The Treaty of Shaoxing (Chinese : 紹興 和議 ; pinyin :Shàoxīng Héyì) was the agreement that ended the military conflicts between the Jin dynasty and the Southern Song dynasty. It also legally drew up the boundaries of the two countries and forced the Song dynasty to renounce all claims to its former territories north of the Qinling Huaihe Line, which included its former capital Kaifeng. Emperor Gaozong of Song executed Yue Fei after the treaty.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases not mutually intelligible, language varieties, forming the Sinitic branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. Chinese is spoken by the Han majority and many minority ethnic groups in China. About 1.2 billion people speak some form of Chinese as their first language.
Hanyu Pinyin, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters.
The Jin–Song Wars were a series of conflicts between the Jurchen Jin dynasty (1115–1234) and Han Chinese Song dynasty (960–1279). In 1115, Jurchen tribes rebelled against their overlords, the Khitan Liao dynasty (907–1125), and declared the formation of the Jin. Allying with the Song against their common enemy the Liao, the Jin promised to return to the Song the Sixteen Prefectures that had fallen under Liao control since 938. The Chinese agreed but Jurchens quick defeat of the Liao combined with Song military failures made the Jin reluctant to cede these territories. After a series of negotiations that embittered both sides, the Jurchens attacked the Song dynasty in 1125, dispatching one army to Taiyuan and the other to Bianjing, the Song capital.
The treaty was signed in 1141, and under it the Southern Song agreed to paying tribute of 250,000 taels and 250,000 packs of silk to the Jin every year (until 1164). The treaty was formally ratified on 11 October 1142 when a Jin envoy visited the Song court.The treaty reduced the Southern Song into a quasi-tribute state of the Jin/Jurchen dynasty.
Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. The protein fiber of silk is composed mainly of fibroin and is produced by certain insect larvae to form cocoons. The best-known silk is obtained from the cocoons of the larvae of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori reared in captivity (sericulture). The shimmering appearance of silk is due to the triangular prism-like structure of the silk fibre, which allows silk cloth to refract incoming light at different angles, thus producing different colors.
The Jin dynasty, officially known as the Great Jin, lasted from 1115 to 1234 as one of the last dynasties in Chinese history to predate the Mongol invasion of China. Its name is sometimes written as Kin, Jurchen Jin or Jinn in English to differentiate it from an earlier Jìn dynasty of China whose name is identical when transcribed without tone marker diacritics in the Hanyu Pinyin system for Standard Chinese. It is also sometimes called the "Jurchen dynasty" or the "Jurchen Jin", because its founding leader Aguda was of Wanyan Jurchen descent.
The Song dynasty of China was a ruling dynasty that controlled China proper and southern China from the middle of the 10th century into the last quarter of the 13th century. The dynasty was established by Emperor Taizu of Song with his usurpation of the throne of Later Zhou, ending the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
The Jin–Song Wars were a series of armed conflicts conducted by the Jurchen Jin dynasty and the Song dynasty in the 12th and 13th centuries. The Jurchens were a Tungusic–speaking tribal confederation native to Manchuria. They overthrew the Khitan Liao dynasty in 1122 and declared the establishment of a new dynasty, the Jin. Diplomatic relations between the Jin and Song deteriorated, and the Jurchens first declared war on the Song dynasty in November 1125.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty, during the king Wu Ding's reign, who was recorded as the twenty-first Shang king by the written records of Shang dynasty unearthed. Ancient historical texts such as the Records of the Grand Historian and the Bamboo Annals describe a Xia dynasty before the Shang, but no writing is known from the period, and Shang writings do not indicate the existence of the Xia. The Shang ruled in the Yellow River valley, which is commonly held to be the cradle of Chinese civilization. However, Neolithic civilizations originated at various cultural centers along both the Yellow River and Yangtze River. These Yellow River and Yangtze civilizations arose millennia before the Shang. With thousands of years of continuous history, China is one of the world's oldest civilizations, and is regarded as one of the cradles of civilization.
Year 1141 (MCXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1142 (MCXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.
Shaoxing is a prefecture-level city on the southern shore of Hangzhou Bay in eastern Zhejiang province, China. It was formerly known as Kuaiji and Shanyin and abbreviated in Chinese as 越 (Yuè) from the area's former inhabitants. Located on the south bank of the Qiantang River estuary, it borders Ningbo to the east, Taizhou to the southeast, Jinhua to the southwest, and Hangzhou to the west. As of 2010, its population was 4,912,339 inhabitants. Among which, 1,914,683 lived in the built-up metropolitan area of Hangzhou-Shaoxing, with a total of 8,156,154 inhabitants.
