms, should Edward I default on the treaties, he would forfeit Gascony; if Philip defaulted, he would pay a fine of £100,000. [1]

Isabella of France 14th-century French princess and queen of England

Isabella of France, sometimes described as the She-Wolf of France, was Queen of England as the wife of Edward II, and regent of England from 1326 until 1330. She was the youngest surviving child and only surviving daughter of Philip IV of France and Joan I of Navarre. Queen Isabella was notable at the time for her beauty, diplomatic skills, and intelligence.

Philip IV of France King of France 1285-1314

Philip IV, called Philip the Fair, was King of France from 1285 until his death. By virtue of his marriage with Joan I of Navarre, he was also King of Navarre as Philip I from 1284 to 1305, as well as Count of Champagne. Although Philip was known as handsome, hence the epithet le Bel, his rigid and inflexible personality gained him other nicknames, such as the Iron King. His fierce opponent Bernard Saisset, bishop of Pamiers, said of him: "he is neither man nor beast. He is a statue."

It was said by contemporaries that the alliance brought "great unhappiness to both parties". [2]

The Treaty was negotiated on Edward I's behalf by the Earl of Lincoln, the Earl of Warwick and Amadeus, Count of Savoy. Edward I also privately instructed the Count to enquire about Marguerite of France, whom Edward married soon afterwards.

The final betrothal of Edward of Caernarvon (by then Prince of Wales) and Isabella formed part of the Treaty of Paris (1303) that concluded peace negotiations between England and France.

The Treaty of Paris was signed on 20 May 1303 between Philip IV of France and Edward I of England. Based on the terms of the treaty, Gascony was restored to England from France, thus setting the stage for the Hundred Years' War (1337-1453). Moreover, it was confirmed that Philip's daughter would marry Edward's son, as already agreed in the Treaty of Montreuil (1299).

Edward II and Isabella of France (the "She-Wolf of France"), who was then aged 12, married at Boulogne-sur-Mer on 25 January 1308.

Boulogne-sur-Mer Subprefecture and commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Boulogne-sur-Mer, often called Boulogne, is a coastal city in Northern France. It is a sub-prefecture of the department of Pas-de-Calais. Boulogne lies on the Côte d'Opale, a touristic stretch of French coast on the English Channel between Calais and Normandy, and the most visited location in the region after Lille conurbation. Boulogne is its department's second-largest city after Calais, and the 60th-largest in France. It is also the country's largest fishing port, specialising in herring.

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References

  1. Alison Weir, Queen Isabella (2005)
  2. Mary Saaler, Edward II 1307-1327 (1997)