Emperor Huizong of Song, personal name Zhao Ji, was the eighth emperor of the Song dynasty in China. He was also a very well-known calligrapher. Born as the 11th son of Emperor Shenzong, he ascended the throne in 1100 upon the death of his elder brother and predecessor, Emperor Zhezong, because Emperor Zhezong's only son died prematurely. He lived in luxury, sophistication and art in the first half of his life. In 1126, when the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty invaded the Song dynasty during the Jin–Song Wars, Emperor Huizong abdicated and passed on his throne to his eldest son, Zhao Huan who assumed the title Emperor Qinzong while Huizong assumed the honorary title of Taishang Huang. The following year, the Song capital, Bianjing, was conquered by Jin forces in an event historically known as the Jingkang Incident. Emperor Huizong, along with Emperor Qinzong and the rest of their family, were taken captive by the Jurchens and brought back to the Jin capital, Huining Prefecture in 1128. The Jurchen ruler, Emperor Taizong of Jin, gave the former Emperor Huizong a title, Duke Hunde, to humiliate him. After his surviving son, Zhao Gou, declared himself as the dynasty's tenth emperor as Emperor Gaozong, the Jurchens used him, Qinzong, and other imperial family members to put pressure on Gaozong and his court to surrender. Emperor Huizong died in Wuguo after spending about nine years in captivity.
Emperor Ningzong of Song, personal name Zhao Kuo, was the 13th emperor of the Song dynasty in China and the fourth emperor of the Southern Song dynasty. He reigned from 1194 until his death in 1224.
The Huai River, formerly romanized as the Hwai, is a major river in China. It is located about midway between the Yellow River and Yangtze, the two largest rivers in China, and like them runs from west to east. Historically draining directly into the Yellow Sea, floods have changed the course of the river such that it is now a major tributary of the Yangtze. The Huai is notoriously vulnerable to flooding.
Emperor Qinzong of Song, personal name Zhao Huan, was the ninth emperor of the Song dynasty in China and the last emperor of The Northern Song Dynasty.
Emperor Gaozong of Song, personal name Zhao Gou, courtesy name Deji, was the tenth emperor of the Song dynasty in China and the first emperor of the Southern Song dynasty.
Man Jiang Hong is the title of a set of Chinese lyrical poems (ci) sharing the same pattern. If unspecified, it most often refers to the one normally attributed to the Song dynasty general Yue Fei. However, the commonly accepted authorship of that particular poem has been disputed.
The Battle of Caishi was a major naval engagement of the Jin–Song Wars of China that took place on November 26–27, 1161. Soldiers under the command of Wanyan Liang, the Jurchen emperor of the Jin dynasty, tried to cross the Yangtze River to attack Song China. Yu Yunwen, a civil official, commanded the defending Song army. The paddle-wheel warships of the Song fleet, equipped with trebuchets that launched incendiary bombs made of gunpowder and lime, decisively defeated the light ships of the Jin navy.
Tanghe County is administered by the prefecture-level city of Nanyang, in the southwest of Henan province, People's Republic of China, bordering Hubei province to the south. Its ancient name was Tangzhou (唐州).
The Battle of Yancheng took place in 1140 near modern-day Luohe City in Henan Province, China between the main armies of China under the Song dynasty and the Jurchen or Jin invaders from the north. The battle was a major clash in the wars between the Jin Empire and China. The Chinese forces, under the leadership of General Yue Fei, won a decisive victory despite being outnumbered.
The Alliance Conducted at Sea (海上之盟) was a political alliance in Chinese history between the Song and Jurchen Jin dynasties in the early 12th century against the Liao dynasty. The alliance was negotiated from 1115 to 1123 by envoys who crossed the Bohai Sea. Under the alliance, the two nations agreed to jointly invade the Liao, split captured territories, and cede the Sixteen Prefectures to the Song, and forswore making unilateral peace with the Liao. In 1121-23, the Song faltered in their military campaigns but the Jurchen Jin succeeded in driving the Liao to Central Asia. The Jin handed over several of the Sixteen Prefectures to the Song including modern-day Beijing. In 1125, the alliance ended when the Jin, sensing Song weakness, invaded southward and eventually captured the Song capital of Kaifeng in 1127.
Wuzhu, also known by his sinicised name Wanyan Zongbi, or Jin Wuzhu, was a prince, military general and civil minister of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty, which ruled northern China between the 12th and 13th centuries. He was the fourth son of Aguda, the founder and first emperor of the Jin dynasty. Wuzhu started his career in the military in his youth, when he participated in the Jurchen rebellion led by his father against the Khitan-led Liao dynasty. Between the late 1120s and 1130s, he fought for the Jin dynasty in a series of wars against the Han Chinese-led Northern Song dynasty and its successor state, the Southern Song dynasty. In 1137, in recognition of his contributions in battle, he was appointed as Right Vice-Marshal (右副元帥) and enfeoffed as the "Prince of Shen" (沈王). In the final decade of his life, he was appointed to several high-ranking positions in the Jin imperial court, including Left Chancellor (左丞相), Palace Attendant (侍中), Taibao (太保), Marshal of the Capital (都元帥), Taifu (太傅), and Taishi (太師). He died of illness in 1148. Throughout his life, he had served under three Jin emperors – Emperor Taizu, Emperor Taizong, and Emperor Xizong.
Zhang Bangchang, was a puppet ruler of Da Chu and a prime minister of the Song dynasty. He was executed by Emperor Gaozong of Song after he surrendered.
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